2 9.2 Noun Clauses Beginning with THAT VerbNoun ClauseI thinkthat Bob will come to the party.He knowsthat everyone is expecting him to come.We hopethat the party is a success.I hearthat the guests are really looking forward to it.The noun clause is the object of the verb.The word THAT is used in formal writing but is usually left out in speaking.
3 Person + Be + AdjectiveNoun ClauseJan is happythat she got the promotion.Fred was disappointedthat he wasn’t able to attend the party.We are awarethat we have to pay the fees in advance.They were worriedthat they might miss the plane.
4 It + be + AdjectiveNoun ClausesIt’s obviousthat he doesn’t know the answer.It’s luckythat he found his wallet.It’s well knownthat she is very talented.It’s strangethat he didn’t call to say he wasn’t coming to the meeting.
5 P 371 Ex 1A: Do you know that it’s good to read to children when they’revery young?B: Yes, I do. But I didn’t realize that playing music was importanttoo.A: I’m not so sure that music is beneficial, but I suppose it can’thurt.B: I think that it’s good to give kids as much education as possiblebefore they go to school.
6 A: I’m sure that’s a good idea. But don’t forget that they’re just kids. They need to play too.B: Of course they do. I hope my children will be successful one day.A: I predict they will be very successful and happy.
7 P 371 Ex 21. Educators know thatkids raised in povertyenter schoolat a disadvantage.2. Some parents think thatit’s a good idea o play classical musicfor babies.3. We all know thatreadingto babies increases their languageability.4. A study shows thatchildren who don’t play and aren’t touchedmuchhave smaller brains.
8 9.4 Noun Clauses is/areWhat is his name?I don’t knowwhathis nameis.Why are Fred and Jim late?I don’t knowwhytheyarelate.
9 Noun Clauses Present and Past Continuous What is Fred doing?I don’t knowwhatFredisdoing.Why are Fred and Maria arguing?I don’t knowwhyFred and Mariaarearguing.When was John working?I don’t knowwhenJohnwasworking.What were Anna and Maria doing this morning?I don’t knowwhatAnna and Mariaweredoing this morning.
10 Noun Clauses was/wereWhy was John late?I don’t knowwhyJohnwaslate.Where were Fred and Tom yesterday?I don’t knowwhereFred and Tomwereyesterday.
11 Noun Clauses – Modal Verbs When will Fred be home?I don’t knowwhenFredwillbe home.When can Fred work overtime?I don’t knowwhenFredcanwork overtime.Who should they hire?I don’t knowwhotheyshouldhire.
12 Noun Clauses – Present Perfect have/has How long has Fred lived here?I don’t knowhow longFredhaslived here.What have the children eaten?I don’t knowwhatthe childrenhaveeaten.
13 Noun Clauses – do/does/did I don’t knowwhereWheredothey live.?I can’t rememberwhat timeWhat timedothey start work.?I don’t knowwhereWheredoesFredlives.?I have no ideawhat timeWhat timedoesthe class begins.?I don’t knowwhenWhendidtheyleaveleft.?I have no ideahow manyHow manyapplesdidheeatate.?
14 Noun Clauses Short Answer Questions – is/are/was/were Is Tom in school today?Do you knowifTomisin school today?Was Fred late this morning?Do you knowifFredwaslate this morning?Are the children hungry?Do you knowifthe childrenarehungry?Were the children at school yesterday?Do you knowifthe childrenwereat school yesterday?“Whether” can be used instead of “if.”
15 Noun Clauses – Short Answer Questions – Do/does/did Do you knowifDoFred and Maryworkhere?Do you knowifDoesMaryliveshere?Do you knowifDidFredtaketooka break this morning?“Whether” can be used instead of “if.”
16 P 378 Ex 7 Add appropriate Question Word 1. I don’t know what my child’s teacher’s name is.2. I can’t remember whether/if the class begins at 7:30 or 8:30.3. You should ask how many people take care of the children. It’sgood to have a lot of teachers.4. I would like to know whether/if the day care center is clean or not.5. I would like to know what the caregivers do if the child gets sick.
17 6. Can you tell me who the director of the program is? I’ve never met her.7. I have no idea how much the day care charges.8. Please tell me where the day care center is located.
18 P 378/379 Ex 81. I’d like to know when I have to pick my child up.2. Do you know what the teacher’s name is?3. Do you know if the center is open on Saturday?4. Can you tell me how much you paid for the service?5. I don’t know where the day care center is located.6. I want to know how old your son is.
19 7. I’d like to know how much the service costs. 8. Can you tell me when the center closes.9. I’d like to know if the children watch TV at the center.10. Please tell me whether a nurse works at the center.11. I’d like to know whether the center has an outdoor playgroundor not.12. I wonder if the teacher loves her job.
20 P 379 Ex 9 Questions about the Subject I don’t know how many students in this class come fromSouth America.2. I’d like to know who read the article about working mothers.3. Can you tell me what happened in the last class?4. I don’t know who bought a dictionary today.5. I wonder who failed the test.
21 P 380 Ex 10 Wh - questions with (be) or another auxiliary 1. I need to know when we will have the final exam.2. Can you tell me how many lessons we are going to finish?3. I wonder where the teacher is from.4. You should ask where the final exam will be.5. I need to know when the teacher can see me.
22 P 380 Ex 11 wh- questions do/does/did 1. Can you tell me when the class begins?2. Can you tell me what grade I got on the last test?3. I’d like to know how many mistakes I made.4. It’s not important to know how many questions the test has.5. You should ask the teacher how many compositions he/sherequires.
23 P 381 Ex 12 Yes/No Questions (be) and other auxiliary verbs “Whether” can be used in place of “if.”1. I don’t know if the test is going to be hard (or not).2. I’d like to know if you will be our teacher next semester (or not).3. I’d like to know if you could help us with registration ( or not).4. Can you tell me if you have been teaching here for a long time?5. I have no idea if the students are confused ( or not).
24 P 381 Ex 13 Yes/No Questions do/does/did 1. You should ask if the school has a cafeteria.2. I don’t know if everyone passed the last test.3. Please tell me if you bought a dictionary.4. I’m not sure if the teacher speaks Spanish.5. Can you tell me if I need to write a composition?
25 P 382 Ex 141. I’d like to know if the caretakers have a lot of experience.2. I’d like to know how the caretaker disciplines the children.3. I’d like to know if the caretaker can handle problems withoutgetting angry or impatient.4. I’d like to know if I am welcome to drop in and visit.5. I’d like to know how the caretaker takes care of sick children.6. I’d like to know if there is a nurse or doctor to help withmedical care.7. I’d like to know if there are smoke alarms in the building.
26 8. I’d like to know how many caregivers there are. 9. I’d like to know if the caregiver hugs the children.10. I’d like to know who takes the children outside.11. I’d like to know if the toys are clean.12. I’d like to know if the day care center is licensed by the state.13. I’d like to know if the children have stimulating activities.
27 P 383 Ex 151. I don’t know where to buy textbooks.2. I can’t decide what classes to register for.3. I don’t know whether to take morning or evening classes.4. I don’t know what else to do.5. I don’t know how to use the computer in the library.6. I don’t know what to do about cancelled classes.7. I can’t decide whether to take biology or physics.8. I’m not sure whether to buy a new computer or a used one.
28 P 384/385 Ex 17A: Hi. Where are you going in such a hurry?B: I need to get to the library before it closes. What times does itclose?A: I’m not sure what time it closes.B: What time is it now?A: I don’t have my watch, so I don’t know what time it is. But I’msure it must be after 6:00. Why do you need to use the library?B: The teacher told us to write a paper. She told us to choose atopic. I don’t know what topic to choose/to write about.
29 A: You have small children. Why don’t you write about child development.B: That’s a good topic. But I have to start somewhere. I don’teven know where to begin/to start.A: Try going to the Internet. Use a search engine and type inchild development.B: That’s such a big topic. I need to narrow the topic, but I don’tknow how to do it/to narrow a topic.A: Come. I’ll help you.
30 B: Uh-oh. The library is closed. I wonder what time it opens tomorrow. A: The sign says, “Open 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.”B: Can you meet me at the library at ten o’clock tomorrow and help me?A: I’m not sure if I can meet you or not. I have an appointment at8:30, and I don’t know if I can be there by ten o’clock or not. Butdon’t worry, the librarian can show you how to do a search.
31 9.8 Reported Speech – Verb Forms in Noun Clauses If the reporting verb is in past tense – I said He told methen the verb in the original sentence changes.Simple PastSimple PresentPast PerfectPresent PerfectPast PerfectSimple PastModal Verbs – might/should/ must have – do not change
32 P 389 Ex 20Last week my daughter’s day care teacher called me at workand told me that my daughter had a fever and was resting in thenurse’s office. I told my boss that I needed to leave workimmediately. He said that it would be fine. As I was driving my caron the expressway to the school, a police officer stopped me. Shesaid that I had been driving ten miles per hour over the limit. I toldher that I was in a hurry because my daughter was sick.
33 I said I needed to get to her school quickly. I told the police officer that I was sorry, that I hadn’t realized I had been driving so fast.She said she wouldn’t give me a ticket that time, but that I shouldbe more careful in the future, whether my daughter was sick or not.
34 P 390/391 Ex 211. My mother told me that I would always be her baby.2. My father told me that I had an easy life compared to him.3. My grandparents told me that they (had) had a much harderlife.4. My parents told me that they wanted me to be happy.5. My father told me that I had to listen to my teacher.
35 6. My parents told me that I could be anything I wanted if I studied hard.7. My parents told me that they didn’t like to punish me, butsometimes it was necessary.8. My father told me that punishing me hurt him more than it hurt me.9. My grandparents told me that they would always love me.10. My mother told me that I should wash my hands before meals.
36 P 392/393 Ex 231. Lisa said that she had never read Dr. Spock’s books.2. Lisa told her friend that she wanted to take her childrento the zoo.3. Lisa said that her children needed to get exercise.4. Lisa and Paul said that they would take their kids to the parkthe next day.5. Lisa said that she had forgotten to give the kids their vitaminsthat morning.
37 6. Lisa said that the children had gone to bed early the night before.7. Lisa told her neighbor that her son was in kindergarten.8. Lisa and Paul said that their son wanted them to read him a story.9. Lisa told Paul that it was his turn to put the kids to bed.10. Lisa told the teacher that their son’s name was Tod.
38 11. Tod told his mother that he didn’t want to go to bed. 12. Tod told his father that he was thirsty.13. Tod told his friend that he loved his new bicycle.14. Tod told his teacher that he could write his name.15. Tod told his friend that his grandmother would buy hima toy.
39 16. Lisa told Tod that he had to go to bed. 17. Tod told his father that he couldn’t sleep.18. Tod told his father that he wanted to watch his favoriteprogram on TV.19. Paul told Tod that he would not get enough sleep.20. Paul told Tod that he didn’t want to argue with him.
40 P 394/395 Ex 24I have two daughters, ages four and six. When I was a child, Isaid that I wanted to have a large family. But now that I’m an adult,I see how hard it is to be married, work, and raise kids. Before wewere married, my husband said that he would help me with thechildren 50/50. Yesterday it was his turn to take care of the kids. Itold him that I needed some time to be with my friends and that wewere going out to lunch. After I left, he told the kids that they couldwatch TV all day. I told him that the pediatrician always says thatkids watch too much TV.
41 I told my husband that he needed to take the kids out for exercise yesterday. But he told me that he wanted to work on his car. Hesaid that he would take them out next weekend. When I asked himabout the lunch he gave the kids, he said that they had eaten a lotof popcorn while they were watching TV, so they weren’t hungryhungry for lunch. I always tell my husband that the kids shouldn’teat snacks before they eat a meal.Sometimes I say that I really have three children: my two kidsand my husband.
42 P 396 Ex 251. The son asked his mother to read him a story.2. She told him/her not to let the kids watch TV all day.3. The girl asked her father to buy her a doll.4. The mother told her kids to eat their vegetables.5. The father asked his daughter to help him in the garage.6. The girl asked he parents to take her to the zoo.
43 7. The dentist told the boy to brush his teeth after every meal. 8. I asked my parents not to spoil their grandchildren.9. The girl asked her mother to comb her hair.10. The father told his daughter to do her homework.11. The father told his teenage daughter not to come home late.12. The father told his son to always be polite.
44 P 396/397 Ex 26Last month I babysat for a family that lives near me. It was myfirst babysitting job. They said that the children would sleepthrough the night and not cause any problems. But Danielle, thethree-year-old girl, woke up at 9:00 and said that she couldn’tsleep. I told her that I would read her a story. Every time I finishedthe story, she told me to read her another one. She finally fellasleep at ten. The Estelle, the five-year-old , started crying. When Iwent to her room, she told me that she had seen a monster in thecloset. I tried to tell her that there weren’t any monsters in hercloset, but she didn’t stop crying.
45 I wanted to call the parents and tell them that Estelle was upset and that she was crying. They had given me their cell phone numberand told me to call them in case of any problem, but when I called,there was no answer. Later they told me that they had to turn offtheir cell phone because they were at a concert.They said they would be home by eleven. But they didn’t comehome till 1:00am. They called and told me the concert had startedan hour late. I called my mother and told her that I couldn’t leavebecause the parents hadn’t come home.
46 She told me not to worry. She said that it was my responsibility to stay with the kids until the parents came home. When theyfinally got home, they told me that they didn’t have any moneyto pay me because they had forgotten to stop at a cash machine.They said that they would pay me the following week.When I got home, my mother was waiting for me. I told her thatI didn’t ever want to have children. She laughed and told me thatthe children’s behavior wasn’t unusual. She told me that I wouldchange my mind someday. I told her that I didn’t want to babysitever again. She told me that I would get used to it.
47 9. 13 Reported Questions – using the verb “ BE” “ Where is the bank?”He asked me where the bank was.“ When are you going to visit me?”He asked me when I was going to visit him.“ Where are the children?”He asked me where the children were.“ What is Fred doing?”He asked me what Fred was doing.
48 Reported Questions – other auxiliary verbs “ Have you seen Mary?”He asked me if I had seen Mary.“ Has Fred gone to work?”He asked me if Fred had gone to work.“ Can Fred fix the car?”He asked me if Fred could fix the car.“ Will Fred be back soon?”He asked me if Fred would be back soon.
49 Reported Questions – using DO/DOES [yes/no answers] “ Do you speak English?”He asked me if I spoke English.“ Does the store open at 10am?”He asked me if the store opened at 10am.“ Do they have a car?”He asked me if they had a car.“ Does the dog sleep in the house?”He asked me if the dog slept in the house.
50 P 400 Ex 271. She asked me if I had discussed this with my parents.2. She asked me if I had experience with small children.3. She asked me when I had graduated from high school4. She asked me if I had younger sisters and brothers.5. She asked me how I had heard about the program.6. She asked me if I had ever traveled to another country before.
51 7. She asked me if I had a driver’s license. 8. She asked me how long I had had my driver’s license.9. She asked me if I had received their brochure.10. She asked me what my plans were for the future.11. She asked me if I had ever left my parents before.
52 P 401 Ex 281. She asked her if she would have her own room.2. She asked her how many children the family had.3. She asked her how old the children were.4. She asked her if the children were in school.5. She asked her if she should get an international license.6. She asked her what the climate was like in Michigan.
53 7. She asked her if the family had an extra bedroom. 8. She asked her if she could use the family’s computer.9. She asked her when she would get a vacation.10. She asked her the airfare was.11. She asked her who would pay for the airfare.12. She asked her where she could study English.
54 P 402 Ex 291. The babysitter asked the parents what time they would be home.2. The babysitter asked the parents where they were going.3. The children asked the babysitter what her/his name was.4. The babysitter asked the little boy how old he was.5. The babysitter asked the parents if the children had eatendinner yet.6. The children asked the babysitter if they had to go to bed at 8pm.
55 7. The babysitter asked the parents if he/she should give the kids a snack before bed.8. The children asked the babysitter if he/she wanted to play agame with them.9. The children asked the babysitter if they could watch TV.10. The parents asked the babysitter if he/she had ever taken careof an infant before.11. The babysitter asked the parents if they had a phone numberwhere he/she could reach them.
56 P 403/404 Ex 30I’m from Romania. I never imagined that I would be in the U.S.someday. But I heard about an au pair program and decided tocome here when I was 20 years old. I didn’t think that my parentswould give me permission to come here, but they did. They thoughtthat living in another country would make me more independentand responsible. And they were right.Before I came to the U.S., I wondered what my life would be like.I thought that I would be working all the time and not have time forschool or friends.
57 But that’s not true. I’ve made a lot of friends in my English class. I didn’t realize that I would meet people of different ages in acollege class, but the students are as young as 17 and as old as 75!I was also surprised by how many nationalities I met. I’ve metstudents from many countries. From Poland to Portugal to Peru!I thought that my English was almost perfect because I had beenstudying it since I was a child. But I realized that I didn’t know a lotof idiomatic expressions, like “ It’s a piece of cake”(it’s easy).I wondered what “my” American family would be like. I didn’t knowthat they would treat me like a member of the family. They have beenso nice to me. Being an au pair has been an unforgettable experiencefor me.
58 P 405/406 Ex 33When I was about six years old, I had the measles. My mothertold me to stay in the bedroom because it was dark in there. She saidthat she didn’t want the bright light to hurt my eyes. My bedroom wasnear the dining room of the house. My mother told me that I couldgo into the dining room because it was dark in there. She told menot to go into the living room because it was too light there. The TVwas in the living room and she thought that the brightness of theTV could hurt my eyes.
59 My sister Micki was three years older than I and liked to tease me. She had already had the measles, so she wasn’t afraid ofgetting sick. She came to the door of my bedroom and asked meif I knew why I couldn’t go into the living room. I told her that Ididn’t understand. She said, “The living room is for living people.The dining room is for dying people, and you’re going to die.”Of course I believed her because she was nine years old and knewmuch more than I did. I didn’t understand that “dining” meant“eating”, not “dying.” Today we can laugh about this story, but when Ihad the measles, I was afraid that I would die.
60 P 406/407 Ex 34Two years ago, when I was 18 and living in my native Poland, Ididn’t know exactly what I should do with my life. I had justgraduated from high school and I couldn’t decide (1)whether to goto college or not. A neighbor of mine told me (2) that she had had thesame problem when she was my age and decided to go to the U.S.for a year to work as an “au pair.” She asked me (3) if I had ever heardfof the au pair program in America. I told her that (4) I hadn’t. She toldme that (5) she had lived with an American family for a year, helpingthem take care of their two small children.
61 I asked her (6) how much this program would cost me. She laughed and told me (7)that I would earn about $200 a week, get my own room,and get three meals a day. She also told me (8) that I would have thechance to travel in the U.S. I asked her (9) if it had been a goodexperience for her, and she said (10) that it had changed her life.She said (11) that she had gained a new understanding of peopleand (12) that her English had improved a lot. I asked he (13) if thework was very hard and she said (14) that it was, but (15) that itwas very rewarding.
62 I looked up au pair on the Internet and found out how to apply. I told my parents that (16) I was thinking about going to Americafor a year. At first they told me (17) not to go. They thought that(18) I was too young and that (19) I didn’t have any experience.I reminded them (20) that I had babysat many times for ourneighbors’ kids and that by working in the U.S. (21) I would geteven more experience. I also told them that (22) my English wouldwould improve if I lived with an American family. My parents finallyagreed to let me go. I filled out the application, had an interview,and was accepted.
63 I told my parents (23) not to worry. I promised then (24) that I would keep in touch with them by almost every day.When I arrived, my American family explained to me (25) whatI had to do. They had two small kids, and I had to wake them up,make them breakfast, and take them to school in the morning. Iasked them (26) if I had to wait for them at school, and theylaughed. They told me (27) while the kids were at school, I couldtake English classes at a local college. I told them (28) that I didn’thave enough money to pay for school, but they told me (29) thatthey would pay for my classes.
64 So that’s what they did. I met students from all over the world. I also had a chance to travel to many American cities with otherau pairs. When the year was over, I was very sad to leave my newfamily, but we promised (30) that we would stay in touch. They toldme (31) that I would always be welcome in their house.Now I am back home and in college, majoring in early childhoodeducation. My parents told me (32) that they were very happy theylet me go to America. They can see that I’ve become much moreconfident and mature. Becoming an au pair in the U.S. was one ofthe best experiences of my life.