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An Invitation to Health Chapter 2 Psychological Health Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

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Presentation on theme: "An Invitation to Health Chapter 2 Psychological Health Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Invitation to Health Chapter 2 Psychological Health Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

2 Psychological Health Mental HealthEmotional Health Spiritual Health Our ability to perceive reality as it is, to respond to its challenges, and to develop rational strategies for living. Feelings and moods. Our ability to identify our basic purpose in life and to experience the fulfillment of achieving our full potential.

3 Emotional Health Determination and effort to be healthy. Determination and effort to be healthy. Flexibility and adaptability to a variety of circumstances. Flexibility and adaptability to a variety of circumstances. Development of a sense of meaning and affirmation of life. Development of a sense of meaning and affirmation of life. An understanding that the self is not the center of the universe. An understanding that the self is not the center of the universe. Compassion for others. Compassion for others. The ability to be unselfish in serving or relating to others. The ability to be unselfish in serving or relating to others. Increased depth and satisfaction in intimate relationships. Increased depth and satisfaction in intimate relationships. A sense of control over the mind and body that enables the person to make health-enhancing choices and decisions. A sense of control over the mind and body that enables the person to make health-enhancing choices and decisions.

4 Mental Health The ability to function and carry out responsibilities. The ability to function and carry out responsibilities. The ability to form relationships. The ability to form relationships. Realistic perceptions of the motivation of others. Realistic perceptions of the motivation of others. Rational, logical thought processes. Rational, logical thought processes. The ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity. The ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity.

5 Other Components of Psychological Health Emotional Intelligence Self-awareness Self-awareness Altruism Altruism Personal motivation Personal motivation Empathy Empathy Ability to love and be loved Ability to love and be loved Spiritual Intelligence The capacity to sense, understand, and tap into the highest parts of ourselves, others, and the world around us. Focus on the discovery of a wisdom within

6 The Three Pillars of Positive Psychology “Treatment is not just fixing what is broken, it is nurturing what is best within ourselves”.

7 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

8 Values Terminal Goals Achievements Ideal states Instrumental Important ways of thinking and acting. (being loving or loyal)

9 Self Esteem Definition: Belief and pride in ourselves which develops overtime starting in childhood. Boosting self esteem: Positive affirmations, compliments, kudos and encouragement. Lowering self esteem: Feelings of a lack of love and encouragement, and seeking out people who think poorly of them.

10 Mood Definition: Definition: A sustained emotional state that colors our view of the world for hours or days. A sustained emotional state that colors our view of the world for hours or days. Mood Management: Mood Management: Men: distraction or alcohol and drug use. Men: distraction or alcohol and drug use. Women: talking with someone or to ruminate on why they feel bad. Women: talking with someone or to ruminate on why they feel bad. Cognitive reappraisal. Cognitive reappraisal. Alter your negative feelings. Alter your negative feelings. Get moving. Get moving. Take your mind off your troubles. Take your mind off your troubles.

11 Factors Affecting Happiness Factors Affecting Happiness Relationships Genetics Gender and Race Education Intelligence Age, Health, and Wealth Life Events

12 Happiness Boosters Loving and Being Loved Optimism Altruism Humor

13 Developing Autonomy Dependence Autonomy

14 The Mentally Healthy Individual

15 What is a Mental Disorder? American’s Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4 th edition (DSM-IV) “a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress or disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom.”

16 When Students Seek Counseling

17 Why Students Seek Psychological Help

18 The Brain

19 The Anatomy of a Neuron Nucleus Nucleus Axon Axon Axon Terminal Axon Terminal Dendrites Dendrites Glia Glia Other Important Terminology: Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters Synapse Synapse Receptors Receptors

20 The Neuron The Basic Working Unit of the Brain

21 Are Men’s and Women’s Brains Different? Men Have bigger brains. Have bigger brains. Have eyes which are more sensitive to bright light. Have eyes which are more sensitive to bright light. Retain ability to see well at long distances longer in life. Retain ability to see well at long distances longer in life. Loses brain tissue more rapidly than women. Loses brain tissue more rapidly than women. Women Use more neurons. Hears a broader range of sounds. Hearing remains sharper, longer. Responds more intensely to emotions. The Bottom Line: Neither gender’s brain is “better”.

22 Anxiety Disorders Phobias Characteristic Symptoms Excessive or unreasonable fear of a specific object or situation. Excessive or unreasonable fear of a specific object or situation. Immediate, invariable anxiety when exposed to the object or situation. Immediate, invariable anxiety when exposed to the object or situation. Recognition that the fear is excessive or unreasonable. Recognition that the fear is excessive or unreasonable. Avoidance of the feared object or situation. Avoidance of the feared object or situation. Inability to function as usual. Inability to function as usual. Treatment Behavior therapy including systematic desensitization.

23 Anxiety Disorders Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder Characteristics Panic attack: Rapid onset of dizziness or lightheadedness with rapid breathing or hyperventilation, numbness of fingers or toes, and a terrible sense that something horrible is about to happen. Panic attack: Rapid onset of dizziness or lightheadedness with rapid breathing or hyperventilation, numbness of fingers or toes, and a terrible sense that something horrible is about to happen. A panic disorder develops when attacks recur or apprehension about them affects normal daily function. A panic disorder develops when attacks recur or apprehension about them affects normal daily function. Treatment Cognitive-behavior therapy. Medication.

24 Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorders Characteristics Excessive or unreasonable fear of a specific object or situation. Excessive or unreasonable fear of a specific object or situation. Immediate, invariable anxiety when exposed to the object or situation. Immediate, invariable anxiety when exposed to the object or situation. Recognition that the fear is excessive or unreasonable. Recognition that the fear is excessive or unreasonable. Avoidance of the feared object or situation. Avoidance of the feared object or situation. Inability to function as usual. Inability to function as usual. Treatment Behavior therapy including systematic desensitization.

25 Anxiety Disorders General Anxiety Disorder Definition Excessive or unrealistic apprehension that causes physical symptoms that lasts for six months or longer. Excessive or unrealistic apprehension that causes physical symptoms that lasts for six months or longer.Characteristics Faster heart rate, sweating, increased blood pressure, muscle aches, intestinal pains, irritability, sleep problems, and difficulty concentrating. Faster heart rate, sweating, increased blood pressure, muscle aches, intestinal pains, irritability, sleep problems, and difficulty concentrating. Treatment Psychotherapy. Behavioral therapy. Antianxiety drugs.

26 Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Characteristics Obsession: a recurring idea, thought, or image that they realize, at least initially, is senseless. Obsession: a recurring idea, thought, or image that they realize, at least initially, is senseless. Compulsion: Repetitive behavior performed according to certain rules or in a stereotyped fashion. Compulsion: Repetitive behavior performed according to certain rules or in a stereotyped fashion. Treatment Cognitive therapy. Behavioral therapy. Medications.

27 Depressive Disorders Characteristics Feeling depressed, sad, empty or discouraged, tearful. Loss of interest or pleasure in once-enjoyable activities. Eating more or less than usual with weight changes. Changes in sleep patterns Feeling slowed down or restless. Lack of energy. Surgery Difficulty concentrating and forgetfulness. Persistent thoughts of death or suicide. Withdrawal from others, lack of interest in sex. Headaches, digestive problems, aches and pains.

28 Depressive Disorders Treatments Psychotherapy Cognitive-behavior therapy Interpersonal therapy MedicationsAntidepressantsExercise Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

29 Bipolar Disorder Characteristics Mood swings that take individuals from manic states of feeling euphoric and energetic to depressive states of utter despair. Mood swings that take individuals from manic states of feeling euphoric and energetic to depressive states of utter despair. Involves, mood swings, and changes in thinking, behavior and physical condition. Involves, mood swings, and changes in thinking, behavior and physical condition. Treatment Cognitive therapy. Behavioral therapy. Medications.

30 Suicide Risk Who attempts suicide? Who completes suicide? SexFemaleMale Age Under 35 Under 20 or over 60 Means Less deadly, such as wrist slashing. More deadly, such as a gun. Circumstances High chance of rescue. Low chance of rescue.

31 Factors Contributing to Suicide Females Violence. Violence. Medical symptoms. Medical symptoms. Having a friend attempt or complete suicide. Having a friend attempt or complete suicide. Illicit drug use. Illicit drug use. History of mental health problems. History of mental health problems. Males Violence. Carrying a weapon at school. Same sex romantic attraction. A family history of suicide or suicide attempts. Skipping school. Illicit drug use. Being held back or skipping grades.

32 What Leads to Suicide? Mental Disorders HopelessnessSubstance Abuse Family History Physical Illness Brain Chemistry Access to Guns

33 Suicide Prevention Encourage your friend to talk. Encourage your friend to talk. Don’t offer trite reassurances. Don’t offer trite reassurances. Suggest solutions or alternatives to problems. Suggest solutions or alternatives to problems. Don’t be afraid to ask whether your friend has considered suicide. Don’t be afraid to ask whether your friend has considered suicide. Don’t think that people who talk about killing themselves never carry out their threat. Don’t think that people who talk about killing themselves never carry out their threat.

34 Mental Health Professionals Psychiatrist (MD) Psychiatrist (MD) Psychologist Psychologist Certified social workers or licensed social workers Certified social workers or licensed social workers Psychiatric Nurses Psychiatric Nurses Marriage and family therapists Marriage and family therapists Psychiatric Facilities and Organizations Psychiatric Facilities and Organizations Hospitals Hospitals Community Mental Health Centers Community Mental Health Centers Voluntary Agencies Voluntary Agencies E-therapy E-therapy

35 Options for Treatment PsychodynamicPsychotherapy Cognitive-BehaviorTherapy InterpersonalTherapyPsychiatric Drug Therapy

36 Attention Disorders Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Causes Genetic and biological. Genetic and biological. Differences in the brain Differences in the brain Prenatal use of alcohol, tobacco and cocaine. Prenatal use of alcohol, tobacco and cocaine. Delivery complications. Delivery complications. Postnatal problems. Postnatal problems. Meningitis, encephalitis, chronic lead exposure or severe head trauma. Three Primary Symptoms Hyperactivity Impulsivity Distractibility Treatment Medications Psychotherapy General counseling Vocational rehabilitation Academic tutoring

37 Schizophrenia Symptoms Hallucinations, delusions, inability to think in a logical manner, talking in rambling or incoherent ways, making odd or purposeless movements or not moving at all, mimicking gesture or words, showing few, if any, emotions, lacking will or motivation, and functioning at a much lower level than normal. Hallucinations, delusions, inability to think in a logical manner, talking in rambling or incoherent ways, making odd or purposeless movements or not moving at all, mimicking gesture or words, showing few, if any, emotions, lacking will or motivation, and functioning at a much lower level than normal.Phases Prodromal, active and residual phases. Prodromal, active and residual phases.Treatment Antipsychotic medications Antipsychotic medications

38 The Keys to Psychological Wellness Accept yourself Respect yourself Trust yourself Love yourself Stretch yourself Look at challenges as opportunities for personal growth Where and who do you want to be a decade from now?


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