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ТИТУЛ.

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Presentation on theme: "ТИТУЛ."— Presentation transcript:

1 ТИТУЛ

2 Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work
International Labour Organization Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work ILO

3 Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work
Adopted in 1998, the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work is an expression of commitment by governments, employers' and workers' organizations to uphold basic human values - values that are vital to our social and economic lives. The Declaration covers four fundamental principles and rights at work Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining Elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labour Effective abolition of child labour Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation CONVENTION 100 1951 CONVENTION 138 1973 CONVENTION 29 1930 CONVENTION 87 1948 CONVENTION 111 1958 CONVENTION 98 1949 CONVENTION 105 1957 CONVENTION 182 1999 Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work

4 Conventions Fundamental Governance (Priority)
C029 - Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) C087 - Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948 (No. 87) C098 - Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98) C100 - Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100) C105 - Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105) C111 - Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111) C138 - Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) C182 - Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Governance (Priority) C081 - Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) C122 - Employment Policy Convention, 1964 (No. 122) C129 - Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention, 1969 (No. 129) C144 - Tripartite Consultation (International Labour Standards) Convention, 1976 (No. 144) Conventions

5 Technical Conventions
C001 - Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 1) C002 - Unemployment Convention, 1919 (No. 2) C003 - Maternity Protection Convention, 1919 (No. 3) C004 - Night Work (Women) Convention, 1919 (No. 4) C005 - Minimum Age (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 5) C006 - Night Work of Young Persons (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 6) C007 - Minimum Age (Sea) Convention, 1920 (No. 7) C008 - Unemployment Indemnity (Shipwreck) Convention, 1920 (No. 8) C009 - Placing of Seamen Convention, 1920 (No. 9) C010 - Minimum Age (Agriculture) Convention, 1921 (No. 10) C011 - Right of Association (Agriculture) Convention, 1921 (No. 11) C012 - Workmen's Compensation (Agriculture) Convention, 1921 (No. 12) C013 - White Lead (Painting) Convention, 1921 (No. 13) C014 - Weekly Rest (Industry) Convention, 1921 (No. 14) C015 - Minimum Age (Trimmers and Stokers) Convention, 1921 (No. 15) C016 - Medical Examination of Young Persons (Sea) Convention, 1921 (No. 16) C017 - Workmen's Compensation (Accidents) Convention, 1925 (No. 17) C018 - Workmen's Compensation (Occupational Diseases) Convention, 1925 (No. 18) C019 - Equality of Treatment (Accident Compensation) Convention, 1925 (No. 19) C020 - Night Work (Bakeries) Convention, 1925 (No. 20) Conventions

6 Technical Conventions
C021 - Inspection of Emigrants Convention, 1926 (No. 21) C022 - Seamen's Articles of Agreement Convention, 1926 (No. 22) C023 - Repatriation of Seamen Convention, 1926 (No. 23) C024 - Sickness Insurance (Industry) Convention, 1927 (No. 24) C025 - Sickness Insurance (Agriculture) Convention, 1927 (No. 25) C026 - Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention, 1928 (No. 26) C027 - Marking of Weight (Packages Transported by Vessels) Convention, 1929 (No. 27) C028 - Protection against Accidents (Dockers) Convention, 1929 (No. 28) C030 - Hours of Work (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1930 (No. 30) C031 - Hours of Work (Coal Mines) Convention, 1931 (No. 31) C032 - Protection against Accidents (Dockers) Convention (Revised), 1932 (No. 32) C033 - Minimum Age (Non-Industrial Employment) Convention, 1932 (No. 33) C034 - Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention, 1933 (No. 34) C035 - Old-Age Insurance (Industry, etc.) Convention, 1933 (No. 35) C036 - Old-Age Insurance (Agriculture) Convention, 1933 (No. 36) C037 - Invalidity Insurance (Industry, etc.) Convention, 1933 (No. 37) C038 - Invalidity Insurance (Agriculture) Convention, 1933 (No. 38) C039 - Survivors' Insurance (Industry, etc.) Convention, 1933 (No. 39) C040 - Survivors' Insurance (Agriculture) Convention, 1933 (No. 40) Conventions

7 Technical Conventions
C041 - Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised), 1934 (No. 41) C042 - Workmen's Compensation (Occupational Diseases) Convention (Revised), 1934 (No. 42) C043 - Sheet-Glass Works Convention, 1934 (No. 43) C044 - Unemployment Provision Convention, 1934 (No. 44) C045 - Underground Work (Women) Convention, 1935 (No. 45) C046 - Hours of Work (Coal Mines) Convention (Revised), 1935 (No. 46) C047 - Forty-Hour Week Convention, 1935 (No. 47) C048 - Maintenance of Migrants' Pension Rights Convention, 1935 (No. 48) C049 - Reduction of Hours of Work (Glass-Bottle Works) Convention, 1935 (No. 49) C050 - Recruiting of Indigenous Workers Convention, 1936 (No. 50) C051 - Reduction of Hours of Work (Public Works) Convention, 1936 (No. 51) C052 - Holidays with Pay Convention, 1936 (No. 52) C053 - Officers' Competency Certificates Convention, 1936 (No. 53) C054 - Holidays with Pay (Sea) Convention, 1936 (No. 54) C055 - Shipowners' Liability (Sick and Injured Seamen) Convention, 1936 (No. 55) C056 - Sickness Insurance (Sea) Convention, 1936 (No. 56) C057 - Hours of Work and Manning (Sea) Convention, 1936 (No. 57) C058 - Minimum Age (Sea) Convention (Revised), 1936 (No. 58) C059 - Minimum Age (Industry) Convention (Revised), 1937 (No. 59) C060 - Minimum Age (Non-Industrial Employment) Convention (Revised), 1937 (No. 60) Conventions

8 Technical Conventions
C061 - Reduction of Hours of Work (Textiles) Convention, 1937 (No. 61) C062 - Safety Provisions (Building) Convention, 1937 (No. 62) C063 - Convention concerning Statistics of Wages and Hours of Work, 1938 (No. 63) C064 - Contracts of Employment (Indigenous Workers) Convention, 1939 (No. 64) C065 - Penal Sanctions (Indigenous Workers) Convention, 1939 (No. 65) C066 - Migration for Employment Convention, 1939 (No. 66) C067 - Hours of Work and Rest Periods (Road Transport) Convention, 1939 (No. 67) C068 - Food and Catering (Ships' Crews) Convention, 1946 (No. 68) C069 - Certification of Ships' Cooks Convention, 1946 (No. 69) C070 - Social Security (Seafarers) Convention, 1946 (No. 70) C071 - Seafarers' Pensions Convention, 1946 (No. 71) C072 - Paid Vacations (Seafarers) Convention, 1946 (No. 72) C073 - Medical Examination (Seafarers) Convention, 1946 (No. 73) C074 - Certification of Able Seamen Convention, 1946 (No. 74) C075 - Accommodation of Crews Convention, 1946 (No. 75) C076 - Wages, Hours of Work and Manning (Sea) Convention, 1946 (No. 76) C077 - Medical Examination of Young Persons (Industry) Convention, 1946 (No. 77) C078 - Medical Examination of Young Persons (Non-Industrial Occupations) Convention, 1946 (No. 78) C079 - Night Work of Young Persons (Non-Industrial Occupations) Convention, 1946 (No. 79) C080 - Final Articles Revision Convention, 1946 (No. 80) Conventions

9 Technical Conventions
C082 - Social Policy (Non-Metropolitan Territories) Convention, 1947 (No. 82) C083 - Labour Standards (Non-Metropolitan Territories) Convention, 1947 (No. 83) C084 - Right of Association (Non-Metropolitan Territories) Convention, 1947 (No. 84) C085 - Labour Inspectorates (Non-Metropolitan Territories) Convention, 1947 (No. 85) C086 - Contracts of Employment (Indigenous Workers) Convention, 1947 (No. 86) C088 - Employment Service Convention, 1948 (No. 88) C089 - Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised), 1948 (No. 89) C090 - Night Work of Young Persons (Industry) Convention (Revised), 1948 (No. 90) C091 - Paid Vacations (Seafarers) Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 91) C092 - Accommodation of Crews Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 92) C093 - Wages, Hours of Work and Manning (Sea) Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 93) C094 - Labour Clauses (Public Contracts) Convention, 1949 (No. 94) C095 - Protection of Wages Convention, 1949 (No. 95) C096 - Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 96) C097 - Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97) C099 - Minimum Wage Fixing Machinery (Agriculture) Convention, 1951 (No. 99) C101 - Holidays with Pay (Agriculture) Convention, 1952 (No. 101) Conventions

10 Technical Conventions
C102 - Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952 (No. 102) C103 - Maternity Protection Convention (Revised), 1952 (No. 103) C104 - Abolition of Penal Sanctions (Indigenous Workers) Convention, 1955 (No. 104) C106 - Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1957 (No. 106) C107 - Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention, 1957 (No. 107) C108 - Seafarers' Identity Documents Convention, 1958 (No. 108) C109 - Wages, Hours of Work and Manning (Sea) Convention (Revised), 1958 (No. 109) C110 - Plantations Convention, 1958 (No. 110) C112 - Minimum Age (Fishermen) Convention, 1959 (No. 112) C113 - Medical Examination (Fishermen) Convention, 1959 (No. 113) C114 - Fishermen's Articles of Agreement Convention, 1959 (No. 114) C115 - Radiation Protection Convention, 1960 (No. 115) C116 - Final Articles Revision Convention, 1961 (No. 116) C117 - Social Policy (Basic Aims and Standards) Convention, 1962 (No. 117) C118 - Equality of Treatment (Social Security) Convention, 1962 (No. 118) C119 - Guarding of Machinery Convention, 1963 (No. 119) C120 - Hygiene (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1964 (No. 120) Conventions

11 Technical Conventions
C121 - Employment Injury Benefits Convention, 1964 [Schedule I amended in 1980] (No. 121) C123 - Minimum Age (Underground Work) Convention, 1965 (No. 123) C124 - Medical Examination of Young Persons (Underground Work) Convention, 1965 (No. 124) C125 - Fishermen's Competency Certificates Convention, 1966 (No. 125) C126 - Accommodation of Crews (Fishermen) Convention, 1966 (No. 126) C127 - Maximum Weight Convention, 1967 (No. 127) C128 - Invalidity, Old-Age and Survivors' Benefits Convention, 1967 (No. 128) C130 - Medical Care and Sickness Benefits Convention, 1969 (No. 130) C131 - Minimum Wage Fixing Convention, 1970 (No. 131) C132 - Holidays with Pay Convention (Revised), 1970 (No. 132) C133 - Accommodation of Crews (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1970 (No. 133) C134 - Prevention of Accidents (Seafarers) Convention, 1970 (No. 134) C135 - Workers' Representatives Convention, 1971 (No. 135) C136 - Benzene Convention, 1971 (No. 136) C137 - Dock Work Convention, 1973 (No. 137) C139 - Occupational Cancer Convention, 1974 (No. 139) C140 - Paid Educational Leave Convention, 1974 (No. 140) Conventions

12 Technical Conventions
C141 - Rural Workers' Organisations Convention, 1975 (No. 141) C142 - Human Resources Development Convention, 1975 (No. 142) C143 - Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143) C145 - Continuity of Employment (Seafarers) Convention, 1976 (No. 145) C146 - Seafarers' Annual Leave with Pay Convention, 1976 (No. 146) C147 - Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1976 (No. 147) C148 - Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration) Convention, 1977 (No. 148) C149 - Nursing Personnel Convention, 1977 (No. 149) C150 - Labour Administration Convention, 1978 (No. 150) C151 - Labour Relations (Public Service) Convention, 1978 (No. 151) C152 - Occupational Safety and Health (Dock Work) Convention, 1979 (No. 152) C153 - Hours of Work and Rest Periods (Road Transport) Convention, 1979 (No. 153) C154 - Collective Bargaining Convention, 1981 (No. 154) C155 - Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155) C156 - Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention, 1981 (No. 156) C157 - Maintenance of Social Security Rights Convention, 1982 (No. 157) C158 - Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 (No. 158) C159 - Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention, 1983 (No. 159) C160 - Labour Statistics Convention, 1985 (No. 160) Conventions

13 Technical Conventions
C161 - Occupational Health Services Convention, 1985 (No. 161) C162 - Asbestos Convention, 1986 (No. 162) C163 - Seafarers' Welfare Convention, 1987 (No. 163) C164 - Health Protection and Medical Care (Seafarers) Convention, 1987 (No. 164) C165 - Social Security (Seafarers) Convention (Revised), 1987 (No. 165) C166 - Repatriation of Seafarers Convention (Revised), 1987 (No. 166) C167 - Safety and Health in Construction Convention, 1988 (No. 167) C168 - Employment Promotion and Protection against Unemployment Convention, 1988 (No. 168) C169 - Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169) C170 - Chemicals Convention, 1990 (No. 170) C171 - Night Work Convention, 1990 (No. 171) C172 - Working Conditions (Hotels and Restaurants) Convention, 1991 (No. 172) C173 - Protection of Workers' Claims (Employer's Insolvency) Convention, 1992 (No. 173) C174 - Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents Convention, 1993 (No. 174) C175 - Part-Time Work Convention, 1994 (No. 175) C176 - Safety and Health in Mines Convention, 1995 (No. 176) C177 - Home Work Convention, 1996 (No. 177) C178 - Labour Inspection (Seafarers) Convention, 1996 (No. 178) C179 - Recruitment and Placement of Seafarers Convention, 1996 (No. 179) C180 - Seafarers' Hours of Work and the Manning of Ships Convention, 1996 (No. 180) Conventions

14 Technical Conventions
C181 - Private Employment Agencies Convention, 1997 (No. 181) C183 - Maternity Protection Convention, 2000 (No. 183) C184 - Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, 2001 (No. 184) C185 - Seafarers' Identity Documents Convention (Revised), 2003 (No. 185) MLC - Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 C187 - Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 2006 (No. 187) C188 - Work in Fishing Convention, 2007 (No. 188) C189 - Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189) P081 - Protocol of 1995 to the Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 P089 - Protocol of 1990 to the Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised), 1948 P110 - Protocol of 1982 to the Plantations Convention, 1958 P147 - Protocol of 1996 to the Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1976 P155 - Protocol of 2002 to the Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 Conventions

15 ILO Conventions CONVENTION 29 CONVENTION 105 1930 1957 Forced Labour
Abolition of Forced Labour CONVENTION 87 1948 Eliminating discrimination against indigenous and tribal peoples in employment and occupation. CONVENTION 111 1958 Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) CONVENTION 98 1949 CONVENTION 115 1960 Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Radiation Protection Convention CONVENTION 100 1951 MEDICAL CARE SICKNESS BENEFIT UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFIT OLD-AGE BENEFIT EMPLOYMENT INJURY BENEFIT FAMILY BENEFIT MATERNITY BENEFIT INVALIDITY BENEFIT SURVIVORS' BENEFIT Equal Remuneration for Work of equal value CONVENTION 102 1989 Social Security (Minimum Standards) ILO Conventions

16 CONVENTION 182 CONVENTION 117 1962 CONVENTION 159 2008
Social Policy (Basic Aims and Standards) Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Disabled Persons IMPROVEMENT OF STANDARDS OF LIVING PROVISIONS CONCERNING MIGRANT WORKERS REMUNERATION OF WORKERS AND RELATED QUESTIONS NON-DISCRIMINATION ON GROUNDS OF RACE, COLOUR, SEX, BELIEF, TRIBAL ASSOCIATION OR TRADE UNION AFFILIATION EDUCATION AND TRAINING Convention No. 159 provides for vocational rehabilitation measures for all categories of disabled persons and for promotion of employment opportunities and equal treatment of disabled men and women. All policies shall be primarily directed to the well-being and development of the population and to the promotion of its desire for social progress. Regulates termination of employment at the initiative of the employer. Convention would not apply to cases where an employee willingly resigns or takes voluntary retirement. CONVENTION 138 1973 a lack of the skills or qualities necessary to perform certain tasks, leading to unsatisfactory performance; poor work performance not caused by intentional misconduct, as well as various degrees of incapacity to perform work as a result of illness or injury. Minimum Age for Admission to Employment inadequate performance of duties, e.g. neglect of duty, violation of work rules, disobedience of legitimate orders, etc.; various types of improper behaviour, e.g. disorderly conduct, violence, assault, using insulting language, disrupting the peace and order of the workplace etc. These reasons generally include reasons of an economic, technological, structural or similar nature. Dismissals resulting from these reasons may be individual or collective and may involve reduction of the workforce or closure of the undertaking. CONVENTION 158 2007 CONVENTION 169 1989 concerning termination of employment Indigenous and Tribal Peoples CONVENTION 182 1999 Reasons connected with the capacity of the worker Reasons connected with the conduct of the worker The prohibition and immediate action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labour Reasons connected with the operational requirements of the undertaking, establishment or service CONVENTION 182

17 Analysis of the growth in wages across the world
ILO:

18 Growth of real average monthly wages, %
Country /Territory Growth of real average monthly wages, % 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source Average wages

19 Growth of real average monthly wages, %
Country /Territory Growth of real average monthly wages, % 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source Average wages

20 Growth of real average monthly wages, %
Country /Territory Growth of real average monthly wages, % 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source Average wages

21 Growth of real average monthly wages, %
Country /Territory Growth of real average monthly wages, % 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source Average wages

22 Growth of real average monthly wages, %
Country /Territory Growth of real average monthly wages, % 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source Average wages

23 Growth of real average monthly wages, %
Country /Territory Growth of real average monthly wages, % 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source Average wages

24 Growth of real average monthly wages, %
Country /Territory Growth of real average monthly wages, % 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source Average wages

25 Weekly hours worked or paid in advanced countries, 2007–09
Weekly hours worked or paid in selected advanced countries, 2007–09 (changes in weekly hours) Average number of hours worked, or paid, per week decreased between 2007 and 2009 in almost all countries for which such data were available. This occurred either as a result of company-level arrangements, such as in the United States, where the decline in weekly earnings between February 2009 and February 2010 was the result of both falling hourly wages and shorter working time, or was one measure within broader schemes known as “work sharing”, which promote a reduction in working time in order to avoid lay-offs by redistributing a reduced volume of work In Germany, for example, monthly real wages of all employees fell for three consecutive years, including 2009, when monthly nominal wages fell for the first time in the country’s post-war history. This decline was largely due to a reduction in working hours to preserve jobs. Restricting the sample to full-time workers shows monthly real wage growth in Germany to be 0 % in 2008 and 0.8 per cent in 2009. Weekly hours worked or paid in advanced countries, 2007–09

26 Wage growth in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia
The sharpest declines in real wage growth appear to be found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where – according to official figures – real wage growth fell from an average of about 17.0 % in 2007 to 10.6 % in 2008 and to –2.2 % in 2009. Real wage growth has also fallen in Central and Eastern Europe, from 6.6 % in 2007 to 4.6 % in 2008 and –0.1 % in 2009. In the Russian Federation and the Ukraine, which have large populations, wage trends reflected the severe economic contraction in 2009. Wage growth in selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 2007–09 (in per cent) While Poland was able to maintain positive wage growth, Hungary illustrates a case where the combination of an inflation rate of 4 % and massive nominal wage freezes eroded the purchasing power of wages in 2009. Wage growth in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia

27 Wage share in total income
The wage share in OECD countries for the real economy Wage share in total income

28 The wage share in OECD countries for the real economy (continued)

29 Regional differences in wages over time
Cumulative wage growth by region since 2000 (index: 2000=100) Regional differences in wages over time

30 Comparing how wages have changed across the world
Annual average real wage growth , by region and globally Comparing how wages have changed across the world

31 A snapshot of comparative pay levels around the world
International comparison of hourly direct pay in manufacturing, 2010 (US$) Direct pay for time worked is wages and salaries for time actually worked. Source: United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 2011. A snapshot of comparative pay levels around the world

32 The widening gap between wages and labour productivity
Trends in growth in average wages and labour productivity in developed economies (index: 1999=100) Since the indices refer to a weighted average, developments in the three largest developed economies (United States, Japan and Germany) have a particular impact on this outcome. Labour productivity is measured as output per worker  The widening gap between wages and labour productivity

33 The widening gap between wages and labour productivity
Annual average global real wage growth, Note: Global wage growth is calculated as a weighted average of year-on-year growth in real average monthly wages in 124 countries, covering 94.3 per cent of all employees in the world  The widening gap between wages and labour productivity

34 Annual average real wage growth by region
Annual average real wage growth in Africa, Annual average real wage growth by region

35 Annual average real wage growth by region
Annual average real wage growth in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Annual average real wage growth by region

36 Annual average real wage growth by region
Annual average real wage growth in Asia, Annual average real wage growth by region

37 Annual average real wage growth by region
Annual average real wage growth in Latin America and the Caribbean, Annual average real wage growth by region

38 Annual average real wage growth by region
Annual average real wage growth in the Middle East, Annual average real wage growth by region

39 Annual average real wage growth by region
Annual average real wage growth in the developed economies, Annual average real wage growth by region

40 Minimum wage levels in selected developed economies
Minimum wage levels in selected developed economies in PPP$ and as a share of median full-time wage, 2010 Minimum wage levels in selected developed economies

41 Adjusted labour income shares in developing and emerging economies 1970-2007
DVP3 = unweighted average of Mexico, Republic of Korea and Turkey; DVP5 = unweighted average of China, Kenya, Mexico, Republic of Korea and Turkey; DVP16 = unweighted average of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Kenya, Mexico, Namibia, Oman, Panama, Peru, Republic of Korea, Russia, South Africa, Thailand and Turkey.  Wages and profits

42 How wages and profits are being shared out over time in advanced countries 1970-2010
ADV = unweighted average of 16 high-income OECD countries (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The Republic of Korea is excluded.) Source: Stockhammer, 2012, from AMECO database .  Wages and profits

43 A general trend is that wages have grown at a substantially slower pace than GDP per capita.
A majority of countries registered a decline in the share of national income that goes to wages, suggesting a lag between the growth in productivity and the growth in wages. While wages do not increase as fast as overall economic growth in upswings, they slow more rapidly in downswings. Most countries also display an increase in wage inequality, with top wages tending to increase much faster that those of the large majority of wage earners. General trends

44 Share of wage and salaried workers (% of total employment)

45 Globally average wages grew by 1.9 percent per year
Estimates of wage growth over the period 2001–07 Globally average wages grew by 1.9 percent per year In Armenia, for instance, real wages fell to one-fifth of their initial level during the early 1990s; the trend was reversed by sustained growth during the following ten years, but in 2006 real wages were still slightly below the 1991 level. In some countries, despite the record-breaking growth in recent years, the current wage level still remains lower than the pre-transition level. Through the CIS countries, such as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, annual wage growth rates are higher than 10 %. This impressive performance is, however, part of the recovery process following the huge reductions in wages that took place during the early stages of economic transition at the beginning of the 1990s. Among developed countries wages in the median country grew by about 0.9 percent per year. Comparable figures were 0.3 percent in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1.8 per in Asia, and a much higher 14.4 percent in CIS and non-EU Central and South-Eastern Europe. These estimates are based on wage data for 83 countries, representing about 70 percent of the world’s population By contrast, some countries, such as the Dominican Republic, experienced reductions in real wages over this period. Real wage growth

46 GDP per capita growth and change in real wages
In general the economic growth during the period 1995–2007 was associated with growth in average wages. Sustained wage growth over several years is only possible when the economy is expanding and when labour productivity is growing. One example is China, where real wages grew on average about 11 % per year doubledigit economic growth. Conversely, for example, when GDP per capita declined in Argentina during the financial crisis in 2001–03, wages fell by an average of 11 % per year. GDP per capita growth and change in real wages

47 GDP per capita and wages
Level of GDP per capita and level of wages (purchasing power parity, PPP) International differences in wages across countries mainly reflect differences in economic development and labour productivity. The level of average wages is higher in countries in which labour productivity is higher. The level of wages and the level of GDP per capita for 60 countries in 2006 GDP per capita and wages

48 Hours of work and working-time arrangements
The subject of working time has been central to the work of the ILO since its inception, when it adopted the first of many international labour standards, the Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No.1). ILO

49 Hours of work and working-time arrangements
The number of hours of work, working-time arrangements and rest time have significant effects on the quality of work and on quality of life in general. One important element of working time regulation is normal weekly hours limits, which establish how long the normal working week can be (i.e. before overtime work). Virtually all countries have set such a limit, mostly between 40 and 48 hours per week (although some countries, such as France and Belgium, have lower limits) (ILO, 2010e). For this reason, virtually all governments, the International Labour Organization and supranational organizations, such as the European Union, have introduced minimum standards that regulate working time. In fact, the first Convention adopted by the ILO after its foundation was the Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 1), which set 48 hours as the limit for normal weekly working hours (not including overtime, which should be exceptional). This has become a globally accepted standard, and the negative impact of working hours that are above this threshold have been well documented (see ILO, 2011b). During the Depression in the 1930s, the Forty-Hour Convention, 1935 (No. 47), introduced a new limit of 40 hours per week, which was reaffirmed by the Reduction of Hours of Work Recommendation, 1962 (No. 116), as a social standard to be reached in stages, if necessary. In a similar spirit, Article 24 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948, recognizes that everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. Hours of work and working-time arrangements

50 Earnings are the remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time worked or work done, together with remuneration for time not worked, such as for annual vacation, other paid leave or holidays, and including those elements of earnings which are usually received regularly, before any deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes, life insurance premiums, union dues and any other obligations of employees. The following should be excluded: employers' contributions in respect of employees paid to social security and pension schemes and also the benefits received by employees under these schemes, severance and termination pay, irregular bonuses such as year-end and other one-time bonuses which accrue over a period longer than a pay period. Hours paid for

51 Hours paid for Hours actually worked Hours paid for but not worked
Normal hours of work are the hours of work fixed by or in pursuance of laws or regulations, collective agreements or arbitral awards, or the number of hours in excess of which any time worked is remunerated at overtime rates or forms an exception to the rules or customs of the establishment relating to the classes of workers concerned. Hours paid for Hours actually worked Hours paid for but not worked Hours actually worked during normal periods of work Time spent at the place of work Time worked in addition to normal periods of work and generally paid at higher rates (overtime) Paid annual leave preparation of the workplace Short rest periods at the workplace Paid public holidays preparation and cleaning of tools waiting or standing by for such reasons as Paid sick leave preparation of receipts, time sheets and reports Paid meal breaks lack of supply of work breakdown of machinery or accidents Time spent travelling between the home and the workplace repairs and maintenance Hours paid for

52 THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT
ILO

53 THE FACTORS IN THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT
medium elevated high Limited Awkward Awkward-limited Very awkward insignificant Very high OPERATING POSITION temperate medium high air pollution medium pace of work industrial noise insignificant elevated insignificant elevated strong monotony of work THE FACTORS IN THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT (ILO) Vibration, rotation, snatching nervous pressure elevated high Very high insignificant elevated THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY, HEAT RADIATION AT THE WORKING AREA medium lighting conditions physical exertion low Bad (blinding) very high insignificant medium elevated / reduced high insignificant medium hard very hard THE FACTORS IN THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT


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