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Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Systems Engineering Specialists Racing in Real-time: Multi-domain modelling for Driver-In-the-Loop simulators
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Claytex Services Limited Based in Leamington Spa, UK –Office in Cape Town, South Africa Established in 1998 Experts in Systems Engineering, Modelling and Simulation –Focused on physical modelling and simulation using the open standards: Modelica and FMI Business Activities –Engineering consultancy –Software sales and support Dassault Systemes rFpro –Modelica library developers –Training services Global customer base
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Engineering Consultancy Focused on Systems Engineering, Modelling and Simulation Active in multiple industries Examples: –Development and validation of models –Analysis of systems using existing tools based on Dymola, Simulink, etc. –Development and integration of models with driving simulators From desktop simulators to high performance full-motion simulators in Formula 1 Indycar, and NASCAR –Development of bespoke tools to support Systems Engineering Translation of models between tools/languages Integration of models in to existing analysis tools and processes –Process development and improvement Requirements Management, Model Specification, Model Management, etc.
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Modelica and FMI Development Engines Library –Mean value and crank angle resolved engine models Powertrain Dynamics Library –Powertrain modelling for driveability and shift quality Vehicle Dynamics for Motorsport –Used in Formula 1, NASCAR, IndyCar and Sports cars Simulator Integration –Integration of VDLMotorsports and rFactor Pro FlexBody Library –Flexible bodies from Nastran, Genesis and Abaqus SystemID Library –Neural networks for non-linear system identification of dynamic systems XML Reader –Enables the use of XML files for parameters in Modelica FMI Blockset for Simulink –Import FMI compliant models in to Simulink
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Distributors of rFpro and Dassault Systemes solutions Multi-domain modelling and simulation based on Modelica, supporting multiple physical domains in a single integrated simulation environment For managing requirements traceability and impact analysis across hardware and software projects lifecycle Design, validation and deployment of control system software using IEC languages for safety critical systems A suite of design and functional tools to develop AUTOSAR compliant embedded software Specialist products within CATIA covering every aspect of Systems Engineering including requirements, functional architecture, control design and physical modelling rFactor Pro focuses on simulators for engineering development of vehicle dynamics and the control systems and active safety systems that affect vehicle dynamics. Software Portfolio
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Introduction Driving simulators increasingly used in both Motorsport and Automotive Originally introduced in Motorsport for driver training Allows tests to be completely safe and in repeatable conditions Due to testing restrictions now used to evaluate new designs, new technologies and work on car setup before arriving at the race track Broad range of approaches to suit different needs –Desktop system –Small motion systems with 3-4 dof –Full motion platforms with 6 dof Entertainment systems Engineering development systems
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Example Motorsport System Simulators for engineering development Ansible Motion Series 1 platform –6 degrees of freedom –Large excursions possible on all axes –High frequency range for realistic motion cueing rFactor Pro graphics, sound and track data –Low latency and high bandwidth offering the fastest video & audio pipelines –Extensive range of tracks available for Motorsport and Automotive applications Dymola based vehicle dynamics model –Multi-domain vehicle model
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Example Desktop System Able to evaluate baseline capability of a vehicle or enable detailed assessment of a control system Key features: –rFactor Pro provides the core capability Range of test scenarios (race tracks, proving ground) High quality graphics –Podium Technologies PTWinSim Host for the physics model enabling real-time telemetry streaming Supports running multiple models from Dymola, Simulink, C/C++ –Dymola vehicle model Full MultiBody chassis model –Telemetry system Gredi used to view data in real-time from the model –Logitech steering wheel and pedals (gaming system) –1 PC used for the complete system 1 for the simulator (graphics, physics, etc.) Optionally separate pc for calibration and telemetry tools
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Generalised architecture Driver interface –Single LCD to multiple projectors –Gaming wheel and pedals to sophisticated hand wheel loading system –Motion platform Graphics system –Typically based on gaming technology such as rFactor Pro but specially developed for DiL Physics model –Appropriately detailed model of the car to be tested Desktop system might be just 1 PC High-end driving simulator –8+ PC’s (1 per projector, 1 for physics, 1 for motion, 1 for telemetry, 1 for overall coordination) Options to integrate HIL systems
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Dymola and CATIA Systems Dymola is a standalone tool CATIA Systems is integrated into the 3DEXPERIENCE platform –Core functionality is the same, only the user interface changes –Easy to move models between the two programs Multi-domain modelling and simulation of complex dynamic systems
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Component Orientated Modelling Modelling and simulation of systems integrating multiple physical domains –Mechanics (1D, MultiBody), 1D Thermofluids, Control, Thermal, Electrical, Magnetics and more Promotes extensive model reuse at component and system level –Components represent physical parts: valves, gears, motor –Connections between parts describe the physical connection (mechanical, electrical, thermal, signal, etc.) Store your own component and system models in libraries to easily share and reuse them across the business
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Model Definition Models are defined using the Modelica modelling language –A generic modelling language –Design for convenient, component orientated modelling of complex multi-domain systems –Models are defined as differential algebraic equations (DAE) Dymola provides access to the Modelica code behind models model Inertia extends Interfaces.Rigid; parameter SI.Inertia J=1 “Moment of Inertia”; SI.AngularVelocity w “Angular velocity”; SI.AngularAcceleration a “Angular acceleration”; equation w = der(phi); a = der(w); flange_a.tau + flange_b.tau = J * a; end Inertia;
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 A freely available, open source, standardised modelling language Developed and maintained by the Modelica Association –An independent, international not-for-profit organisation –Established in 1996 –Currently over 100 members from academia, tool vendors and industrial end-users Anyone can get involved Organised into project groups for the Modelica Language, Modelica Standard Library and FMI Standard The Modelica Standard Library contains basic models in many engineering domains
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Modelling Approach Example: Inverted Pendulum Classic problem in control and dynamics –Representative of a missile flight control problem The centre of gravity is located behind the centre of drag causing aerodynamic instability To design and tune the controller requires a model of the system The systems contains the following: –Mechanics in the cart and pendulum –Electric motor to drive the cart –Control system with sensors and actuators
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Modelling Approach Traditional methodology Determine all the equations that capture the system behaviour Manually rearrange and solve the equations Implement the solution in C, Fortran, Simulink, etc. Problems with this approach: –Cannot easily change the properties of individual components (mass, length, resistance, etc.) –Cannot easily reuse the model or subsystem models for other tasks –Cannot easily change the detail in one part of the model
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Modelling Approach Modelica based approach Discretise the system into subsystems and components Define the system architecture and physical connections between subsystems Implement the subsystem models and plug these in to the architecture Control Electrical & 1D Mechanics MultiBody Mechanics
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Symbolic Manipulation The model equations are automatically transformed in to the required solution for simulation Advanced mathematical techniques are used to reduce the size of the problem without removing detail What does this mean in practice The Inverted Pendulum contains 659 equations –Using the Modelica modelling approach these are formed as a DAE Symbolic manipulation automatically reduces this to: –7 continuous time states –92 other time varying quantities Including 1 linear system, originally containing 14 equations but reduced to a system containing just 2 equations –All the other equations relate to constants or variables that are exactly equal to these 99 variables Advantages of Symbolic Manipulation –Automate the often error prone process of rearranging equations in to a solution –Apply advanced mathematical techniques to reduce the size of the problem –Can deliver real-time simulation performance of Vehicle Dynamics models with over 100,000 equations (1ms time step)
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Model Reuse Benefits of the Modelica Approach Fast model creation through drag-and-drop of components No manual rearrangement of model equations required –Eliminates a difficult and tedious task –Symbolic manipulation is used Models can easily be replaced with more detailed representations –Model architecture remains the same but new subsystem models can be plugged in provided they have the same physical connections Subsystems can easily be reused for different analysis tasks –For example, invert the physical model to determine the control inputs required –Here the angular response of the pendulum to a disturbance is prescribed and the required input to the power supply will be calculated
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Modelica Application Libraries Air Conditioning Belts Build Tools eDrives Engines FlexBody Flexible Bodies Fuel Cell Heat Exchanger Human Comfort Hydraulics Liquid Cooling Pneumatics Powertrain Dynamics Simulator Smart Electric Drives SystemID Terrain Server TIL Suite Vapor Cycle Vehicle Dynamics VDLMotorsports XMLReader
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Dymola in Motorsport Design –Enables engineers to quickly evaluate the impact of design changes on the complete system –Offline and real-time simulation Test –Use the models to support off-track testing –DiL and HiL simulations Race –Use the models trackside for setup optimisation and with the telemetry system –Integrate into lapsim and trackside tools
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Vehicle Dynamics for Motorsport VDLMotorsports Library –Add-on to the standard Vehicle Dynamics library –Used in Formula 1, IndyCar, GP2, NASCAR and sports car racing Includes adjustable suspension –Specify shim thickness to adjust track rod, pushrod, etc. Kinematic and compliant suspension models Pacejka tyre model Wide range of experiments for K&C and dynamics plus setup and quasi-static tests Real-time capable MultiBody models Open and extendible
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Simulator Toolbox Enables VDLMotorsports models to be compiled ready to run with rFactor Pro –Simply plug the vehicle model in to the template and execute the build function Compiles model to work with PTWinSim and McLaren Electronics vTAG Solution proven on several motion platforms –Ansible Motion –McLaren Electronics –Moog Supports full range of rFactor Pro features –HD Terrain Server and multiple tyre contact points –Collisions
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Dymola Demo
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Summary Modelica and Dymola can be used to create MultiBody vehicle dynamics models suitable for use in real-time applications –Can also include mean value engine models and energy recovery systems to model the whole system Using Dymola, new design ideas and concepts can be quickly modelled and compiled for use in the simulator –Enables real drivers to start evaluating these ideas at a very early stage in the development process –The simulator usage increases and is brought earlier in to the development process
Copyright © Claytex Services Limited 2015 Contact For further information please contact: Mike Dempsey Claytex Services Ltd. Edmund House Rugby Road Leamington Spa CV32 6EL UK Tel Fax
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