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Contents: Overheads to be used with Chapter 11 of “Truth in the Balance,” copyright 2003 by David Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T. REVISION DATE 11/27/2010 This.

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1 Contents: Overheads to be used with Chapter 11 of “Truth in the Balance,” copyright 2003 by David Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T. REVISION DATE 11/27/2010 This material is made available by the author at no charge. It may be reproduced for use in a Christian environment such as Sunday schools or Bible classes, but it may not be used for any commercial purposes. To be certain that you have the most up-to-date version of this material, go to the Origins Resource Association website, Follow the links to “Bible College Materials” and check that the revision date shown online is the same as shown above. If not, download the latest version.  2007 by David A. Prentice

2 BASIC PREMISES OF EVOLUTION AND CREATION EVOLUTION: 1. Everything must be explainable by purely natural processes. a. Atheistic evolution: There is no God. b. Theistic evolution: There is a God, but he does not intervene in nature. EVOLUTION: 1. Everything must be explainable by purely natural processes. a. Atheistic evolution: There is no God. b. Theistic evolution: There is a God, but he does not intervene in nature. CREATION: 1. A supernatural intelligence created the universe. Though most things are explainable by natual processes, some things may not be. CREATION: 1. A supernatural intelligence created the universe. Though most things are explainable by natual processes, some things may not be. LIKE THE POSTULATES OF GEOMETRY, NEITHER SET OF PREMISES CAN BE PROVEN. THEY MUST BE ACCEPTED BY FAITH AS SELF-EVIDENT. 2. Since there could be no other natural processes besides evolution, evolution is the only possibility. 2. Since there could be no other natural processes besides evolution, evolution is the only possibility. 2. God is powerful enough to use any method he chooses, including instantaneous creation. 2. God is powerful enough to use any method he chooses, including instantaneous creation. 3. Since evolution has never been seen in human history, it must be very slow. The universe and earth have to be billions of years old. 3. Since evolution has never been seen in human history, it must be very slow. The universe and earth have to be billions of years old. 3. Creation does not automatically require any specific age. a. Recent Creation: The earth is probably less than 10,000 years old. b. Gap Theory & Progressive Creation: Because evolutionists must know what they are talking about, the earth has to be billions of years old. 3. Creation does not automatically require any specific age. a. Recent Creation: The earth is probably less than 10,000 years old. b. Gap Theory & Progressive Creation: Because evolutionists must know what they are talking about, the earth has to be billions of years old. 

3  2007 by David A. Prentice DARWIN ON FOSSILS "But just in proportion as this process of extermination has acted on an enormous scale, so must the number of intermediate varieties, which have formerly existed, be truly enormous. Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely-graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against the theory.” Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species 

4  2007 by David A. Prentice RICHNESS OF THE FOSSIL RECORD Billions of fossils have been dug up so far. (South Africa’s Karoo Formation alone is estimated to contain billions of vertebrate fossils.) The fossils have been classified into about 250,000 species. There should be millions of transitional forms. Darwin has not been vindicated. Only a few fossils have been proposed as transitions between any two higher categories, and even those are highly disputed. The lack of transitions has led many to adopt a new model of evolution, Punctuated Equilibria. The fossil record remains the most obvious and serious objection to Darwinian evolution. 

5  2007 by David A. Prentice HOW TO SET UP MODELS: Use the basic ideas of Initial Disorganization versus Initial Complexity to make predictions in as many areas as possible: Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Biology, Paleontology, Geology, etc. Whichever set of predictions better fits what we observe is much more likely to be correct. 

6  2007 by David A. Prentice 3 VARIATIONS OF CREATION: 3 VARIATIONS OF CREATION: Recent Rapid Creation (perhaps within the last 10,000 years) Fossils should show a great deal of variation within kinds, but clearcut systematic gaps between major groups. The Gap Theory (creation and ruin in the distant past, recent re-creation) Impossible to make any specific predictions - keeps adjusting to fit what the evolutionists say. Progressive Creation or the “Day-Age” Theory (creation spread out over billions of years - really a theistic version of Punctuated Equilibria evolution) Leads to exactly the same predictions as Punctuated Equilibria. 

7  2007 by David A. Prentice 2 MODELS OF EVOLUTION FOR LIVING THINGS 2 MODELS OF EVOLUTION FOR LIVING THINGS Neo-Darwinism: Evolution occurred slowly and gradually. There should be millions of transitional fossils. Many have abandoned this belief because of the systematic gaps in the fossil record. Punctuated Equilibria: Evolution occurred in sudden jumps. The biological evidence against this belief is overwhelming. Not only would a male and female of each transitional type have to acquire many identical mutations, they would also need many complementary ones in their reproductive systems. They would also have to live at the same time, in the same place, would have to meet, and would have to have lots of babies which bred only with each other. This would have to happen hundreds of thousands of times for each evolving line, for each new step of evolution. 

8  2007 by David A. Prentice HOW TO SET UP MODELS: Use the basic ideas of Initial Disorganization versus Initial Complexity to make predictions in as many areas as possible: Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Biology, Paleontology, Geology, etc. Whichever set of predictions better fits what we observe is much more likely to be correct. 

9  2007 by David A. Prentice EVOLUTION: Initial Disorganization with later increase in complexity and unlimited diversification. Not just change, but change in the direction of increasing complexity. EVOLUTION: Initial Disorganization with later increase in complexity and unlimited diversification. Not just change, but change in the direction of increasing complexity. T I M E Evolutionary “Tree” All life came from one simple cell 

10  2007 by David A. Prentice CREATION: Initial Complexity with later deterioration and diversification within limits Not just change, but change in the direction of decreasing complexity. CREATION: Initial Complexity with later deterioration and diversification within limits Not just change, but change in the direction of decreasing complexity. TIMETIME Creationist “Forest” All life came from multiple complex ancestors. 

11  2007 by David A. Prentice Fossil Predictions of Creation and Evolution Fossil Predictions of Creation and Evolution CREATION (complex to simple) A BRIEF SUMMARY: 1. Rock strata represent ecological communities. There should be a pattern of clearly defined fossil communities around the world. 1. Strata represent time periods. There should be a continual overlap of life forms with no consistent worldwide patterns. EVOLUTION (simple to complex) 

12  2007 by David A. Prentice SUITES OF FOSSILS Rather than using radioactive dating, geologists identify each rock layer (Cambrian, Ordivician, Devonian, etc.) by a clearly defined community or suite of fossils that is essentially the same no matter where in the world we find it. If evolution occurred, different types from amoebas to humans would have had to evolve at different rates in different places at different times. There should be no worldwide pattern of clearly defined communities of fossils. Yet this is precisely how we identify rocks. EVOLUTION IS CLEARLY WRONG. 

13  2007 by David A. Prentice Fossil Predictions of Creation and Evolution Fossil Predictions of Creation and Evolution CREATION (complex to simple) A BRIEF SUMMARY: 1. Rock strata represent ecological communities. There should be a pattern of clearly defined fossil communities around the world. 2. Catastrophism. 1. Strata represent time periods. There should be a continual overlap of life forms with no consistent worldwide patterns. 2. Uniformitarianism. EVOLUTION (simple to complex) 

14  2007 by David A. Prentice FOSSIL PREDICTIONS OF CREATION AND EVOLUTION FOSSIL PREDICTIONS OF CREATION AND EVOLUTION EVOLUTION: Uniformitarianism. “The present is the key to the past” -- a doctrinal statement accepted without proof. Presently observed processes should be sufficient to explain the earth’s geologic record. There has never been a worldwide flood. CREATION: Catastrophism. Everyday processes do not have nearly so much effect on the earth as catastrophic events (volcanos, hurricanes, earthquakes, etc.) The present is NOT the key to the past. There should be evidence in the geologic record pointing toward past catastrophic events. 

15  2007 by David A. Prentice The Taxonomic Classification System The highest taxon is the kingdom, followed by the phylum, class, and order. At the lower levels, “species” is a manmade classification and is not the same as a Genesis “kind.” A kind may possibly be as high as the “family” level. Species can change without changing the basic design of the kind. The highest taxon is the kingdom, followed by the phylum, class, and order. At the lower levels, “species” is a manmade classification and is not the same as a Genesis “kind.” A kind may possibly be as high as the “family” level. Species can change without changing the basic design of the kind. Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species For example: humans belong to Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Chordata (Subphylum Vertebrata), Class Mammalia, Order Primates, Family Hominidae, Genus Homo, Species sapiens HIGHER TAXA LOWER TAXA 

16  2007 by David A. Prentice Fossil Predictions of Creation and Evolution Fossil Predictions of Creation and Evolution CREATION (complex to simple) A BRIEF SUMMARY: 1. Rock strata represent ecological communities. There should be a pattern of clearly defined fossil communities around the world. 2. Catastrophism. 3. Many higher taxa (kingdom, phylum, class, order) should appear at the beginning. The number should decrease through time. 1. Strata represent time periods. There should be a continual overlap of life forms with no consistent worldwide patterns. 2. Uniformitarianism. 3. Few higher taxa should be represented in the earliest fossil-bearing rocks. The number should increase through time. EVOLUTION (simple to complex) 

17  2007 by David A. Prentice Fossil Predictions of Creation and Evolution Fossil Predictions of Creation and Evolution CREATION (complex to simple) A BRIEF SUMMARY: 1. Rock strata represent ecological communities. There should be a pattern of clearly defined fossil communities around the world. 2. Catastrophism. 3. Many higher taxa (kingdom, phylum, class, order) should appear at the beginning. The number should decrease through time. 4. Sudden appearance of each basic type. 1. Strata represent time periods. There should be a continual overlap of life forms with no consistent worldwide patterns. 2. Uniformitarianism. 3. Few higher taxa should be represented in the earliest fossil-bearing rocks. The number should increase through time. 4. Gradual development of new basic types. EVOLUTION (simple to complex) 

18  2007 by David A. Prentice Fossil Predictions of Creation and Evolution Fossil Predictions of Creation and Evolution CREATION (complex to simple) A BRIEF SUMMARY: 1. Rock strata represent ecological communities. There should be a pattern of clearly defined fossil communities around the world. 2. Catastrophism. 3. Many higher taxa (kingdom, phylum, class, order) should appear at the beginning. The number should decrease through time. 4. Sudden appearance of each basic type. 5. Stasis (resistance to basic change). 1. Strata represent time periods. There should be a continual overlap of life forms with no consistent worldwide patterns. 2. Uniformitarianism. 3. Few higher taxa should be represented in the earliest fossil-bearing rocks. The number should increase through time. 4. Gradual development of new basic types. 5. Continual gradual change. EVOLUTION (simple to complex) 

19  2007 by David A. Prentice ERA PERIODEPOCH Appr. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene 23.8 million Oligocene 33.7 million Eocene 54.8 million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous 144 million Jurassic 206 million Triassic 248 million Paleozoic Permian 290 million Pennsylvanian 323 million} CARBON- Mississippian 354 million} IFEROUS Devonian 417 million Silurian 443 million Ordovician 490 million Cambrian 543 million ArchaeozoicPrecambrian 4.5 billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian) 650 million) The Geologic Column Most of these ages were assigned before radioactivity was even discovered. Most of these ages were assigned before radioactivity was even discovered.  Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology

20  2007 by David A. Prentice BASIC PREMISES OF EVOLUTION AND CREATION LIKE THE POSTULATES OF GEOMETRY, NEITHER SET OF PREMISES CAN BE PROVEN. THEY MUST BE ACCEPTED BY FAITH AS SELF-EVIDENT. 2. Since there could be no other natural processes besides evolution, evolution is the only possibility. 2. God is powerful enough to use any method he chooses, including instantaneous creation. 3. Since evolution has never been seen in human history, it must be very slow. The universe and earth have to be billions of years old. 3. Creation does not automatically require a specific age. a. Recent Creation: The earth is prob- ably less than 10,000 years old. b. Gap Theory & Progressive Creation: Because evolutionists must know what they are talking about, the earth has to be billions of years old. 1. Everything must be explainable by purely natural processes. a. Atheistic evolution: There is no God. b. Theistic evolution: Since the Big Bang, God has had little involvement with nature. 1. A supernatural intelligence created the universe. Though most things are explainable by natural processes, some things may not be. CREATION: EVOLUTION: 

21  2007 by David A. Prentice The Hebrew word for “day” is (YOM). Depending on context, it can mean 1. A 24 hour day, 2. The daylight portion of a day, or 3. An indefinite period of time. Every time throughout the Old Testament that is used with a number (over 350 times outside Genesis Chapter 1) it always means a 24 hour day. This is the way it appears in the Creation account. God obviously intended to say that these were 24 hour days. God obviously intended to say that these were 24 hour days. HOW LONG ARE THE “Days” in Genesis? 

22  2007 by David A. Prentice All Scripture is inspired by God... but this Scripture was written with His own finger. For [in] six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them [is]... (Exod. 20:11) 

23  2007 by David A. Prentice COULD THE “DAYS” HAVE BEEN MILLIONS OF YEARS? COULD THE “DAYS” HAVE BEEN MILLIONS OF YEARS? The sequence of events in Genesis 1: Day 3, plants created. Day 4, sun created. Day 5, insects created. The sequence of events in Genesis 1: Day 3, plants created. Day 4, sun created. Day 5, insects created. How many million years can most plants live without sunlight? How many million years can they live without insects to pollinate them? How many million years can most plants live without sunlight? How many million years can they live without insects to pollinate them? 

24  2007 by David A. Prentice YEARS SINCE CREATION (Massoretic Text) ADAM years SETH yrs d ENOSH yrs d KENAN yrs d MAHALALEL yrs d JARED yrs d ENOCH, 365 yrs (walked with God) METHUSALEH yrs, d LAMECH yrs d NOAH yrs d Death of Adam 1656 THE FLOOD Death of Noah SHEM yrs d Arpachshad, d Shelah, d Eber, d Peleg, d Reu, d Serug, d Nahor-- 147, d Terah , d Abraham- 195, d Isaac , d Jacob- 149, d Earth divided Tower of Babel (between 1757 and 1996) 

25  2007 by David A. Prentice “But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female” (Mk. 10:6). He didn’t say “In the last 1/10,000 of earth’s history.” “For [in] those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be” (Mk. 13:19). Evolutionists say mass extinctions have wiped out over 99% of all the species that have ever lived. Wouldn’t that be the worst affliction? “... he [the devil] was a murderer from the beginning...” (Jn. 8:44) Not just during last 1/10,000 of earth’s history. “... the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ: To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly [places] might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God...” (Eph. 3:10). Did God have to wait through 4.5 billion years of evolution before He could accomplish His purposes through the Church? JESUSPAULJESUSPAUL JESUSPAULJESUSPAUL New Testament Clues for a Young Earth 11-19

26  2007 by David A. Prentice “When Moses writes that God created heaven and earth and whatever is in them in six days, then let this period continue to have been six days, and do not venture to devise any comment according to which six days were one day. “But, if you cannot understand how this could have been done in six days, then grant the Holy Spirit the honor of being more learned that you are.” “When Moses writes that God created heaven and earth and whatever is in them in six days, then let this period continue to have been six days, and do not venture to devise any comment according to which six days were one day. “But, if you cannot understand how this could have been done in six days, then grant the Holy Spirit the honor of being more learned that you are.” MARTIN LUTHER ON THE AGE OF THE EARTH 

27  2007 by David A. Prentice Historical Ideas About the Age of the Earth Ancient Greeks such as Aristotle: Earth is extremely old, may have existed forever. Genesis: Earth is young. 1200s - Thomas Aquinas reverts to Aristotelian logic and old earth. 1700s - Buffon proposes days of Genesis as extended periods of time. Cuvier proposes multiple global catastrophes over millions of years. Hutton rejects catastrophes, proposes uniformitarianism. 1800s - Lyell expands on Hutton’s ideas, says earth millions of years old. Darwin builds his theory on Hutton’s and Lyell’s ideas about uniformitarianism. 1900s – Radioactivity discovered, age of earth revised to billions of years. 

28  2007 by David A. Prentice Both sides look at the same fossil evidence… - We just interpret it differently. Both sides look at the same fossil evidence… - We just interpret it differently. 

29  2007 by David A. Prentice OCCAM’S RAZOR “Entities Should Not Be Multiplied Beyond Necessity.” A principle of logic that can be paraphrased as, “The simplest explanation that fits all the facts is usually the best.” Not a hard and fast rule, but a good guideline. The fewer stories you have to make up, the better. Not a hard and fast rule, but a good guideline. The fewer stories you have to make up, the better. 

30  2007 by David A. Prentice REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE EARTH IS OLD: REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE EARTH IS OLD: 1.Belief that it takes millions of years to form a fossil. 2. Radiometric dating. 3. Geologic features (separation of continents, Grand Canyon, etc.) that are supposed to have taken millions of years to form. REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE UNIVERSE IS OLD: REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE UNIVERSE IS OLD: 1. If it’s only a few thousand years old, what was God doing all that time before He created it? 2. Starting from a “big bang,” it would have taken billions of years to reach its present size. 3. How could light from stars billions of light years away reach us in only a few thousand years? 

31  2007 by David A. Prentice ERA PERIODEPOCH Appr. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene 23.8 million Oligocene 33.7 million Eocene 54.8 million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous 144 million Jurassic 206 million Triassic 248 million Paleozoic Permian 290 million Pennsylvanian 323 million} CARBON- Mississippian 354 million} IFEROUS Devonian 417 million Silurian 443 million Ordovician 490 million Cambrian 543 million ArchaeozoicPrecambrian 4.5 billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) The Geologic (Evolutionary) Time Scale Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology 

32  2007 by David A. Prentice HOW DO YOU MAKE A FOSSIL? 1. Bury something quickly so it doesn’t rot. 2. Make sure the right kind of minerals are in the mud or water. 3. Apply lots of heat and pressure. HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE? CHICKEN BONES: ? OIL: ? 

33  2007 by David A. Prentice You may have heard that it takes millions of years to make a fossil. Wrong! Chicken bones have been turned into mineralized fossils in laboratories in 5 to 10 years. Organic garbage (banana peels, etc.) has been turned into crude oil, otherwise known as “fossil fuel,” in as little as 20 minutes. Spark plugs are often used as fishing sinkers in Durban, S. Africa. The water has such a high concentration of minerals that they become coated and look like fossils in just a few years! Courtesy of Joshua Gilbert Spark plugs from Durban harbor 

34  2007 by David A. Prentice The Geologic Column The geologic column was pieced together from many locations around the world. When more than one stratum is present the order is fairly consistent worldwide. However, the complete column does not exist in nature. Every layer can be found out of order somewhere in the world. The geologic column was pieced together from many locations around the world. When more than one stratum is present the order is fairly consistent worldwide. However, the complete column does not exist in nature. Every layer can be found out of order somewhere in the world. ERA PERIODEPOCH Appr. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene 23.8 million Oligocene 33.7 million Eocene 54.8 million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous 144 million Jurassic 206 million Triassic 248 million Paleozoic Permian 290 million Pennsylvanian 323 million} CARBON- Mississippian 354 million} IFEROUS Devonian 417 million Silurian 443 million Ordovician 490 million Cambrian 543 million ArchaeozoicPrecambrian 4.5 billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology 

35  2007 by David A. Prentice Fossil Predictions of Creation and Evolution Fossil Predictions of Creation and Evolution CREATION (complex to simple) A BRIEF SUMMARY: 1. Strata represent ecological communities. There should be a pattern of clearly defined fossil communities around the world. 2. Catastrophism. 3. Many higher taxa (kingdom, phylum, class, order) should appear at the beginning. The number should decrease through time. 4. Sudden appearance of each basic type. 5. Stasis (resistance to basic change). 1. Strata represent time periods. There should be a continual overlap of life forms with no consistent worldwide patterns. 2. Uniformitarianism. 3. Few higher taxa should be represented in the earliest fossil-bearing rocks. The number should increase through time. 4. Gradual development of new basic types. 5. Continual gradual change. EVOLUTION (simple to complex) 

36  2007 by David A. Prentice SUITES OF FOSSILS Rather than using radioactive dating, geologists identify each rock layer (Cambrian, Ordivician, Devonian, etc.) by a clearly defined community or suite of fossils that is essentially the same no matter where in the world we find it. If evolution occurred, different types from amoebas to humans would have had to evolve at different rates in different places at different times. There should be no worldwide pattern of clearly defined communities of fossils. Yet this is precisely how we identify rocks. EVOLUTION IS CLEARLY WRONG. 

37  2007 by David A. Prentice The Geologic Column The geologic column was pieced together from many locations around the world. When more than one stratum is present the order is fairly consistent worldwide. However, the complete column does not exist in nature. Every layer can be found out of order somewhere in the world. The geologic column was pieced together from many locations around the world. When more than one stratum is present the order is fairly consistent worldwide. However, the complete column does not exist in nature. Every layer can be found out of order somewhere in the world. ERA PERIODEPOCH Appr. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene 23.8 million Oligocene 33.7 million Eocene 54.8 million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous 144 million Jurassic 206 million Triassic 248 million Paleozoic Permian 290 million Pennsylvanian 323 million} CARBON- Mississippian 354 million} IFEROUS Devonian 417 million Silurian 443 million Ordovician 490 million Cambrian 543 million ArchaeozoicPrecambrian 4.5 billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology 

38  2007 by David A. Prentice How Ages Were Originally Assigned 1. If a new fossil was previously unknown, it would be compared to the rocks where it was found to see if they contained a known suite of fossils (Cambrian, Devonian, etc.). If so, the new one was assigned the same age as that suite. 2. Even if there was not a full suite, the discoverer would look for individual fossils found nearby. If any of them were defined as “index fossils,” he simply used their previously assigned age for the new type. 3. If none of the other fossils had been assigned an age, he would decide how highly evolved the new organism was and assign an age based on the assumption that evolution had taken billions of years. 4. Finally, if the new fossil was found in only one suite, then it could be used as an index fossil and its assigned age used anywhere that suite was found. Any new fossils found in the same layer would automatically be assigned the same age. 

39  2007 by David A. Prentice HOW EVOLUTIONISTS DATE ROCKS ASSUME EVOLUTION IS CORRECT ASSUME EVOLUTION IS CORRECT C I R C U L A R C I R C U L A R E A S O N I N G R E A S O N I N G Fossils must show pro- gression from simple to complex Arrange strata on a chart in “correct” order Explain away out-of-order fossils and strata Look for “tie-points” where radio- metric ages match previous- ly assigned age; reject ages that don’t fit (almost all!) Geologic timetable and “correct” order of strata verified - Evolution Proved! 

40  2007 by David A. Prentice South of Cuba are the Grand Cayman islands, where four distinct ecological communities thrive at the same time and place ft: The Reef. Thousands of typical shallow water species: Coral, barracuda, stingray, eels, etc ft: The Wall. “Sponge belt.” Lots of various types of sponges. Worms, crustaceans ft: The Haystacks. (Lots of de- bris broken off from above.) Sharks, star- fish, sea whip corals, sea urchins, etc ft: The Deep. (Totally dark.) Cookie- cutter shark, coffin fish, tripod fish, spidery- armed jellyfish, sea cucumbers, etc. The Grand Cayman Islands: A Natural Demonstration Project If we could instantly freeze the area, it would look just like the suites of fossils in the fossil record. 

41  2007 by David A. Prentice Ecological Communities Around the World Animals and plants live in interdependent communities, or biomes. These vary with climate, elevation above or below sea level, etc. Shown are two of the ecosystems found in Colorado. The same is true worldwide. (Denver Museum of Natural History – photos by the author)  Likewise, there are seven distinct biomes in Texas. (Houston Museum of Natural Science – photo by the author)

42  2007 by David A. Prentice WHAT ABOUT RADIOACTIVE DATING? Electrons (-) are in or- bitals around the nucleus, which is composed of protons (+) and neutrons (neutral, shown in blue). Number of neutrons deter- mines the isotope of the element. Number of protons is the atomic number. This determines what element the atom is Number of protons plus number of neutrons deter- mines the mass number of the element. - Since protons are positively charged, they repel each other. Thus, every atom in the universe that has more than one proton should fly apart. However, if certain numbers of neutrons are present, the protons stay together. Scientists call the force that keeps them together the “Strong Nuclear Force,” but have no idea why it exists. Since protons are positively charged, they repel each other. Thus, every atom in the universe that has more than one proton should fly apart. However, if certain numbers of neutrons are present, the protons stay together. Scientists call the force that keeps them together the “Strong Nuclear Force,” but have no idea why it exists. 

43  2007 by David A. Prentice WHAT IS RADIOACTIVITY? An atom with an unstable nucleus (too many or too few neu- trons for the number of protons) tries to re- lease excess poten- tial energy by emit- ting various parti- cles, or releasing gamma radiation. The radioactive atom starts out as one element called the parent and decays into a different element called the radiogenic daughter. The daughter may or may not be radioactive. If so, it may in turn become the parent element of another radiogenic daughter. The radioactive atom starts out as one element called the parent and decays into a different element called the radiogenic daughter. The daughter may or may not be radioactive. If so, it may in turn become the parent element of another radiogenic daughter. In Alpha (  ) decay, the nucleus ejects two pro- tons and two neutrons at the same time. This lowers the atomic number by two and the mass number by four. In Beta (  ) decay, one of the neutrons in the nu- cleus breaks apart. It ejects a high-energy electron, leaving a proton in place of the neutron. This actually increases the atomic number by one, but leaves the mass number unchanged. 

44  2007 by David A. Prentice RADIOACTIVE DECAY RATES Some radioactive “parents” decay into their final “daughter” in one step, e.g. Carbon- 14 to Nitrogen-14. Others go through many intermedi- ates, e.g. Uranium- 238 goes through 14 steps as it turns into Lead-206. However, we do not know what causes one atom to decay while the one next to it does not, so we cannot predict which individual atoms will decay. To measure decay rates we average together large numbers of atoms in a statistical analysis called a “half-life,” the amount of time it takes for half of a sample to decay. After one half-life 1/2 remains; after two half-lives, 1/4; after three, 1/8; after four, 1/16, and so forth. 

45  2007 by David A. Prentice RADIOACTIVE DECAY RATES COMMONLY USED RADIOACTIVE DATING METHODS Half-lives range from microseconds to (supposedly) billions of years. Since radioactivity was discovered only about a century ago, there is no way to verify long half-lives. Half-lives range from microseconds to (supposedly) billions of years. Since radioactivity was discovered only about a century ago, there is no way to verify long half-lives. PARENT DAUGHTER HALF-LIFE Carbon-14 Nitrogen years Potassium-40 Argon billion years Uranium-235 Lead million years Uranium-238 Lead billion years Rubidium-87 Strontium-8747 billion years 

46  2007 by David A. Prentice Since we can’t be sure of any of these for any “clock” in nature, we should use many different methods to determine a maximum possible age. Out of all the dating methods, less than 10% point toward a maximum of billions of years. The rest point toward millions or even thousands. Since we can’t be sure of any of these for any “clock” in nature, we should use many different methods to determine a maximum possible age. Out of all the dating methods, less than 10% point toward a maximum of billions of years. The rest point toward millions or even thousands. Characteristics of an Accurate Clock 1. Initial conditions known. What time did the clock say when it was wound up? 2. Known rate of change. The clock need not always run at the same rate, but if it changes we must know when and by how much. 3. Closed system. The clock must not have been reset or tampered with. 

47  2007 by David A. Prentice Conditions for Accurate Radiometric Dating 1. Initial percentage of parent and daughter in the rock must be known. We have no way to know this. The radioactive parents came from somewhere. According to evolution, the daughters could have been present to use as building blocks in making the parents in the first place. There would automatically have been a mix of daughter and parent from the beginning of the earth. We have no way to know what that mix was. This renders radioactive dating unreliable. Most rocks contain a mixture of elements. Many include a radioactive “parent” and a radiogenic “daughter.” 

48  2007 by David A. Prentice 1 2 HYDROGEN HELIUM LITHIUM BERYLLIUM BORON CARBON NITROGEN OXYGEN FLUORINE NEON SODIUM MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM SILICON PHOSPHOROUS SULPHUR CHLORINE ARGON POTASSIUM CALCIUM SCANDIUM TITANIUM VANADIUM CHROMIUM MANGANESE IRON COBALT NICKEL COPPER ZINC GALLIUM GERMANIUM ARSENIC SELENIUM BROMINE KRYPTON RUBIDIUM STRONTIUM YTTRIUM ZIRCONIUM NIOBIUM MOLYBDENUM TECHNETIUM RUTHENIUM RHODIUM PALLADIUM SILVER CADMIUM INDIUM TIN ANTIMONY TELLURIUM IODINE XENON CESIUM BARIUM HAFNIUM TANTALUM TUNGSTEN RHENIUM OSMIUM IRIDIUM PLATINUM GOLD MERCURY THALLIUM LEAD BISMUTH POLONIUM ASTATINE RADON FRANCIUM RADIUM RUTHERFORD- DUBNIUM SEABORGIUM BOHRIUM HASSIUM MEITNERIUM IUM Periodic Table of the Elements H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt etc. Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho E Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr CERIUM PRASEODYM- NEODYMIUM PROMETHEUM SAMARIUM EUROPIUM GADOLINIUM TERBIUM DYSPROSIUM HOLMIUM ERBIUM THULIUM YTTERBIUM LUTETIUM 140 IUM THORIUM PROTACTIN- URANIUM NEPTUNIUM PLUTONIUM AMERICIUM CURIUM BERKELIUM CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEV- NOBELIUM LAWRENCIUM 232 IUM IUM LANTHANUM ACTINIUM 227 La Ac La-Lu Ac-Lr elements are known to occur on earth. Elements 43, 61, and 93 and above (shown in red) are known only in artificially manufactured form, though #43 is seen in some stars. According to evolution, the 90 naturally occurring elements (shown in white) must have come from lighter “building blocks.” 90 elements are known to occur on earth. Elements 43, 61, and 93 and above (shown in red) are known only in artificially manufactured form, though #43 is seen in some stars. According to evolution, the 90 naturally occurring elements (shown in white) must have come from lighter “building blocks.” 

49  2007 by David A. Prentice Conditions for Accurate Radiometric Dating Most rocks contain a mixture of elements. Many include a radioactive “parent” and a radiogenic “daughter.” 1. Initial percentage of parent and daughter in the rock must be known. We have no way to know this. 2. Rate of change must have been constant the entire time. We’ve been watching for less than 100 years, but we have seen half-lives change by up to a billion times as fast. 

50  2007 by David A. Prentice Changes in Radioactive Decay Rates Published decay rates are averages of experimental values. Some are a little lower, some are a little higher. Decay rates have been determined over less than 100 years but are applied to 4.5 billion years! This is like watching a jet fly past for one second then guessing how fast it has been flying for the last 522 days. Many believe the decay of individual atoms is purely random, but others believe there is some as-yet-unknown cause such as neutrino density. Experiments have produced changes in decay rates of at least 14 different elements. Under plasma conditions (all electrons removed), decay rates have been accelerated up to a billion times as fast. This would render radiometric dating totally unreliable. Evolutionists (and some creationists) believe the earth began in plasma conditions. 

51  2007 by David A. Prentice Changes in Radioactive Decay Rates Recent studies at Purdue and Stanford Universities have revealed several anomalies in radioactive decay rates that seem to depend on the sun. The sun seems to be doing something that affects decay rates – perhaps by producing an as yet undetected particle that makes nuclei decay faster. 1. The decay rates go through a 33 day cycle from fastest to slowest – believed to be the rotation rate of the sun’s core. 2. Decay rates speed up slightly in the winter when we are closer to the sun, and slow down slightly in the summer when we are farther away. 3. Decay rates slow down just before solar flares. Whatever the cause, we can say with certainty that radioactive decay rates do change. This renders radiometric dating unreliable. Whatever the cause, we can say with certainty that radioactive decay rates do change. This renders radiometric dating unreliable.  Source:

52  2007 by David A. Prentice Conditions for Accurate Radiometric Dating Most rocks contain a mixture of elements. Many include a radioactive “parent” and a radiogenic “daughter.” 3. None of the parent or daughter can have been added or removed the entire time. Is there any rock that has never gotten wet? 2. Rate of change must have been constant the entire time. We’ve been watching for less than 100 years, but we have seen half-lives change by up to a billion times as fast. 1. Initial percentage of parent and daughter in the rock must be known. We have no way to know this. There is no way to be sure of any of these factors, let alone all of them. There is no way to be sure of any of these factors, let alone all of them. 

53  2007 by David A. Prentice Potassium-Argon Dating 1. The elements potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) are abundant in the earth’s rocks. 2. K comes in three isotopes: K-39 and K-41, both stable, make up over 99.9% of the known potassium. The unstable K-40 makes up just over 0.01% and has a half-life of about 1.26 billion years. 3. Almost 89% of the time K-40 decays into Ca-40, useless for dating because it also occurs as a non-radiogenic element. 4. The other 11% of the time K-40 decays into the inert gas Ar-40, used for K-Ar dating because it can be trapped inside a rock. 5. Rocks are assumed to have formed in a molten state, then solidified after hundreds of millions of years of cooling. 6. Any Ar-40 in molten rock would have leaked out. Thus, we use the ratio of K-40 to Ar-40 to determine how long ago the rock solidified. PROBLEM: If the rock ever heated up enough to soften again (e.g., after a volcanic eruption), more Ar-40 could leak out and give ages that are wrong by billions of years! 

54  2007 by David A. Prentice HOW ABOUT CARBON DATING?  1. Cosmic radiation in the upper atmosphere strikes Nitrogen-14, turning it into the unstable isotope Carbon Plants use the C-12 and C-14 in the air to build up their cell structures. 3. The carbon becomes part of the animals that eat the plants. 4. When a plant or animal dies it stops taking in carbon. The C-12 does not change but the C-14 decays back to N-14 (with a half-life of 5730 years). By measuring the ratio of C-14 to C-12 in the carcass as com- pared to the atmosphere, we estimate how long ago it died.

55  2007 by David A. Prentice PROBLEMS WITH CARBON DATING 1. The carbon in many fossils has been replaced by other minerals. You can’t carbon date something that doesn’t contain carbon. 2. If the animal or plant’s environment was low in C-14 it will give a false reading much higher than the real age. This happens frequently in sea creatures. 3. The ratio of C-14 to C-12 in the atmosphere keeps increasing. The older something is, the less C-14 was available and the less reliable the carbon date is. “Old” dates need to be adjusted accordingly. 4. Because of its short half-life, carbon dating works for ages of only a few thousand years. Since most fossils are supposed to be millions of years old, evolutionists don’t even try to carbon date them. 5. External factors can add or remove carbon or nitrogen. 6. Some plants are able to exclude C-14 from their structures. They, or anything that eats them, would automatically show a false age. 

56  2007 by David A. Prentice Reasons Fossils are not Dated by Other Radiometric Methods 1. A good size sample of radioactive material is needed to perform radiometric dating tests. The particles in most sediments are too finely divided for reliable testing. 2. The only kind of radioactive material that can be directly dated is igneous (volcanic) rock. It would have been so hot when it was laid down that it would have destroyed any living thing in its path, rather than preserving it as a fossil. 

57  2007 by David A. Prentice Examples of Erroneous Radiometric Dates Checkurovka Mammoth: Hair carbon dated at 26,000 years, but soil dated only 5,600 years. Living Nevada snails carbon dated at 27,000 years. Living mollusk dated by carbon-14 at over 2,300 years. Two different C-14 ages 15,000 years apart from same block of peat in New Zealand Dried seal carcasses less than 30 years old carbon dated as old as 4,600 years. Blood of seal freshly killed at McMurdo Sound in Antarctic carbon dated at 1,300 years Rocks containing “Nutcracker Man” potassium-argon dated at 1.75 million years. Bones found lower (should be older) carbon dated at 10,000 years. Lava rocks from Hualalei in Hawaii potassium-argon dated at almost 3 billion years. Rocks less than 200 years old - formed when volcano erupted in Other new Hawaiian rocks from eruption of Kilauea potassium-argon dated at 22 million years. Moon rocks dated by various techniques show inconsistent ages ranging from 700 million to 28 billion years. (Moon supposed to be 4.5 billion years old.) 

58  2007 by David A. Prentice RECENT CARBON DATING RESULTS Recently developed tests for Carbon-14 using accelerator mass spectrometry are able to detect the presence of C-14 at 100,000 times lower concentration than previous methods. Out of thousands of supposedly multimillion year samples tested, all but two contained measurable amounts of C-14. Radioactive elements disappear within about 10 half-lives. Even if we are generous and stretch the limit out to 40 half-lives, within about 250,000 years all the C-14 should be gone. IT IS NOT. The “multimillion year” fossils must be less than 250,000 years old! In fact, in most cases, they point to something less than 90,000 years (before correction for lower atmospheric C-14 in the past). 

59  2007 by David A. Prentice Isochron Dating – The Latest and Greatest Isochrons are an attempt to eliminate the need to know initial parent-to-daughter ratios. They use a radioactive element (e.g., Rb-87) and two isotopes of the element it decays into: one radiogenic (e.g., Sr-87) and one naturally occurring (e.g., Sr-86). Ratio of Sr-87 (radio- genic) to Sr - 86 (natu- rally occur- ring) As the amount of the radioactive parent decreases compared to the non- radiogenic isotope of the daughter, the radiogenic daughter should increase correspondingly. The ratio of radioactive-to-radiogenic in multiple rock samples is graphed on one axis, and the ratio of radiogenic-to-natural is shown on the other. As the amount of the radioactive parent decreases compared to the non- radiogenic isotope of the daughter, the radiogenic daughter should increase correspondingly. The ratio of radioactive-to-radiogenic in multiple rock samples is graphed on one axis, and the ratio of radiogenic-to-natural is shown on the other. 

60  2007 by David A. Prentice PROBLEMS WITH ISOCHRON DATING 1. It starts with the invalid assumption that rocks come out of volca- noes perfectly mixed. We know from observation that they do not. 2. We arbitrarily assign a meaning to the slope of the line. It could represent billions, millions, or thousands of years - but it could also be meaningless. 3. In some cases, the slope of the line is negative -- indicating the impossible situation of a negative age. 4. If the non-radiogenic element was ever added or removed from any of the samples, the technique is useless. Ratio of Sr-87 (radio- genic) to Sr - 86 (natu- rally occur- ring) 

61  2007 by David A. Prentice The Cardeñas Basalt at the bottom of the Grand Canyon is supposed to be about a billion years old. The Uinkaret Plateau at the top is only sup- posed to be about a million. Rubidium-Strontium dating showed an age of about 1.07 billion years for the Cardeñas, as expected. Exactly the same technique was applied to the Uinkaret, which showed an age of 1.34 billion years -- a thousand times too old, and 270 million years older than the rocks at the bottom. Rubidium-Strontium dating showed an age of about 1.07 billion years for the Cardeñas, as expected. Exactly the same technique was applied to the Uinkaret, which showed an age of 1.34 billion years -- a thousand times too old, and 270 million years older than the rocks at the bottom. Isochron Dating and the Grand Canyon EIther the technique is faulty, or else the Grand Canyon is upside down! EIther the technique is faulty, or else the Grand Canyon is upside down! 

62  2007 by David A. Prentice RADIOMETRIC “TIE-POINTS” IF stratigraphic ages are really correct, and IF radiometric dating is reliable, Then we should be able to find a multitude of “tie-points” -- igneous (volcanic) rocks that match the assigned strati- graphic ages of each sedimentary layer containing fossils. However, evolutionists do not depend on tie-points because there are so few of them. A search of the literature reveals that In the entire world, only a hundred or so individual rocks (tie-points) have been found that match their assigned ages. The thousands of others (the vast majority) that don’t match the age that evolution says they should be are DISCARDED. Instead of discarding the theory when it doesn’t match the data, evolutionists DISCARD THE DATA because it doesn’t match the theory! 

63  2007 by David A. Prentice THE FOUNDATION OF EVOLUTION: Uniformitarianism. THE FOUNDATION OF EVOLUTION: Uniformitarianism. The Bible warns us: First of all you must understand this, that scoffers will come in the last days with scoffing, following their own passions and saying, “Where is the promise of his coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all things have continued as they were from the beginning of creation. They deliberately ignore this fact, that by the word of God heavens existed long ago, and an earth formed out of water and by means of water, through which the world that then existed was deluged with water and perished. (2 Peter 3:3-7 RSV) This is the UNPROVABLE geological dogma that everything happens by slow, gradual, uniform processes. (“The present is the key to the past.”) There can never have been a worldwide flood. This is the UNPROVABLE geological dogma that everything happens by slow, gradual, uniform processes. (“The present is the key to the past.”) There can never have been a worldwide flood. 

64  2007 by David A. Prentice FOSSIL PREDICTIONS OF CREATION AND EVOLUTION FOSSIL PREDICTIONS OF CREATION AND EVOLUTION EVOLUTION: Uniformitarianism. “The present is the key to the past” -- a doctrinal statement accepted without proof. Presently observed processes should be sufficient to explain the earth’s geologic record. There has never been a worldwide flood. CREATION: Catastrophism. Everyday processes do not have nearly so much effect on the earth as catastrophic events (volcanos, hurricanes, earthquakes, etc.) The present is NOT the key to the past. There should be evidence in the geologic record pointing toward past catastrophic events. 

65  2007 by David A. Prentice IF THERE WAS A WORLDWIDE FLOOD, WHAT WOULD WE EXPECT TO FIND? Billions and billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the whole earth, even on top of the highest mountains. WHAT DO WE ACTUALLY FIND? Billions and billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the whole earth, even on top of the highest mountains! 

66  2007 by David A. Prentice We’ve seen that the first two are not reliable. Now let’s look at some arguments based on geology. REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE EARTH IS OLD: REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE EARTH IS OLD: 1.Belief that it takes millions of years to form a fossil. 2. Radiometric dating. 3. Geologic features (separation of con- tinents, Grand Canyon, etc.) that are supposed to have taken millions of years to form. 1.Belief that it takes millions of years to form a fossil. 2. Radiometric dating. 3. Geologic features (separation of con- tinents, Grand Canyon, etc.) that are supposed to have taken millions of years to form. 

67  2007 by David A. Prentice The Failure of Uniformitarianism Uniformitarianism is based on the belief that “The Present is the Key to the Past.” Even according to evolution, though, many things have obviously not always happened in the same way and at the same rate. The hypothetical “big bang” Origin of the chemical elements Initial formation of the earth and solar system – different composition for each planet Orbits of the planets not in the same plane as the sun’s equator Almost all the mass of the “Methodological uniformitarianism was useful only when science was debating the status of the supernatural in its realm.” - Evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould “Methodological uniformitarianism was useful only when science was debating the status of the supernatural in its realm.” - Evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould solar system in the sun, but almost all the angular momentum in the planets Initial separation of the continents from the original supercontinent Supposed reversal of motion of the continental plates Reversals of the earth’s magnetic field 

68  2007 by David A. Prentice PLATE TECTONICS Genesis 1:9-10 says that there was originally one landmass. On this, evolutionists agree. (They call it Pangaea.) Evolution- ists believe it broke up over hundreds of millions of years. By contrast, young- earth creationists believe the split took place rapidly, during and after Noah’s Flood. Animation from Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleon- tology website Geologists around the world use a computer program called “Terra” to model the motion of the continental plates. Few realize that it was written by a young-earth creationist geophysicist, Dr. John Baumgardner. The program works much better if the continents were moving rapidly for a short time rather than slowly for millions of years. Geologists around the world use a computer program called “Terra” to model the motion of the continental plates. Few realize that it was written by a young-earth creationist geophysicist, Dr. John Baumgardner. The program works much better if the continents were moving rapidly for a short time rather than slowly for millions of years. 

69  2007 by David A. Prentice The Failure of Uniformitarianism Uniformitarianism is based on the belief that “The Present is the Key to the Past.” Even according to evolution, though, many things have obviously not always happened in the same way and at the same rate. “Methodological uniformitarianism was useful only when science was debating the status of the supernatural in its realm.” - Evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould “Methodological uniformitarianism was useful only when science was debating the status of the supernatural in its realm.” - Evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould Clearly defined strata imply definite non-uniform events Clearly defined boundaries between strata worldwide (e.g., K-T Boundary) Complete geologic column not found in nature Out-of-order strata  Creationist explanation: flood action Evolutionist explanation: overthrusting

70  2007 by David A. Prentice Deformation of Sedimentary Layers Which makes more sense? Evolutionists believe that bending of rocks occurred millions of years after the sedi- ment hardened into rock. Creationists believe the sedi- ments were bent while still soft. Evolutionists believe that bending of rocks occurred millions of years after the sedi- ment hardened into rock. Creationists believe the sedi- ments were bent while still soft. Photos by the author Right: Meteor Cra- ter in Arizona. Evo- lutionists believe the meteor blasted through hardened rock; creationists note that the crater looks very much like the impact of a bullet in soft mud. Above and right: Deformed strata in the Swartberg Mountains of S. Africa. 

71  2007 by David A. Prentice The Failure of Uniformitarianism Uniformitarianism is based on the belief that “The Present is the Key to the Past.” Even according to evolution, though, many things have obviously not always happened in the same way and at the same rate. “Methodological uniformitarianism was useful only when science was debating the status of the supernatural in its realm.” - Evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould “Methodological uniformitarianism was useful only when science was debating the status of the supernatural in its realm.” - Evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould Clearly defined strata imply definite non-uniform events Clearly defined boundaries between strata worldwide (e.g., K-T Boundary) Complete geologic column not found in nature Out-of-order strata  Creationist explanation: flood action Evolutionist explanation: overthrusting Misplaced fossils Mass extinctions – dinosaurs and at least six other times Enormous fossil graveyards Polystrate fossils

72  2007 by David A. Prentice FOSSIL GRAVEYARDS The Karoo Supergroup of South Africa is estimated to contain billions of Permian fossils such as this Bradysaurus. Dinosaur National Monument in Utah contains thousands of dinosaur skeletons. The Lance Creek Formation of Wyoming contains an Ed- montosaurus herd estimated at over 30,000 individuals. The Grand Canyon’s Redwall Limestone is estimated to contain billions of nautiloid fossils. Fossil-bearing sedimen- tary mountains are common. Large scale fossil graveyards are a frequent occurrence around the world. Photos by the author 

73  2007 by David A. Prentice THE GRAND CANYON The Grand Canyon is a mile deep, eight miles across, and over 200 miles long. Evolutionists claim that the Colorado River would have taken millions of years to erode the Canyon.  Is there any evidence that the assumption of uniformitarianism is wrong, and that large scale erosion can occur quickly?

74  2007 by David A. Prentice Mount St. Helens A classic snow-capped mountain in southwest Washington State, before its eruption in 1980 Photo courtesy of Raymond Fleshman (www.creationism.org/sthelens/fleshman/index.htm) 

75  2007 by David A. Prentice The View From Spirit Lake U.S. Geologic Survey photos from Mount St. Helens before Mount St. Helens after 

76  2007 by David A. Prentice Effects of the Volcano on Trees Millions of trees were knocked down by the initial steam blast. 1/8 of a cubic mile of rock from the top of the volcano crashed into Spirit Lake, creating a wave hundreds of feet high that swept down millions more trees. Shown below are not islands, but floating log rafts. Photo courtesy of Raymond Fleshman USGS Photo 

77  2007 by David A. Prentice Mount St. Helens During the Eruption Ash from Mt. St. Helens completely circled the globe. Energy released from this medium-sized volcano was estimated to be the equivalent of one Hiroshima-size atomic bomb per second for nine hours. U.S. Geologic Survey photos from 

78  2007 by David A. Prentice Sediment Deposits at Mount St. Helens Photos courtesy of Raymond Fleshman The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1980 produced fast mud flows which deposited hundreds of feet of finely laminated sediment into the North Fork of the Toutle River in just a few days. The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1980 produced fast mud flows which deposited hundreds of feet of finely laminated sediment into the North Fork of the Toutle River in just a few days. 

79  2007 by David A. Prentice Mount St. Helens and the Toutle River The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1980 deposited hundreds of feet of finely laminated sediment into the North Fork of the Toutle River in just a few days. The sediment was so hot that it quickly turned into rock, damming up the river. 20 months later, a new mudflow broke through the new rocks and carved out a canyon about 1/35 as deep as the Grand Canyon in ONE DAY. The Toutle River didn’t carve the canyon; it just drains it. (Just like the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon!) The Toutle River didn’t carve the canyon; it just drains it. (Just like the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon!) 

80  2007 by David A. Prentice Soft Rock Erosion at Mount St. Helens Photo by the author -- viewed from two miles away The 1980 eruption filled the Toutle River valley with hundreds of feet of superheated mud, which rapidly hardened into rock. A second eruption in January 1982 sent more superheated mud blasting through the new sedimentary rock, forming a network of canyons up to 160 feet deep (1/35 as deep as the Grand Canyon) in one day. The Toutle didn’t carve the canyons -- it just drains them. 

81  2007 by David A. Prentice Hard Rock Erosion at Mount St. Helens Hard rock erosion is thought to take thousands of years, at least. Yet the steam blast during the eruption of Mt. St. Helens carved out a 700 foot deep canyon through the solid granite of the “Goat Rocks” in less than one afternoon. Photo by the author -- viewed from three miles away 

82  2007 by David A. Prentice So Could the Grand Canyon be the Result of Slow Erosion? So Could the Grand Canyon be the Result of Slow Erosion? In order for the Colorado River to have carved the Canyon, it would have had to flow a mile uphill for millions of years. The Grand Canyon is a mile deep, 8 mile wide, 216 mile long gash through an uplifted area of the Colorado Plateau in north Arizona. The Kaibab Monocline, a mile- high upwarped formation at the east end of the Grand Canyon The Kaibab Monocline, a mile- high upwarped formation at the east end of the Grand Canyon U.S. government satellite image Sorry, but gravity works in Arizona just like anywhere else! 

83  2007 by David A. Prentice The Grand Canyon is missing over 1000 cubic miles of sediment, enough to make a good size mountain range. Yet it has a normal- size delta composed of soft, relatively recent sediment. NASA satellite photo of the Colorado River delta at the Gulf of California NASA satellite photo of the Colorado River delta at the Gulf of California THE MISSING DELTA If the Colorado River carved the Canyon over millions of years, where is the sediment? If the Colorado River carved the Canyon over millions of years, where is the sediment? 

84  2007 by David A. Prentice The Colorado River: Not Enough Water! Throughout the Grand Canyon are many mesas and buttes where the Colorado River does not flow. There had to be a much larger quantity of water at some time in the past in order to scour them out. Photo by the author 

85  2007 by David A. Prentice Nautiloid Mass Burial at Grand Canyon Uniformi- tarian geo- logy says the Redwall Limestone was depos- ited slowly over hun- dreds of millions of years. In 1999, geologist Dr. Steve Austin stunned the Geological Society of America with the discovery of billions of nautiloid fossils preserved in a 2-meter thick layer of the Redwall Limestone. Nautiloids have soft bodies inside a shell. The bodies decay quickly. The shells all point in the same direction. This indicates that they were deposited by a massive sediment flow over a few days, not millions of years. The Redwall Limestone is a layer of the Grand Canyon several hundred feet thick, spread over thousands of square miles. The Redwall Limestone is a layer of the Grand Canyon several hundred feet thick, spread over thousands of square miles. Photo by the author Nautiloid photos by USGS 

86  2007 by David A. Prentice THE PETRIFIED FOREST Not really a forest, but tens of thousands of trees and tree fragments lying on the ground, stripped of roots and limbs. Most geologists believe they are allochthonous – that is, they floated into the area from someplace else. That’s a lot of water! Photo by the author 

87  2007 by David A. Prentice The Grand Canyon and the Flood The Grand Canyon and the Flood The Kaibab Monocline would have served as a natural dam holding back four states worth of water at the end of the Flood, until something caused a split. The Colorado didn’t carve the Canyon; it just drains it. The Colorado Plateau east of the Grand Canyon includes many parts of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico higher than the Kaibab Monocline. (U.S. government satellite image) The Colorado Plateau east of the Grand Canyon includes many parts of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico higher than the Kaibab Monocline. (U.S. government satellite image) 

88  2007 by David A. Prentice METEOR CRATER The meteor that caused Meteor Crater in Arizona went through multiple strata, but did not fracture them. Instead, the crater looks like the impact pattern of a bullet fired into soft mud. All the layers must have still been soft when the meteor crashed through. They must not have been millions of years old. Photo by the author 

89  2007 by David A. Prentice The Failure of Uniformitarianism Uniformitarianism is based on the belief that “The Present is the Key to the Past.” Even according to evolution, though, many things have obviously not always happened in the same way and at the same rate. The hypothetical “big bang” Initial formation of the earth and solar system Initial separation of the continents Supposed reversal of motion of the continental plates Well-known catastrophes such as Washington Scab- lands, meteor impacts, major volcanic eruptions Reversals of the earth’s magnetic field Clearly defined boundaries between strata worldwide (e.g., K-T Boundary) Enormous fossil graveyards Many other examples “Methodological uniformitarianism was useful only when science was debating the status of the supernatural in its realm.” - Evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould “Methodological uniformitarianism was useful only when science was debating the status of the supernatural in its realm.” - Evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould 

90  2007 by David A. Prentice But if even one physical phenomenon has a supernatural cause, then all of evolutionary logic is unreliable. But if even one physical phenomenon has a supernatural cause, then all of evolutionary logic is unreliable. Methodological Naturalism, or Everything must be explainable by purely natural processes. It only takes one non- barking dog to show that “All dogs bark” is false. THE FOUNDATION OF EVOLUTIONARY LOGIC: 

91  2007 by David A. Prentice REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE EARTH IS OLD: REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE EARTH IS OLD: 1.Belief that it takes millions of years to form a fossil. 2. Radiometric dating. 3. Geologic features (separation of con- tinents, Grand Canyon, etc.) that are supposed to have taken millions of years to form. 1.Belief that it takes millions of years to form a fossil. 2. Radiometric dating. 3. Geologic features (separation of con- tinents, Grand Canyon, etc.) that are supposed to have taken millions of years to form. None of these is a compelling argument. None of these is a compelling argument. 

92  2007 by David A. Prentice So far, this is just showing what’s wrong with the evolutionary time scale. Are there any positive indications that the earth might be much younger than billions of years old? So far, this is just showing what’s wrong with the evolutionary time scale. Are there any positive indications that the earth might be much younger than billions of years old? 

93  2007 by David A. Prentice Maximum Ages Given by a Number of “Clocks” Maximum Ages Given by a Number of “Clocks” INDICATOR MAX. AGE IN SPACE: 1. Recession of the Moon1,370,000, Breakup of Galaxy Clusters1,000,000, Spiral Galaxies1,000,000, Beryllium in the sunless than millions 5. Residual heat in the outer planets less than millions 6. Instability of Saturn’s rings 1,000, Volcanic activity on Io1,000, Poynting-Robertson Effect on space dust200, Short-period comets<10, Lack of stage 2 and 3 supernova remnants<10,000 The true age could be anything less. 

94  2007 by David A. Prentice  Temperature and Thickness of the Earth’s Crust Temperature and Thickness of the Earth’s Crust Hot objects radiate heat into space. If the earth started as a ball of molten rock it would have cooled from the outside in, gradually developing a thicker and thicker crust. Taking into account the measured rate at which the earth radiates heat into space and including radioactivity as a heat source, the crust would have reached its present thickness in no more than 45 million years – only about one percent of the age evolution requires for the earth. If it did not start as molten rock, its age could be anything less.

95  2007 by David A. Prentice THE MISSING HELIUM THE MISSING HELIUM Several radio- active decay series release alpha particles, or Helium-4 nuclei. These quickly capture two elec- trons from their surroundings and become Helium atoms. If every bit of the helium in the atmosphere came only from the radioactive decay we are aware of, there is less than 4 million years accumulation. The atmosphere could be less than 4 million years if:  1. any helium was present at the beginning, or 2. there is more radioactivity than we know of, or 3. there is another helium source besides radioactivity, 1. any helium was present at the beginning, or 2. there is more radioactivity than we know of, or 3. there is another helium source besides radioactivity, Only a few helium-4 atoms move fast enough to escape from the earth’s gravity. The rest gradually accumulate in the atmosphere.

96  2007 by David A. Prentice HELIUM IN THE ROCKS Many radioactive decay series produce helium. Even though the helium starts out inside a rock, helium molecules are so small that they can gradually work their way through the molecules of the rock until they escape. At the measured rate of diffusion, the escape time has been calculated to be on the order of a few tens of thousands of years. Many rocks supposed to be hundreds of millions of years old have been split open and found to contain significant amounts of helium. The rocks cannot be more than a few tens of thousands of years old, NOT millions of years. The rocks cannot be more than a few tens of thousands of years old, NOT millions of years. 

97  2007 by David A. Prentice CARBON-14 DECAY Cosmic radiation strikes Nitrogen-14 in the upper atmosphere, turning it into C-14. The C-14 begins to turn back to N-14. Direct measurements show C-14 forming 20% to 30% faster than it is decay- ing. This indicates that C-14 has been forming for less than 20,000 years. Starting from zero, the amount of C-14 would build up until it was decaying as fast as it formed. At present rates, it would take less than 30,000 years to reach equilibrium. The atmosphere must have been in its present condition for less than 30,000 years. 

98  2007 by David A. Prentice THE MISSING METEORITES Each year, a few meteorites make it through the atmos- phere and land on the earth without burning up. Fossil-bearing rocks are sup- posed to have been forming for at least 530 million years. In this time, at least several billion meteorites should have become embedded one by one in the fossil-bearing rocks. Yet not one meteorite has ever been discovered preserved in any “ancient” rock layer under the surface, despite the discovery of perhaps hundreds of billions of fossils. Either this is an astonishing coincidence, or else the rocks were NOT laid down over hundreds of millions of years. NASA photo 

99  2007 by David A. Prentice PLEOCHROIC HALOES If a large number of radioactive atoms decay inside a molten rock, no traces are left after the rock cools. However, if the rock is solid when the atoms decay, they leave tiny spherical “scorch marks” known as pleochroic haloes. We can tell what produced the haloes by their diameter and what’s left at the center. SHELLS DUE TO: Po-214 (half-life 164 microseconds) Po-218 (half-life 3.1 minutes) Po-210 (half-life 138 days) U-238 “parent” (4.5 billion years) No Uranium “Parent” “Parentless” Po-210 haloes can only form in rocks that are solid within a few years, Po-218 within a few minutes, and Po-214 within a few thousandths of a second. Thousands of known haloes are from fast-decaying isotopes of Polonium. In order for them to leave haloes at all, the rocks must have solidified within a few half-lives of Polonium. For Po-214, the rocks had to harden within seconds! Thousands of known haloes are from fast-decaying isotopes of Polonium. In order for them to leave haloes at all, the rocks must have solidified within a few half-lives of Polonium. For Po-214, the rocks had to harden within seconds! 

100  2007 by David A. Prentice IMPLICATIONS OF PLEOCHROIC HALOES Pleochroic haloes do not prove that the earth is young. However, they show that rocks con- taining them had to solidify in a matter of seconds rather than hundreds of millions of years. Whenever the basement rocks were formed, they were formed fast. No one has ever successfully rebutted Dr. Robert Gentry’s contention that the haloes point strongly toward instantaneous creation. Pleochroic haloes do not prove that the earth is young. However, they show that rocks con- taining them had to solidify in a matter of seconds rather than hundreds of millions of years. Whenever the basement rocks were formed, they were formed fast. No one has ever successfully rebutted Dr. Robert Gentry’s contention that the haloes point strongly toward instantaneous creation. 

101  2007 by David A. Prentice DOES THIS PROVE THE EARTH IS YOUNG? NO. BUT IT SHOWS THAT IT COULD BE, AND THAT THERE IS NO COMPELLING SCIENTIFIC REASON THAT IT HAS TO BE BILLIONS OF YEARS OLD. DOES THIS PROVE THE EARTH IS YOUNG? NO. BUT IT SHOWS THAT IT COULD BE, AND THAT THERE IS NO COMPELLING SCIENTIFIC REASON THAT IT HAS TO BE BILLIONS OF YEARS OLD. 


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