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Physical Geology Chapter 4. Matter Anything that has mass and volume Elements = simplest stable form of matter Made of atoms Compounds = chemically combined.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Geology Chapter 4. Matter Anything that has mass and volume Elements = simplest stable form of matter Made of atoms Compounds = chemically combined."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Geology Chapter 4

2 Matter Anything that has mass and volume Elements = simplest stable form of matter Made of atoms Compounds = chemically combined elements Made of molecules Elements:atoms::compounds:molecules

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5 98% of crust is 8 elements and their compounds

6 Atomic Structure Small electrons in cloud (- charge) Much larger protons in nucleus (+ charge) Slightly larger neutrons in nucleus (0 charge) Every element unique

7 Common units of mass, such as grams, are much too large to conveniently describe the mass of an atomic nucleus or any of its constituent parts. To solve this problem a new unit was defined: the atomic mass unit (amu). The atomic mass unit is a relative unit defined arbitrarily by assigning a mass of 12 amu to the neutral atom carbon-12, the common isotope of carbon. One atomic mass unit equals 1.66 X grams. Employing this value, the masses of the fundamental particles of an atom have been determined to be: (1) Proton mass: amu. (2) Neutron mass: amu. (3) Electron mass: amu.

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9 = atomic number

10 = atomic mass

11 Forms of the same element Differ in # of neutrons Same atomic number but different atomic mass (heavier) Similar behavior with some different properties Leads to average atomic mass H = amu

12 Ions

13 Valence electrons create behaviors/properties and establish periodic groups on table

14 Metals have 1-3 valence electrons and lose them easily Non-metals have 4-7 electrons and tend to gather more

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16 Mendeleev’s Table

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18 2 and 8 electrons create unreactive state (Happy) Is this important?

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20 How do they become “happy”? Chemical bonding!

21 Ionic bond – giving/taking e-

22 Covalent bond – sharing e-

23 Polar covalent molecule + _

24 Mixtures Unlike a compound, the components are not chemically combined, just physically combined Heterogenous – not equally mixed Homogenous – “solution” and equally mixed

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