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0 The Mora or the Segment?/ Investigating the Basic Unit of Spoken Language Processing Through SOT Data in Japanese Keiko Kuriyama (Randolph College) Jeri.

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Presentation on theme: "0 The Mora or the Segment?/ Investigating the Basic Unit of Spoken Language Processing Through SOT Data in Japanese Keiko Kuriyama (Randolph College) Jeri."— Presentation transcript:

1 0 The Mora or the Segment?/ Investigating the Basic Unit of Spoken Language Processing Through SOT Data in Japanese Keiko Kuriyama (Randolph College) Jeri J. Jaeger (SUNY/Buffalo)

2 1 Spoken Language Processing Speech production Speech perception Metalinguistic manipulations (Cutler 2002: 275)

3 2 Previous Studies Speech perception, metalinguistic experiments evidence for the mora Speech production experiments less clear

4 3 Methodology: tongue twister experiment Material: 8 well known traditional TTs (Experiment 1) & 10 short TTs (Experiment 2) Subjects: 17 Japanese adult speakers Number of SOTs: 115 (Experiment 1) 104 (Experiment 2) Current Study

5 4 Phonological Units Involved in Japanese SOTs 1)Phonetic features 2)Segments (consonants or vowels) 3)CV moras (a mora (body)) 4)Non-syllabic moras 5)Syllabic vs. non-syllabic moras4 6)Mora/syllables 7)Rhymes 8)Syllables 9)Pitch-accents

6 5 Experiment 1-Example of an Unambiguous Error TT#1 ka.e-ru pyo-ko pyo-ko mi pyo-ko pyo-ko a-wa-se-te pyo-ko pyo-ko mu pyo-ko pyo-ko (frog, onomatopoeia for frogs jumping, three, jumping, all, jumping, six, jumping) Error#1 ka.e-ru pyo-ko pyo-ko mi po-ko po-ko..mi pyo-ko pyo- ko a-wa-se-te pyo-ko pyo-ko mu pyo-ko pyo-ko ka.e-ru….(AF#3)

7 6 Experiment 1-Example of an Unambiguous Error TT#2 na-ma-mu-gi na-ma-go-me na-ma-ta-ma-go (raw wheat, raw rice, raw eggs) Error#2 na-ma-mu-gi na-ma-go-me na-ma-ta-ma-go, na-ma mu-gi na-mi….na-ma-go-me na-ma-ta-ma-go.. (AM#7)

8 7 The Number of Unambiguous Errors in Experiment 1 feature Con- sonat vowelmora Mora/ syllable pitch- accent total 4282180043

9 8 Experiment 1- Example of Ambiguous Errors Error#3 a-ka-ma ki-ga-mi a.o-ma-ki-ga-mi ki-ma-ki-ga-mi, a a-ka-ma-ki-ma..a-ka-ma-ki-ga-mi a.o-ma-ki-ga-mi b ki-ma-ki-ga-mi, a.o…a-ka-ma-ki-ga-mi a.o-ma-ki-ga- mi…(AF#2) TT#3 A-ka-ma-ga-mi a.o-ma-ki ga-mi ki-ma-ki-ga-mi (red rolled paper, blue rolled paper, yellow rolled paper)

10 9 Experiment 1-Example of Ambiguous Errors TT#4 Pa.n ka-be (bread, wall) Error#4 a b c ka.n-pa-ge, ka.n-pa-be, pa.n-ka-be, pa.n-ka-be, pa.n-ka-be (AF#2)

11 10 The Majority Rules Method Error #4 a b c ka.n pa-ge, ka.n pa-be, pa.n ka-be, pa.n ka-be, pa.n ka-be (AF#2) a segmental analysis, mora analysis b segmental analysis, mora analysis c segmental analysis

12 11 Result of the Majority Rules Method Errors No. of instances (%) Segmental Analysis95 (86.36%) Mora analysis71 (64.45%) Syllable analysis 70 (63.63%) ______________________________________ 110 (100%)

13 12 The General Principles Method 1)The Minimal Movement Principle (Laubstein 1987); if an error can be analyzed as a segment error it should be, because errors involving segments are the most common type of unambiguous phonological error. 2) The Repeated Phoneme Effect (Dell 1984); the repeated phoneme effect is the claim that repeated sounds in a speech plan are more likely to cause SOTs in adjacent segments than when there is no identical segment adjacent to the target and source.

14 13 Ambiguous Errors the General Principles Method Error#4 a b c d e ka.n-pa-ge, ka.n-pa-be, pa.n-ka-be, pa.n-ka-be, pa.n-ka-be (AF#2)

15 14 Result of Experiment 1 Errors by unit type subject consonantvowelfeaturemoramora/syll pitch accenttotal AF#17 0 0 07 014 AF#214 0112 018 AF#3123 0 05 020 AF#4103 0 00 013 AF#51031 08123 AF#6611 04113 AM#78 00 06 014 total671031322115 %58%9%3%1%28%2%100%

16 15 Result of Experiment 1 Errors by token subject consonantvowelfeaturemora mora/ syll pitch accent total AF#17 0 0 08 0 15 AF#218 0312 0 24 AF#3165 0 0 5 0 26 AF#42031 0 0 0 24 AF#51231 0 8125 AF#6711 0 4114 AM#79 0 0 0 6 015 total891261332143 %62%8%4%1%23%1%100%

17 16 TTs Used in Experiment 2 pa.n ko-bu (bread, bump) bu.n ga-maba.t-ta (onomatopoeia: bee, frog, grasshopper) ka.e-ru mu.u pyo-ko pyo-ko (frog, onomatopoeia: cow cound, onomatopoeia: jumping frog) ka-ki ku.u kya.k-kya (persimmon, to eat, onomatopoeia: monkey sound) ne-ko mya.a nya.n-ko (cat, onomatopoeia: cat sound, kitten)

18 17 TT#5 bu.n ga-ma ba.t-ta (onomatopoeia: bee, frog, grasshopper) CV. X CV Error Example) bu.n bu-ma ba.t-ta

19 18 Result of Experiment 2-type analysis subjectconsonantvowelfeaturemoramora/syllsyllabletotal AM#191021013 AM#260022010 AM#381001010 AM#45001006 AM#591020012 AF#1104126124 AF#24001106 AF#35102008 AF#46001007 AF#57000209 total698113 1104 %66%8%1%13% 1%100%

20 19 Result of Experiment 2-token analysis subjectconsonantvowelfeaturemoramora/syllsyllabletotal AM#1291052037 AM#2130031017 AM#3201002023 AM#4110010012 AM#5211020024 AF#1184128335 AF#24001409 AF#35102008 AF#47001008 AF#5130002015 total1418117193189 %75%4%0.5%9%10%1.5%100%

21 20 Ratio between segmental errors vs mora+mora/syllable errors Type Analysis Segments Mora Mora/syll ratio Ex 177 (67%)33 (29%)2.33:1 Ex 277 (74%)26 (24%)2.96:1

22 21 Ratio between segmental errors vs mora+mora/syllable errors Token Analysis Segments Mora Mora/syll ratio Ex 1101 (70%)34 (24%)2.97:1 Ex 2149 (79%)36 (19%)4.13:1

23 22 Conclusions and future study -segmental errors > mora + mora/syllable errors -universal underlying cognitive mechanism for speech production planning -a need for cross-linguistic study (Bilingual and L2 speakers of Japanese)


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