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Cities provided opportunities Machine-made jobs high wages ended monotony of the farm. Cities provided opportunities Machine-made jobs high wages ended.

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Presentation on theme: "Cities provided opportunities Machine-made jobs high wages ended monotony of the farm. Cities provided opportunities Machine-made jobs high wages ended."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Cities provided opportunities Machine-made jobs high wages ended monotony of the farm. Cities provided opportunities Machine-made jobs high wages ended monotony of the farm. Cities

3 Job opportunities for Women School teaching Domestic service Women doctors Lawyers, typists, telephone girls, librarians, journalists and social workers. Women gainfully employed rose from 2.5 million in 1880 to 8 million in Job opportunities for Women School teaching Domestic service Women doctors Lawyers, typists, telephone girls, librarians, journalists and social workers. Women gainfully employed rose from 2.5 million in 1880 to 8 million in 1910.

4 Cities were attractive with telephones bright lights and electricity. Central heating public water systems indoor plumbing sewage disposal asphalt pavements and transportation. Cities were attractive with telephones bright lights and electricity. Central heating public water systems indoor plumbing sewage disposal asphalt pavements and transportation. Cities

5 Cities had many faces Slums Criminals Beggars Pollution bad smells grafters (corrupt politicians) Cities had many faces Slums Criminals Beggars Pollution bad smells grafters (corrupt politicians) Cities

6 Cities offered beautiful parks, museums, libraries, churches, hospitals and schools. Became the intellectual nerve center of the country. Cities offered beautiful parks, museums, libraries, churches, hospitals and schools. Became the intellectual nerve center of the country. Cities

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11 Kept detailed files on people who received their help Decided who was worthy of help Wanted immigrants to adopt American, middle-class standards. Sought to apply the gospel teachings of Christ: charity and justice to society’s problems. Moved into poor communities settlement housesTheir settlement houses served as community centers and social service agencies. Hull HouseHull House, founded by Jane Addams a model settlement house in Chicago, offered cultural events, classes, childcare, employment assistance, and health-care clinics. The Charity Organization Movement The Social Gospel Movement The Settlement Movement

12 The Settlement House Movement Social welfare reformers work to relieve urban poverty Social Gospel movement—preaches salvation through service to poor Settlement houses—community centers in slums, help immigrants Run by college-educated women, they: - provide educational, cultural, social services - send visiting nurses to the sick - help with personal, job, financial problems Jane Addams founds Hull House with Ellen Gates Starr in 1889

13 Child Labor

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15 “Galley Labor”

16 The Corporate “Bully-Boys”: Pinkerton Agents

17 Management vs. Labor “Tools” of Management “Tools” of Labor  “scabs”  P. R. campaign  Pinkertons  lockout  blacklisting  yellow-dog contracts  court injunctions  open shop  boycotts  sympathy demonstrations  informational picketing  closed shops  organized strikes  “wildcat” strikes

18 A Striker Confronts a SCAB!

19 The Tournament of Today: A Set-to Between Labor and Monopoly

20 Anarchists Meet on the Lake Front in 1886

21 Haymarket Riot (1886) McCormick Harvesting Machine Co.

22 Haymarket Martyrs

23 Governor John Peter Altgeld

24 The American Federation of Labor: 1886 Samuel Gompers

25 How the AF of L Would Help the Workers ù Catered to the skilled worker. ù Represented workers in matters of national legislation. ù Maintained a national strike fund. ù Evangelized the cause of unionism. ù Prevented disputes among the many craft unions. ù Mediated disputes between management and labor. ù Pushed for closed shops.

26 President Grover Cleveland If it takes the entire army and navy to deliver a postal card in Chicago, that card will be delivered!

27 The Pullman Strike of 1894 Government by injunction!

28 The Socialists Eugene V. Debs

29 International Workers of the World (“Wobblies”)

30 “Big Bill” Haywood of the IWW  Violence was justified to overthrow capitalism.

31 I W W & the Internationale

32 The Hand That Will Rule the World  One Big Union

33 1.US Looks Abroad  Imperialism and its factors  The New Manifest Destiny  Isolationism vs expansionism 2. Lands acquired by U.S. 3. Spanish American War  "Splendid Little War"  Causes and effects 3 D’s Duty, Dollars, Destiny spread our culture Christianity new markets

34 4. Importance of Asian market  : Philippine Question  Filipino Revolution—3 years to put down  Open Door Policy  Chinese trade  Spheres of influence  Boxer Rebellion  TR vs Japan  Russian Japanese War  Gentlemen’s Agreement, 1906 Roosevelt Corollary , Roosevelt Corollary  “Big Stick Policy”  protect U.S. interests = Asia and Latin America  Panama Canal

35 6. Pres. Taft & Wilson: Dollar Diplomacy  U.S. banks and businesses invest.  "Big Stick policy”: Wilson intervenes  Haiti:  Dominican Republic:  Mexico to get Pauncho Villa in 1916

36  Under imperialism, stronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker nations. imperialism  The late 1800s marked the peak of European imperialism, with much of Africa and Asia under foreign domination.  A policy of extending your rule over foreign countries  A major departure of the US policy of “isolation” involvement world affairs.  A major departure of the US policy of “isolation” to involvement in world affairs.

37  Economic The growth of industry increased the need for natural resources.  Commerce New markets and expansion of trade into Asia & Latin America.  Nationalistic European nations competed for large empires was the result of a rise in nationalism What are the factors involved in a country becoming imperialists?  Military Europe had better armies than Africa and Asia, and it needed bases around the world to refuel and supply navy ships.  Humanitarian Desire/duty to spread western civilizations to other countries.

38  Trade into Asia & Latin America  Keep up with Europe  Annex strategic islands in the S. Pacific and Caribbean Sea.  Trade center of the world  Build a canal  International policeman  Large naval presence The New Manifest Destiny

39 American Foreign Trade: Commercial/Business Interests

40 2. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan  The Influence of Sea Power on History:

41 Originally meant that the United States declared itself neutral in European wars and warned other nations to stay out of the Western Hemisphere. Later, the doctrine was interpreted to mean a more active role to protect the interests of the United States. The Monroe Doctrine Expanding U.S. Interests

42 Imperialists Theodore Roosevelt William Mckinley William Randolph Hearst Joseph Pulitzer Anti-Imperialist League Mark Twain Andrew Carnegie Susan B. Anthony FOR EXPANSION ■Keep up with European nations ■Desire for prestige ■Theory of racial superiority ■Provide market for surplus goods and investments AGAINST EXPANSION ■America’s vastness provided enough of an outlet for the country’s energies ■America should not rule over other peoples

43 Cartoon- Europea n grab bag European nations colonizing--US needed to do the same or become an insignificant county……

44 Cartoon- European grab bag

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46 Cartoon-US Expansion1 US goal was always expansion

47 documents expan1 Isolationism Expansionism

48 documents expan2 Expansion Expansion and a large naval fleet to protect interests

49 documents expan3 Expansion and spreading our culture

50 documents expan3 Source: Josiah Strong, Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis… American Home Missionary Society, 1885…. the final competition of races, for which the Angle-Saxon is being schooled…. It seems to me that God, with infinite wisdom and skill, is training the Anglo- Saxon race for an hour sure to come in the world’s future….The unoccupied arable lands of the earth are limited, and will soon be taken. Then will the world enter upon a new stage of its history---- the final competition of races, for which the Angle-Saxon is being schooled….

51 documents expan3 Source: Josiah Strong, Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis… American Home Missionary Society, 1885…. Then this race of unequalled energy, with all the majesty of numbers and the might of wealth behind it----the representative, let us hope, of the largest liberty the purest Christianity, the highest civilization…will spread itself over the earth…. If I read not amiss, this powerful race will move down

52 documents expan3 Source: Josiah Strong, Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis… American Home Missionary Society, 1885…. “survival of the fittest”? upon Mexico, down Central and South America, out upon the islands of the sea, over upon Africa and beyond. And can any one doubt that the result of this competition of races will be the “survival of the fittest”?

53 Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’s Burden: to civilize the world The Hierarchy of Race

54 Rudyard Kipling The White Man's Burden" in 1899 appealed to the United States to of develop the Philippinesappealed to the United States to of develop the Philippines poet of British imperialismpoet of British imperialism Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.

55 Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionaries in China, 1905

56 Source: Source: Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League, 1899 “Much as we abhor the war of “criminal aggression” in the Philippines, greatly we regret that the blood of the Filipinos is on America hands, we more deeply resent the betrayal of American institutions at home……

57 Whether the ruthless slaughter of the Filipinos shall end next month or next year is but an incident in a contest that must go on until the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the US are rescued from the hands of their betrayers.

58 documents expan1 Those who dispute about standards of value while the foundation of the Republic is undermined will be listened to as little as those who would wrangle about the small economies of the household while the house is on fire.

59 The training of a great people for a century, the aspiration for liberty of a vast immigration are forces that will hurl aside those who is the delirium of conquest seek to destroy the character of our institutions.”

60 In 1867, Secretary of State William Seward bought Alaska from Russia.In 1867, Secretary of State William Seward bought Alaska from Russia. Seward’s Folly Seward bought the uninhabited Midway Islands for use as repairing and refueling stations for navy vessels in the Pacific. Midway Islands The United States signed a treaty with Hawaii and took a more active role in protecting Latin America.The United States signed a treaty with Hawaii and took a more active role in protecting Latin America. US policy would expand into the Philippines and negotiate trade treaties.US policy would expand into the Philippines and negotiate trade treaties. Latin America, Hawaii and Asia Expanding U.S. Interests

61 “Seward’s Folly”: 1867 $7.2 million

62 Seward’s Icebox: 1867

63 Island Possessions

64 Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853 The Japanese View of Commodore Perry

65 U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s

66 U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.  Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.

67 Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!

68 U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty  1875 – Reciprocity Treaty  1890 – McKinley Tariff American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani.  1893 – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani.  Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.

69 To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898

70 The Spanish-American War Spanish brutality towards Cubans The Butcher-The Butcher---Valeriano Weyler Yellow Press/Journalism----Sensational Spanish Ambassador de Lôme insulted President McKinley. USS MaineThe USS Maine exploded, and the American public blamed Spain. Congress recognized Cuban independence and authorized force against Spain. Teller AmendmentTeller Amendment: US was fighting this war to help Cuba gains its independence and would not seek any land gains from Cuba. War is declared April 17, 1898 Steps to War

71 Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy

72 “Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst Hearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!

73 De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.

74 Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. Imperialist and American nationalist. Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.

75 Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst Both imperialists and wanted war with Spain. “Yellow Press”Their “Yellow Press” propaganda led Americans to support war with Spain.

76 Spain controlled Cuba since 1500’s. Cuban people were fighting a revolution against Spanish brutality Cubans wanted their independence from Spain 90 miles from U.S. Protect our trade

77 yellow journalism  How long are the Spaniards to drench Cuba with the blood and tears of her people?  How long is the peasantry of Spain to be drafted away to Cuba to die miserably in a hopeless war, that Spanish nobles and Spanish officers may get medals and honors?  How long shall old Cuban men and women and children be murdered by the score, the innocent victims of Spanish rage against the patriot armies they cannot conquer?  How long shall the sound of rifles in Castle Morro at sunrise proclaim that bound and helpless prisoners of war have been murdered in cold blood?

78 yellow journalism  How long shall Cuban women be the victims of Spanish outrages and lie sobbing and bruised in loathsome prisons?  How long shall women passengers on vessels flying the American flag be unlawfully seized, stripped and searched by brutal, jeering Spanish officers, in violation of the laws of nations and of the honor of the U.S.?  How long shall American citizens, arbitrarily arrested while on peaceful and legitimate errands, be immured in foul Spanish prisons without trial?  How long shall the U.S. sit idle and indifferent within sound and hearing or rapine and murder? HOW LONG?HOW LONG?

79 USS Maine American citizens threatened by revolution in Cuba. Pres. McKinley sent USS Maine to rescue US citizens.

80 USS Maine

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82 USS Maine US sailors killed Spain accused of blowing up the Maine….. Polarized Americans to support the war against Spain. Hearst was heard to say, “Supply me with pictures and I’ll give you a war”. Yellow Press

83 Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were popular newspaper editors trying to sell newspapers.Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were popular newspaper editors trying to sell newspapers. Expansionist’s war with Spain. Hearst was heard to say,Hearst was heard to say, “Supply me with pictures and I’ll give you a war”. Yellow Press

84 The Spanish-American War May 1, 1898: The United States launched a surprise attack in Manila Bay and destroyed Spain’s entire Pacific fleet in seven hours. July 1: Roosevelt led the Rough Riders up San Juan Hill. July 3: The United States Navy sank the remaining Spanish ships. “A Splendid Little War”

85 SP War in Pacific

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87 Dewey Captures Manila!

88 SP War in Caribbean

89 Rough Riders Captured San Juan Hill which led to the end of the war once Santiago was surrendered by the Spanish. Became a hero of the Spanish American War.

90 The “Rough Riders”

91 Rough Riders

92 The Spanish-American War With Spain’s defeat their government recognized Cuba’s independence. Spain gave up the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico to the US in return for $20 million. The island nations then became unincorporated territories of the United States. President McKinley installed a military government to protect American business interests. The Treaty of Paris, 1898

93 The Spanish-American War The Spanish-American War Puerto Rico and Cuba Puerto Rico Puerto Rico strategic post in Caribbean, for protection of future canal Foraker Act 1900, Foraker Act sets up civil government - president appoints governor, upper house 1917, Puerto Ricans made U.S. citizens; elect both houses President McKinley installed a military government to protect American business interests. Cuba Cuba drafted a constitution in 1900 that did not allow for U.S. involvement. Platt Amendment. The U.S. government only agreed to remove its troops if Cuba included the Platt Amendment. Platt Amendment The Platt Amendment remained in place until It allowed for U.S. naval bases on the island and intervention whenever necessary.

94 Cartoon-Sp & US War Spanish and American War was referred to as a “Splendid Little War” Cost of war in terms of loss of life and money was minimal US became a world power as a result of this war. Gained the following areas: Philippines Guam Puerto Rico


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