Presentation on theme: "Prescribing and Describing Prodi Bahasa Inggris Lecture 2 February 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Prescribing and Describing Prodi Bahasa Inggris Lecture 2 February 2014
Children’s language at home and school At Home : parents more indulgent/permissive of any deviations made by their children (what the child is saying is idiosyncracy/ characteristic
Children’s language at home and school At School: children are expected to use language “correctly” (clearly and properly pronouncing the words, spelling the words correctly, punctuating properly.
Within the school context, what counts to be ‘correct’ is much more complex. dialects regional and social-class varieties of the language (and seldom written down) Do you think the teacher should eliminate these dialectal and national varieties correct the parents as well?
standard form usually used in written communication, taught in school, codified in dictionaries and grammar books. The most controversial aspect involves the relationship of the standard and dialects. HOW???
There is no reason why children cannot grow up knowing both a dialect and the standard form, valuing both both in different ways and using them appropriately according to context
Description vs Prescription Description refers to language used by its people. Prescription refers to language used as it ought to happen
Description vs Prescription Description refers to language used naturally by its people. Prescription refers to language used as it ought to happen No one form is any more or less correct than another
There must be some preexisting notion of what does and does not count as an example. Descriptivists may accept some examples of dialectal forms. Prescriptivists would exclude them.
A linguistic approach to applied linguistics The evolution of a definition of language A. Language is a means of communication. u What is the medium of this means of communication? u Noises in the throat, scribbles on paper, scratches on stone, wigwagging flags, smoke signals, etc. all might "communicate something". u What are the primary means of communication? Written or spoken?
B. Language is a written means of communication. u Mankind was speaking long before the dawn of recorded history. u Great literature was conceived and passed on without the benefit of writing u Many people survive without a writing system. C. Language is a vocal means of communication u Everything we utter is set forth in a meaningful order; in order to have communication, we must have system. D. Language is a vocal system of communication. u How is the system organized? u We must have (a) vocabulary---symbols; (b) grammar grammatical signals.
E. Language is a system of vocal symbols and grammatical signals used for communication. u What is the relation between sound and meaning? u Speakers of a language have all agreed arbitrarily upon the relationship of utterance and concept. F. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols and grammatical signals used for communication. u Language is called upon not only for communication, but also for interaction. G. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols and grammatical signals used for communication, interaction, and cultural transmission. u Who uses this instrument for communication, interaction and transmission?
H. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols and grammatical signals by means of which the members of a speech community communicate, interact, and transmit their culture.