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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Chapter 3: Processes.

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Presentation on theme: "Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Chapter 3: Processes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Chapter 3: Processes

2 3.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Chapter 3: Processes Concept Scheduling Operations Interprocess Communication (IPC) Examples of IPC Systems Communication Client-Server Systems

3 3.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Objectives To introduce the notion of a process To describe the various features of processes scheduling creation termination, and communication To explore interprocess communication shared memory message passing To describe communication in client-server systems

4 3.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition 1. Process Concept Process a program in execution job Multiple parts in a Process Code section Program counter, processor registers Stack Data section Heap  containing memory dynamically allocated during run time Program and Process Passive and active One to one or one to many

5 3.5 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Process in Memory

6 3.6 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Process State Changes during execution new  The process is being created running  Instructions are being executed waiting  The process is waiting for some event to occur ready  The process is waiting to be assigned to a processor terminated  The process has finished execution

7 3.7 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Diagram of Process State

8 3.8 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Process Control Block (PCB) Process state running, waiting, etc Program counter location of instruction to next execute CPU registers contents of all process-centric registers CPU scheduling information priorities, scheduling queue pointers Memory management information memory allocated to the process Accounting information CPU used, clock time elapsed since start, time limits I/O status information I/O devices allocated to process, list of open files

9 3.9 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition CPU Switch From Process to Process

10 3.10 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Threads Each process may have one or more threads See next chapter

11 3.11 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Process Representation in Linux Represented by the C structure task_struct pid t pid; /* process identifier */ long state; /* state of the process */ unsigned int time slice /* scheduling information */ struct task struct *parent; /* this process’s parent */ struct list head children; /* this process’s children */ struct files struct *files; /* list of open files */ struct mm struct *mm; /* address space of this process */

12 3.12 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition 2. Process Scheduling Purpose Maximize CPU usage Process scheduler selects among available processes for next execution on CPU Maintains scheduling queues of processes  Job queue – set of all processes in the system  Ready queue – set of all processes residing in main memory, ready and waiting to execute  Device queues – set of processes waiting for an I/O device Processes migrate among the various queues

13 3.13 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Ready Queue And Various I/O Device Queues

14 3.14 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Representation of Process Scheduling Queuing diagram represents queues, resources, flows

15 3.15 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Schedulers Long-term scheduler Job scheduler Determine process to be brought into the ready queue Invoked in seconds/minutes Controls the degree of multiprogramming Short-term scheduler CPU scheduler Determines the process to be executed next Sometimes the only scheduler in a system Invoked in milliseconds-very fast I/O-bound process Spends more time doing I/O than computations many short CPU bursts CPU-bound process Spends more time doing computations few very long CPU bursts

16 3.16 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Addition of Medium Term Scheduling Medium-term scheduler Applicable only if degree of multiple programming needs to decrease Remove process from memory store on disk bring back in from disk to continue execution: swapping

17 3.17 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Multitasking in Mobile Systems Some systems / early systems allow only one process to run, others suspended Android allows multitasking Run foreground and background, with fewer limits Background process uses a service to perform tasks Service can keep running even if background process is suspended Service has no user interface, small memory use

18 3.18 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Context Switch CPU switch to another process Save the current state Load the saved state Context represented in the PCB Context-switch time Overhead  the system does no useful work while switching The more complex the OS and the PCB  longer the context switch Dependent on hardware support  multiple sets of registers per CPU  multiple contexts loaded at once

19 3.19 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition 3. Operations on Processes System must provide mechanisms process creation Termination ….

20 3.20 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Process Creation Process creation can cause a tree of processes PID is used to identify and manage the Process. Resource sharing Parent and children share all resources Children share subset of parent’s resources Parent and child share no resources Execution Parent and children execute concurrently Parent waits until children terminate

21 3.21 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition A Tree of Processes in Linux

22 3.22 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Process Creation (Cont.) Address space Child duplicate of parent Child has a program loaded into it UNIX examples fork() system call creates new process exec() system call used after a fork() to replace the process’ memory space with a new program

23 3.23 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition C Program forking Separate Process

24 3.24 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Creating a Separate Process via Windows API

25 3.25 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Process Termination Child Process exit() Output data from child to parent (via wait() ) Process’ resources are deallocated by OS Zombie  a process that has completed execution but still has an entry in the process table Orphan  Parent process has finished or terminated Daemon  Background process Parent may abort() children processes Child has exceeded allocated resources Task assigned to child is no longer required If parent is exiting  Some OS do not allow child to continue if its parent terminates  All children terminated - cascading termination Wait for termination, returning the pid: pid t pid; int status; pid = wait(&status);

26 3.26 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Multi-process Browser Regular browsers Ran as a single process One web site crashes  crash entire browser Google Chrome Multi-process browser with 3 categories Browser process  manages user interface, disk and network I/O Renderer process  renders web pages, deals with HTML, Javascript, new one for each website opened  Runs in sandbox restricting disk and network I/O, minimizing effect of security exploits Plug-in process  for each type of plug-in

27 3.27 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition 4. Interprocess Communication Processes within a system l independent l cooperating Cooperating processes Can affect or be affected by other processes, including sharing data Need inter-process communication (IPC)  Shared memory  Message passing

28 3.28 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Communications Models

29 3.29 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Cooperating Processes Advantages Information sharing Computation speed-up Modularity Convenience

30 3.30 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Example of Cooperating Process Producer-Consumer Problem producer process  produces information consumer process  Consumes the information unbounded-buffer  places no practical limit on the size of the buffer bounded-buffer  assumes that there is a fixed buffer size

31 3.31 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Bounded-Buffer – Shared-Memory Solution Shared data #define BUFFER_SIZE 10 typedef struct {... } item; item buffer[BUFFER_SIZE]; int in = 0; int out = 0;

32 3.32 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Producer process item next_produced; while (true) { /* produce an item in next_produced */ while (((in + 1) % BUFFER_SIZE) == out) ; /* do nothing */ buffer[in] = next_produced; in = (in + 1) % BUFFER_SIZE; }

33 3.33 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Consumer process item next_consumed; while (true) { while (in == out) ; /* do nothing */ next_consumed = buffer[out]; out = (out + 1) % BUFFER SIZE; /* consume the item in next_consumed */ }

34 3.34 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Interprocess Communication – Message Passing Mechanism Processes communication and synchronization Via a communication link (implementation)  Physical: shared memory, hardware bus  Logical: direct or indirect; synchronous or asynchronous If P and Q wish to communicate  Set up a communication link first  Exchange messages via Send/Receive Operations send (message) receive (message)

35 3.35 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Implement a communication link n Questions l How are links established? l Can a link be associated with more than two processes? l How many links can there be between every pair of communicating processes? l What is the capacity of a link? l Is the size of a message that the link can accommodate fixed or variable? l Is a link unidirectional or bi-directional?

36 3.36 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Direct Communication Processes must name each other explicitly send (P, message) – send a message to process P receive (Q, message) – receive a message from process Q Properties of communication link Links are established automatically A link is associated with exactly one pair of communicating processes Between each pair there exists exactly one link The link may be unidirectional, but is usually bi-directional

37 3.37 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Indirect Communication n Messages l Exchanged through mailbox l Each mailbox has a unique id Processes can communicate only if they share a mailbox n Properties of communication link l Link established only if processes share a common mailbox l A link may be associated with many processes l Each pair of processes may share several communication links l Link may be unidirectional or bi-directional

38 3.38 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Indirect Communication n Operations l create a new mailbox l send and receive messages through mailbox destroy a mailbox n Primitives l send(A, message)  send a message to mailbox A l receive(A, message)  receive a message from mailbox A

39 3.39 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Indirect Communication n Mailbox sharing l P 1, P 2, and P 3 share mailbox A l P 1, sends; P 2 and P 3 receive Who gets the message? n Solutions l Allow a link to be associated with at most two processes l Allow only one process at a time to execute a receive operation l Allow the system to select arbitrarily the receiver. l Sender is notified who the receiver was

40 3.40 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Synchronization n Message passing l either blocking l or non-blocking n Blocking l Synchronous l Blocking send  the sender block until the message is received l Blocking receive  the receiver block until a message is available n Non-blocking l Asynchronous l Non-blocking send  the sender send the message and continue l Non-blocking receive  the receiver receive a valid message or null

41 3.41 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Synchronization (Cont.) rendezvous both send and receive are blocking Producer-consumer becomes trivial message next_produced; while (true) { /* produce an item in next_produced */ send(next_produced); } message next_consumed; while (true) { receive(next_consumed); /* consume the item in next_consumed */ }

42 3.42 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Buffering n Queue of messages attached to the link n Implemented in one of three ways l Zero capacity  0 messages  Sender must wait for receiver (rendezvous) l Bounded capacity  finite length of n messages  Sender must wait if link is full l Unbounded capacity  infinite length  Sender never waits

43 3.43 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition 5. Examples of IPC Systems - POSIX n POSIX Shared Memory l Process first creates shared memory segment l shm_fd = shm_open(name, O_CREAT | O_RDRW, 0666); l Also used to open an existing segment to share it l Set the size of the object l ftruncate(shm_fd, 4096); l Map it using mmap() l Get the pointer to the memory l Now the process could write to the shared memory l sprintf(shared memory pointer, "Writing to shared memory");

44 3.44 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition IPC POSIX Producer

45 3.45 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition IPC POSIX Consumer

46 3.46 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Examples of IPC Systems - Mach n Mach l communication is message based l system calls are messages l Each task gets two mailboxes at creation- Kernel and Notify l Only three system calls needed for message transfer  msg_send(), msg_receive(), msg_rpc() l Mailboxes needed  for communication, created via port_allocate() l Send and receive are flexible, for example four options if mailbox full:  Wait indefinitely  Wait at most n milliseconds  Return immediately  Temporarily cache a message

47 3.47 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Examples of IPC Systems – Windows n Message-passing l centric via advanced local procedure call (LPC) facility l Only works between processes on the same system l Uses ports (like mailboxes) to establish and maintain communication channels l Communication works as follows:  The client opens a handle to the subsystem’s connection port object.  The client sends a connection request.  The server creates two private communication ports and returns the handle to one of them to the client.  The client and server use the corresponding port handle to send messages or callbacks and to listen for replies.

48 3.48 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Local Procedure Calls in Windows XP

49 3.49 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition 6. Communications in Client-Server Systems (Optional) n Sockets n Remote Procedure Calls n Pipes n Remote Method Invocation (Java)

50 3.50 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Sockets defined as an endpoint for communication Concatenation of IP address and port The socket :1625 refers to port 1625 on host Communication consists between a pair of sockets All ports below 1024 are well known used for standard services Special IP address (loopback) refer to system on which process is running

51 3.51 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Socket Communication

52 3.52 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Sockets in Java Three types of sockets Connection-oriented (TCP) Connectionless (UDP) MulticastSocket class– data can be sent to multiple recipients Consider this “Date” server:

53 3.53 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Remote Procedure Calls Remote procedure call (RPC) abstracts procedure calls between processes on networked systems Again uses ports for service differentiation Stubs client-side proxy for the actual procedure on the server The client-side stub locates the server and marshalls the parameters The server-side stub receives this message unpacks the marshalled parameters, and performs the procedure on the server On Windows stub code compile from specification written in Microsoft Interface Definition Language (MIDL) Data representation handled via External Data Representation (XDL) format to account for different architectures Big-endian and little-endian Remote communication has more failure scenarios than local Messages can be delivered exactly once rather than at most once OS typically provides a rendezvous (or matchmaker) service to connect client and server

54 3.54 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Execution of RPC

55 3.55 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Pipes n Acts as a conduit allow two processes to communicate n Issues l Is communication unidirectional or bidirectional? l In the case of two-way communication, is it half or full-duplex? l Must there exist a relationship (i.e. parent-child) between the communicating processes? l Can the pipes be used over a network?

56 3.56 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Ordinary Pipes Ordinary Pipes allow communication in standard producer-consumer style Producer writes to one end (the write-end of the pipe) Consumer reads from the other end (the read-end of the pipe) Ordinary pipes are therefore unidirectional Require parent-child relationship between communicating processes Windows calls these anonymous pipes See Unix and Windows code samples in textbook

57 3.57 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Named Pipes n Named Pipes are more powerful than ordinary pipes n Communication is bidirectional n No parent-child relationship is necessary between the communicating processes n Several processes can use the named pipe for communication n Provided on both UNIX and Windows systems

58 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition End of Chapter 3


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