Presentation on theme: "DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS"— Presentation transcript:
1DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS A systematic program of exercise involving exertion of force against a load used to develop strength, endurance, and/or hypertrophy of the muscular system.
2SYSTEMS OF TRAINING Isometric Dynamic Constant External Resistance (isotonic): free weight, linear resistanceDynamic Variable Resistance: linear variable resistance, rotary variable resistanceIsokineticPlyometric: stretch-shortening cycle
3Isometric SystemIsometric limitation: difficult to determine if person’s strength improves.Isometric benefits: works well in orthopedic and physical therapy pinpoints an area of weakness.
4Dynamic Constant External Resistance Concentric and eccentric phases with each repetition using weight plates or exercise machines.
5Variable External Resistance: Rotary Heavy CamLight CamExternal resistance altered by use of irregularly shaped cam or pulley to match increases and decreases in force capacity related to joint angle throughout a ROM.
6Isokinetic Training System Isokinetic requires a constant angular limb velocity.Exert maximal force throughout full ROM.Concentric only minimizes potential for muscle & joint injury.
7Plyometric Training System Term plyometric from Latin plyo + metric interpreted to mean “measurable increases.”Plyometric training movements make use of the inherent stretch-recoil characteristics of skeletal muscle and neurological modulation via the myotatic reflex.The stretch-shortening cycle describes the sequence, eccentric-isometric-concentric muscle actions.
9Plyometric Training System Plyometric drill training incorporates body mass and force of gravity to provide rapid pre-stretch or cocking phase, to activate the stretch reflex and muscle’s natural elastic recoil elements.When stretching occurs rapidly, stored elastic energy in muscle fibers, and initiation of myotatic reflex combine to produce a powerful concentric action.
11Plyometric TrainingSix classifications of lower extremity plyometric exercises:Jumps-in-placeStanding jumpsMultiple hops and jumpsBoundingBox drillsDepth jumps
12Plyometric TrainingVery specific in nature but very broad in applicationFor lower extremities, designed to train athlete to develop either vertical or horizontal acceleration.Offensive lineman or crouch start: standing long jump, double leg hops→ horizontal force.Basketball rebound or volleyball spike: depth jump skills→ vertical power.Medicine ball, kettleball, and depth push up activities can train the upper extremities.
15NEEDS ANALYSIS Evaluation of the Sport Movement Analysis: What movement patterns and muscles must be trained?Physiological Analysis: What are needs for muscle strength, power, hypertrophy, and endurance?What are the common sites for joint and muscle injury?What other requirements such as speed, agility, flexibility and cardiovascular endurance are needed?
16Muscle GroupsWhat muscle groups should be trained requires basic analysis of movement.Movement analysis includes examination of:Muscles *Movement velocitiesJoint angles *Forces involvedUnderstand exactly what you are trying to mimic.Principle of specificity overriding rule.
17Muscle ActionMost activities and resistance training programs use several types of muscle action (dynamic concentric, dynamic eccentric, and isometric).Examples.Elite power lifters lower greater resistances slower than less competitive lifters.Wrestling involves many isometric holds.
18Muscle Physiologic Component Determine magnitude of improvement needed for variables such as muscle strength, power, hypertrophy, endurance, balance, agility, speed, coordination, flexibility, and body composition.Improvement in all these variables may not be needed in all cases.Examples. Sports that require high ratio of strength: mass or power: mass – weight classes. Sports that benefit from body mass.
19Primary Sites of Injury “Prehabilitation” preventing initial injury by training the points and muscles that are most susceptible to injury.Prevention of reinjury also an important goal.Resistance training may help prepare systems for more extensive repair activities needed for faster injury recovery.
20NEEDS ANALYSIS Assessment of the Athlete Training Status Physical TestingStrengthFlexibilityPowerSpeedMuscular enduranceBody composition
21BASIC TRAINING PRINCIPLES SpecificityOverloadProgressive OverloadReversibilityTraits
22ACUTE VARIABLES Choice of Exercises Resistance (Loading) Repetitions SetsRest IntervalsFrequency
23Choice of ExerciseSelect exercises that stress muscles & joint angles designated by needs analysis.Core exercises train prime movers in particular movement, are typically major muscle (i.e. chest, shoulder, hip or thigh) exercises, & involve two or more joints.Assistance exercises train predominantly one muscle group that aids in movement by prime movers.
24Choice of ExercisesStructural exercises emphasize loading the spine directly (e.g. back squat) or indirectly (e.g., power clean).Power exercise is a structural exercise that is performed very quickly or explosively.
25Basic Exercises Chest Press Row or Pulldown Overhead Press or Lateral RaiseArm CurlTriceps ExtensionLeg PressLeg ExtensionLeg CurlAbdominal CurlLow Back Extension
26Order of Exercises Large before small Multi-joint before single-joint Normal alternate order is used initially, and then if desired, a stacked order is gradually incorporated (among elite body builders for hypertrophy).Large before smallMulti-joint before single-jointAlternate push-pullAlternate upper and lowerWeak points before strong pointsOlympic before basic strengthPower-type firstMost intense to least intense
27Resistance Resistance Percent of Maximum Strength 85% - 100% of 1 RM Size70% - 85%Endurance50% - 70%
28Repetitions Repetitions Strength Size Endurance 13 to ≥ 20 1 to 5
30Set Systems Single Set System Multiple Set System Super Set System (2 sequential exercises that stress opposite)Compound Set (2 sequential stress same)Bulk SystemCheating SystemForced RepetitionFlushingPyramidNegativeRest-PauseSplitCircuitPeripheral Heart
31Rest Interval Between Sets Rest IntervalsRest Interval Between SetsStrength2 – 5 minutesSize30 – 90 secondsEndurance≤30 seconds
32FrequencyBeginner: 3 days per week; if intensity remains low (<60% 1 RM), proceed to 4-5 days per week after delayed muscle soreness subsidesIntermediate: 3 days per weekAdvanced: 4-6 days per week on split routine
33Progressive OverloadArbitrary Weight Progression: one arbitrarily increases resistance every 3 to 6 training sessions1 RM Testing and Progression: test for 1 RM every 4 to 6 weeks and increase on basis of new maximumsRepetitions: when capable of performing all sets with additional reps, resistance is increased
34PERIODIZATIONPeriodization refers to organizing resistance training into phases of different types of exercise done at varying intensities and volumes for a specific time period.Fractionating the macrocycle (usually one year) into component parts (mesocycles) enables manipulation of training variables to prevent overtraining and provide means to alter the variety of workouts.
35PERIODIZATIONLiving organisms respond to any stressor in similar matter: GAS.Stressor must be altered for stress response to continually change.Hans Selye developed General Adaptation Syndrome.
36Theoretical Construct of Periodization Must be a gradual progressive preparation of muscle & soft tissue for future exposure to greater volumes and higher intensities.There are 2 physiological aspects of muscle strength. Each aspect requires application of different volumes and intensities.Continued high intensity or high volume trg w/o recovery time leads to constant stimulation of nervous & endocrine systems.Increases in strength are larger & more stable when periodization is utilized.
38Periodization Table Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV Sets 3 – 10 Parameters of ExercisePhase IPhase IIPhase IIIPhase IVSets3 – 103 – 53 – 71 – 3Repetitions9 – 155 – 91 – 410 – 15+Intensity40-60%75-85%85-100%<60%VolumeHighModerate/ HighLowPurposePreparation ConditioningFirst TransitionCompetitionActive Recovery
39Periodization SchemeClassic (linear) Model of Periodization
40Periodization Schemes Classical linear to elicit “peak” performance for a precise, narrow time.Reverse linear periodization (inverse) targets local muscular endurance.Undulating (nonlinear) enables variations in intensity & volume within a cycle.• Competitions
41ReferencesChu, Donald A Jumping into Plyometrics, 2nd ed. Human Kinetics.McArdle, William D., Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch Essentials of Exercise Physiology 2nd ed. Image Collection. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Plowman, Sharon A. and Denise L. Smith Digital Image Archive for Exercise Physiology. Allyn & Bacon.