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Presentation on theme: "DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS"— Presentation transcript:

A systematic program of exercise involving exertion of force against a load used to develop strength, endurance, and/or hypertrophy of the muscular system.

Dynamic Constant External Resistance (isotonic): free weight, linear resistance Dynamic Variable Resistance: linear variable resistance, rotary variable resistance Isokinetic Plyometric: stretch-shortening cycle

3 Isometric System Isometric limitation: difficult to determine if person’s strength improves. Isometric benefits: works well in orthopedic and physical therapy pinpoints an area of weakness.

4 Dynamic Constant External Resistance
Concentric and eccentric phases with each repetition using weight plates or exercise machines.

5 Variable External Resistance: Rotary
Heavy Cam Light Cam External resistance altered by use of irregularly shaped cam or pulley to match increases and decreases in force capacity related to joint angle throughout a ROM.

6 Isokinetic Training System
Isokinetic requires a constant angular limb velocity. Exert maximal force throughout full ROM. Concentric only minimizes potential for muscle & joint injury.

7 Plyometric Training System
Term plyometric from Latin plyo + metric interpreted to mean “measurable increases.” Plyometric training movements make use of the inherent stretch-recoil characteristics of skeletal muscle and neurological modulation via the myotatic reflex. The stretch-shortening cycle describes the sequence, eccentric-isometric-concentric muscle actions.

8 Plyometric: stretch- shortening cycle

9 Plyometric Training System
Plyometric drill training incorporates body mass and force of gravity to provide rapid pre-stretch or cocking phase, to activate the stretch reflex and muscle’s natural elastic recoil elements. When stretching occurs rapidly, stored elastic energy in muscle fibers, and initiation of myotatic reflex combine to produce a powerful concentric action.

10 Plyometric Training

11 Plyometric Training Six classifications of lower extremity plyometric exercises: Jumps-in-place Standing jumps Multiple hops and jumps Bounding Box drills Depth jumps

12 Plyometric Training Very specific in nature but very broad in application For lower extremities, designed to train athlete to develop either vertical or horizontal acceleration. Offensive lineman or crouch start: standing long jump, double leg hops→ horizontal force. Basketball rebound or volleyball spike: depth jump skills→ vertical power. Medicine ball, kettleball, and depth push up activities can train the upper extremities.

13 Plyometric Training System


15 NEEDS ANALYSIS Evaluation of the Sport
Movement Analysis: What movement patterns and muscles must be trained? Physiological Analysis: What are needs for muscle strength, power, hypertrophy, and endurance? What are the common sites for joint and muscle injury? What other requirements such as speed, agility, flexibility and cardiovascular endurance are needed?

16 Muscle Groups What muscle groups should be trained requires basic analysis of movement. Movement analysis includes examination of: Muscles *Movement velocities Joint angles *Forces involved Understand exactly what you are trying to mimic. Principle of specificity overriding rule.

17 Muscle Action Most activities and resistance training programs use several types of muscle action (dynamic concentric, dynamic eccentric, and isometric). Examples. Elite power lifters lower greater resistances slower than less competitive lifters. Wrestling involves many isometric holds.

18 Muscle Physiologic Component
Determine magnitude of improvement needed for variables such as muscle strength, power, hypertrophy, endurance, balance, agility, speed, coordination, flexibility, and body composition. Improvement in all these variables may not be needed in all cases. Examples. Sports that require high ratio of strength: mass or power: mass – weight classes. Sports that benefit from body mass.

19 Primary Sites of Injury
“Prehabilitation” preventing initial injury by training the points and muscles that are most susceptible to injury. Prevention of reinjury also an important goal. Resistance training may help prepare systems for more extensive repair activities needed for faster injury recovery.

20 NEEDS ANALYSIS Assessment of the Athlete Training Status
Physical Testing Strength Flexibility Power Speed Muscular endurance Body composition

Specificity Overload Progressive Overload Reversibility Traits

22 ACUTE VARIABLES Choice of Exercises Resistance (Loading) Repetitions
Sets Rest Intervals Frequency

23 Choice of Exercise Select exercises that stress muscles & joint angles designated by needs analysis. Core exercises train prime movers in particular movement, are typically major muscle (i.e. chest, shoulder, hip or thigh) exercises, & involve two or more joints. Assistance exercises train predominantly one muscle group that aids in movement by prime movers.

24 Choice of Exercises Structural exercises emphasize loading the spine directly (e.g. back squat) or indirectly (e.g., power clean). Power exercise is a structural exercise that is performed very quickly or explosively.

25 Basic Exercises Chest Press Row or Pulldown
Overhead Press or Lateral Raise Arm Curl Triceps Extension Leg Press Leg Extension Leg Curl Abdominal Curl Low Back Extension

26 Order of Exercises Large before small Multi-joint before single-joint
Normal alternate order is used initially, and then if desired, a stacked order is gradually incorporated (among elite body builders for hypertrophy). Large before small Multi-joint before single-joint Alternate push-pull Alternate upper and lower Weak points before strong points Olympic before basic strength Power-type first Most intense to least intense

27 Resistance Resistance Percent of Maximum Strength 85% - 100% of 1 RM
Size 70% - 85% Endurance 50% - 70%

28 Repetitions Repetitions Strength Size Endurance 13 to ≥ 20 1 to 5

29 Sets Sets Strength 2 – 6 sets Size 3 – 6 Endurance 2 – 3

30 Set Systems Single Set System Multiple Set System
Super Set System (2 sequential exercises that stress opposite) Compound Set (2 sequential stress same) Bulk System Cheating System Forced Repetition Flushing Pyramid Negative Rest-Pause Split Circuit Peripheral Heart

31 Rest Interval Between Sets
Rest Intervals Rest Interval Between Sets Strength 2 – 5 minutes Size 30 – 90 seconds Endurance ≤30 seconds

32 Frequency Beginner: 3 days per week; if intensity remains low (<60% 1 RM), proceed to 4-5 days per week after delayed muscle soreness subsides Intermediate: 3 days per week Advanced: 4-6 days per week on split routine

33 Progressive Overload Arbitrary Weight Progression: one arbitrarily increases resistance every 3 to 6 training sessions 1 RM Testing and Progression: test for 1 RM every 4 to 6 weeks and increase on basis of new maximums Repetitions: when capable of performing all sets with additional reps, resistance is increased

34 PERIODIZATION Periodization refers to organizing resistance training into phases of different types of exercise done at varying intensities and volumes for a specific time period. Fractionating the macrocycle (usually one year) into component parts (mesocycles) enables manipulation of training variables to prevent overtraining and provide means to alter the variety of workouts.

35 PERIODIZATION Living organisms respond to any stressor in similar matter: GAS. Stressor must be altered for stress response to continually change. Hans Selye developed General Adaptation Syndrome.

36 Theoretical Construct of Periodization
Must be a gradual progressive preparation of muscle & soft tissue for future exposure to greater volumes and higher intensities. There are 2 physiological aspects of muscle strength. Each aspect requires application of different volumes and intensities. Continued high intensity or high volume trg w/o recovery time leads to constant stimulation of nervous & endocrine systems. Increases in strength are larger & more stable when periodization is utilized.

37 Four Phases of Periodization
Expert Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV General Base Load Peak Recovery Ward Conditioning Training Competition Active Rest Stone Hypertrophy Basic Strength Strength/ Power Matveyev Preparation Transition 1 2

38 Periodization Table Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV Sets 3 – 10
Parameters of Exercise Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV Sets 3 – 10 3 – 5 3 – 7 1 – 3 Repetitions 9 – 15 5 – 9 1 – 4 10 – 15+ Intensity 40-60% 75-85% 85-100% <60% Volume High Moderate/ High Low Purpose Preparation Conditioning First Transition Competition Active Recovery

39 Periodization Scheme Classic (linear) Model of Periodization

40 Periodization Schemes
Classical linear to elicit “peak” performance for a precise, narrow time. Reverse linear periodization (inverse) targets local muscular endurance. Undulating (nonlinear) enables variations in intensity & volume within a cycle. • Competitions

41 References Chu, Donald A Jumping into Plyometrics, 2nd ed. Human Kinetics. McArdle, William D., Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch Essentials of Exercise Physiology 2nd ed. Image Collection. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Plowman, Sharon A. and Denise L. Smith Digital Image Archive for Exercise Physiology. Allyn & Bacon.


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