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The End of the War The Last Hundred Days. Stalemate on the Western Front Neither side could win any decisive battles to bring ultimate victory.

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Presentation on theme: "The End of the War The Last Hundred Days. Stalemate on the Western Front Neither side could win any decisive battles to bring ultimate victory."— Presentation transcript:

1 The End of the War The Last Hundred Days

2 Stalemate on the Western Front Neither side could win any decisive battles to bring ultimate victory

3 1917 Russia leaves the war. Germans send their forces to the Western Front. Left because of Russian Revolution

4 The Russian Revolution would lead to the formation of the Communist Party in Russia and later the country would be renamed the USSR by its leader Vladimir Lenin

5 The Americans enter the War!! U.S. finally enters the war in 1917 after the Zimmerman Telegram.

6 In January of 1917, British cryptographers deciphered a telegram from German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmermann to the German Minister in Mexico, von Eckhardt, offering United States territory of Mexico in return for joining the German cause. This message helped draw the United States into the war

7

8 In substitution codes, the letters of the plaintext (message to be put into secret form) are replaced by other letters, numbers, or symbols. In this code system, each letter of the alphabet and each of the numbers from 1 to 9 appears in the matrix of the grid. Each letter in the grid is replaced by two letters in the coded message. The first letter in the message is from the vertical axis of the grid, and the second letter is from its horizontal axis. For example, if "DG" were the first two letters to decipher in a cryptogram, you would find the letter "D" on the vertical axis and the letter "G" on the horizontal axis. Trace them across the grid to their intersection at the letter "A" in the plaintext. To decode the fictitious message in the cryptogram, begin by grouping each set of two letters starting with the first two letters (FG) and continuing through the message. The code letters are arbitrarily arranged in groups of five letters. Some letter pairs will carry over from one line to the next. As you locate each letter in the grid, you should write that letter above the pair of code letters to which it corresponds. There are no punctuation marks in the telegram, so your teacher may need to help you in clarifying the message.

9 Cryptogram FGAFAAAVXADGAVXVADADDVDDDVGA VXVDXDVDDFAFDXGXGDDGAVFDVX VAAFXGDADXVDDXDAVXXV AAAVDAVXDAVVGDDXAVDGDXGXVXVDVFVVAFDXAVAF VXDXVDFDAFXAVVVFAVAFVVVVVADGXVAXAFDGGXFXAFAVV ADGDFVFAXVDVXXFDAVXGDVAAFXGDADXVDVFAVAFVFDGAV AFVXVDAXAFDGXDAFAFVAAADGVVVVXVVDDFVVGDVDAVVXD FVDVXDADXAF AAAFAVDFVVVXVDAVFGFGXFDGVVGDDADFFXV XVDDFFDDX Grid A D F G V X A B 2 E 5 R L D I 9 N A 1 C F 3 D 4 F 6 G G 7 H 8 J 0 K V M O P Q S T X U V W X Y Z

10 February 22, 1917 To: von Eckhardt Mexico City British crack top secret code. U.S. press may leak German plot with Mexico. Prepare to leave embassy on short notice. Bernstorff Washington, D.C

11 By the spring of 1918, Germany realized a crisis had come since the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare did not force Britain to surrender as they had hoped. Germany’s allies Austria-Hungary and Turkey were on the point of collapse.

12 1918, Germany’s only hope was to launch a strong offensive on the Western Front before the U.S. could arrive. By July the German offensive failed without any real breakthrough.

13 In the last hundred days, the Entente moved 130km Hungry and tired German soldiers surrendered to the Canadians and the Allies By November 1918, the Allies had pushed the Germans back almost to Germany and they called for an Armistice and peace talks to end the war

14 The Last Shot Fired! The ARMISTICE (an agreement to end the fighting) had been agreed on to begin on Nov. 11 th, 1918 at 11 a.m. At 10:55 a.m., as Canadian troops walked through Belgium, a single German sniper fired a bullet killing Private George Price He was the last Canadian to be killed in the Great War

15 On June 28, 1919 the Germans signed the Treaty of Versailles, officially ending the war.


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