Three scenarios Systemic corruption: police officers arbitrarily arrest individuals; requesting bribes for their release. Political affiliation: individuals are tortured for their affiliation with corrupt acts; momentum comes from higher in the hierarchy. Institutional failure: Lack of adequate supervision facilitates embezzlement and poor management; deteriorated prison condition leads to ill-treatment.
Mechanisms Complies with regulations provides service/ duty Honours service makes rules; pays salary bribery extortion embezzlement fraud Monopoly + Discretion - Accountability The Lucifer effect Dehumanisation + Deindividuation
Solutions DECREASE the discretion that agents have at their disposal AVOID the concentration of authority INCREASE accountability within the system so that agents are held accountable for their actions INCREASE the salary of penal staffs and the risks of getting caught for malpractice
Concluding remarks Not just a few bad apples Alternative angle to interpret corruption and other malpractices Collaboration will result in more practical achievements