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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 1 Landforms, Water, and Natural Resources Section 1: Landforms Section 2: The Hydrosphere Section.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 1 Landforms, Water, and Natural Resources Section 1: Landforms Section 2: The Hydrosphere Section."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 1 Landforms, Water, and Natural Resources Section 1: Landforms Section 2: The Hydrosphere Section 3: Natural Resources CHAPTER 4

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 2 Objectives: What physical processes inside Earth built up the land? What physical processes inside Earth built up the land? What physical processes on Earth’s surface wear down the land? What physical processes on Earth’s surface wear down the land? How do these physical processes interact to create landforms? How do these physical processes interact to create landforms? Section 1 Landforms

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 3 Plate tectonics create landforms: Earth’s crust is made up of moving plates, which spread, collide, and slide laterally past each other. Section 1 Landforms Spreading plates form oceanic ridges undersea and rift valleys on land. Spreading plates form oceanic ridges undersea and rift valleys on land. Colliding plates cause trenches and volcanoes undersea and mountains on land. Colliding plates cause trenches and volcanoes undersea and mountains on land. Plates sliding laterally cause fractures and earthquakes. Plates sliding laterally cause fractures and earthquakes.

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 4 Forces on Earth’s surface: Weathering and erosion shape the land. weathering—slow and hard to detect; includes chemical and physical processes weathering—slow and hard to detect; includes chemical and physical processes erosion—movement of surface material—by water, wind, and ice—wears down land erosion—movement of surface material—by water, wind, and ice—wears down land Section 1 Landforms

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 5 Tectonics and surface forces interact: Landforms are created through a combination of forces. Landforms are created through a combination of forces. For example, a mountain range is formed by tectonics, then weathered and eroded to create valleys, alluvial fans, deltas, and other landforms. For example, a mountain range is formed by tectonics, then weathered and eroded to create valleys, alluvial fans, deltas, and other landforms. Section 1 Landforms

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 6 Objectives: In what forms and where do we find water on Earth? In what forms and where do we find water on Earth? What are the causes and effects of floods? What are the causes and effects of floods? Section 2 The Hydrosphere

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 7 Water on Earth: Forms Forms saltwater—97 percent of world’s water saltwater—97 percent of world’s water freshwater—most frozen in ice caps; less than 1 percent in vapor and liquid form freshwater—most frozen in ice caps; less than 1 percent in vapor and liquid form Where liquid fresh water is found Where liquid fresh water is found surface water—in rivers, lakes, estuaries, wetlands surface water—in rivers, lakes, estuaries, wetlands groundwater—stored in soil and water table groundwater—stored in soil and water table Section 2 The Hydrosphere

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 8 Floods: Causes—heavy rains, sudden snow melts; human activity may contribute Causes—heavy rains, sudden snow melts; human activity may contribute Effects—erosion, loss of vegetation, death and destruction Effects—erosion, loss of vegetation, death and destruction Section 2 The Hydrosphere

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 9 Objectives: Why are soil and forests important resources? Why are soil and forests important resources? What are the concerns about water quality and air quality? What are the concerns about water quality and air quality? What are some of the ways minerals are used? What are some of the ways minerals are used? What are the main energy resources, and how are they used? What are the main energy resources, and how are they used? Section 3 Natural Resources

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 10 Importance of soil and forests: Soil is crucial for food production. Soil is crucial for food production. Forests protect soil from erosion, provide species habitats, and yield useful products. Forests protect soil from erosion, provide species habitats, and yield useful products. Section 3 Natural Resources

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 11 Concerns about air and water quality: air pollution—threatens air supply, creates acid rain, damages the ozone layer, may contribute to global warming air pollution—threatens air supply, creates acid rain, damages the ozone layer, may contribute to global warming water pollution— threatens clean water supply, contributes to shortages water pollution— threatens clean water supply, contributes to shortages Section 3 Natural Resources

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 12 Minerals Minerals are used in many processes and products, including construction, jewelry, and manufacturing. Minerals are used in many processes and products, including construction, jewelry, and manufacturing. Examples: building materials, airplanes, cans, glass. Examples: building materials, airplanes, cans, glass. Section 3 Natural Resources

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 13 Energy resources Energy resources include fossil fuels—coal, natural gas, petroleum—and uranium. Energy resources include fossil fuels—coal, natural gas, petroleum—and uranium. Uses: Uses: uranium—energy for nuclear power uranium—energy for nuclear power coal—heat source; power for steam engines, mills, electricity generation; dye making coal—heat source; power for steam engines, mills, electricity generation; dye making petroleum—lamp fuel; gasoline, diesel and heating fuel; asphalt, petrochemicals petroleum—lamp fuel; gasoline, diesel and heating fuel; asphalt, petrochemicals natural gas—home and industrial heating; fuel natural gas—home and industrial heating; fuel Section 3 Natural Resources


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