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Landforms, Water, and Natural Resources

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1 Landforms, Water, and Natural Resources
World Geography Today 4/13/2017 CHAPTER 4 Landforms, Water, and Natural Resources Section 1: Landforms Section 2: The Hydrosphere Section 3: Natural Resources Chapter 04

2 Objectives: Section 1 Landforms
What physical processes inside Earth built up the land? What physical processes on Earth’s surface wear down the land? How do these physical processes interact to create landforms?

3 Plate tectonics create landforms:
Section 1 Landforms Plate tectonics create landforms: Earth’s crust is made up of moving plates, which spread, collide, and slide laterally past each other. Spreading plates form oceanic ridges undersea and rift valleys on land. Colliding plates cause trenches and volcanoes undersea and mountains on land. Plates sliding laterally cause fractures and earthquakes.

4 Forces on Earth’s surface:
Section 1 Landforms Forces on Earth’s surface: Weathering and erosion shape the land. weathering—slow and hard to detect; includes chemical and physical processes erosion—movement of surface material—by water, wind, and ice—wears down land

5 Tectonics and surface forces interact:
Section 1 Landforms Tectonics and surface forces interact: Landforms are created through a combination of forces. For example, a mountain range is formed by tectonics, then weathered and eroded to create valleys, alluvial fans, deltas, and other landforms.

6 Objectives: Section 2 The Hydrosphere
In what forms and where do we find water on Earth? What are the causes and effects of floods?

7 Water on Earth: Section 2 The Hydrosphere Forms
saltwater—97 percent of world’s water freshwater—most frozen in ice caps; less than 1 percent in vapor and liquid form Where liquid fresh water is found surface water—in rivers, lakes, estuaries, wetlands groundwater—stored in soil and water table

8 Floods: Section 2 The Hydrosphere
Causes—heavy rains, sudden snow melts; human activity may contribute Effects—erosion, loss of vegetation, death and destruction

9 Objectives: Section 3 Natural Resources
Why are soil and forests important resources? What are the concerns about water quality and air quality? What are some of the ways minerals are used? What are the main energy resources, and how are they used?

10 Importance of soil and forests:
Section 3 Natural Resources Importance of soil and forests: Soil is crucial for food production. Forests protect soil from erosion, provide species habitats, and yield useful products.

11 Concerns about air and water quality:
Section 3 Natural Resources Concerns about air and water quality: air pollution—threatens air supply, creates acid rain, damages the ozone layer, may contribute to global warming water pollution— threatens clean water supply, contributes to shortages

12 Minerals Section 3 Natural Resources
Minerals are used in many processes and products, including construction, jewelry, and manufacturing. Examples: building materials, airplanes, cans, glass.

13 Energy resources Section 3 Natural Resources
Energy resources include fossil fuels—coal, natural gas, petroleum—and uranium. Uses: uranium—energy for nuclear power coal—heat source; power for steam engines, mills, electricity generation; dye making petroleum—lamp fuel; gasoline, diesel and heating fuel; asphalt, petrochemicals natural gas—home and industrial heating; fuel

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