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CHAPTER 24 PETROLEUM A DANGEROUS DEPENDENCE Drilling for answers after an oil rig explosion.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 24 PETROLEUM A DANGEROUS DEPENDENCE Drilling for answers after an oil rig explosion."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 24 PETROLEUM A DANGEROUS DEPENDENCE Drilling for answers after an oil rig explosion

2 A DANGEROUS DEPENDENCE Drilling for answers after an oil rig explosion Learning Outcomes24 At the end of this chapter, you will know: How fossil fuels are formed and why they’re considered non-renewable. Where current oil reserves are located and consequences of extraction. Advantages and disadvantages of unconventional sources of petroleum.

3 A DANGEROUS DEPENDENCE Drilling for answers after an oil rig explosion Main Concept TERMS TO KNOW: Fossil fuels24 Beyond transportation, we depend on fossil fuels for many of the products we use daily. We have become increasingly destructive in our efforts to extract resources from the environment.

4 A DANGEROUS DEPENDENCE Drilling for answers after an oil rig explosion24 The 2010 oil spill in Gulfport, Mississippi, was the largest in history. Researchers from Texas A&M set out to assess the impact of this spill on marine organisms. Case chemistry: Methane, a favorite food of many bacteria in the ocean, makes up about half of the oil’s chemical composition. As bacteria consume the methane and their populations grow, they deplete oxygen, leaving little for other organisms. Researchers in front of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010 Pyrosomes are tropical colonial organisms that can grow 12 feet long. TERMS TO KNOW: Fossil fuels

5 A DANGEROUS DEPENDENCE Drilling for answers after an oil rig explosion24 Fossil fuels form over million of years. Organisms die and are buried in sediment before they can decompose. Pressure and heat causes the organisms to go through chemical transformation into oil, gas, or coal. Marine organisms died and were buried in sediment. Anaerobic conditions slowed decomposition. Partially decomposed biomass in the sediment was subjected to heat and pressure over millions of years. Oil and natural gas move upward in porous rock until stopped by a layer of denser rock. Deposits are extracted by drilling.

6 A DANGEROUS DEPENDENCE Drilling for answers after an oil rig explosion24 Fossil fuels form over million of years. Organisms die and are buried in sediment before they can decompose. Pressure and heat causes the organisms to go through chemical transformation into oil, gas, or coal. Marine organisms died and were buried in sediment. Anaerobic conditions slowed decomposition. Partially decomposed biomass in the sediment was subjected to heat and pressure over millions of years. Oil and natural gas move upward in porous rock until stopped by a layer of denser rock. Deposits are extracted by drilling.

7 A DANGEROUS DEPENDENCE Drilling for answers after an oil rig explosion24 Fossil fuels form over million of years. Organisms die and are buried in sediment before they can decompose. Pressure and heat causes the organisms to go through chemical transformation into oil, gas, or coal. Marine organisms died and were buried in sediment. Anaerobic conditions slowed decomposition. Partially decomposed biomass in the sediment was subjected to heat and pressure over millions of years. Oil and natural gas move upward in porous rock until stopped by a layer of denser rock. Deposits are extracted by drilling.

8 Petroleum is a valuable resource but it has many drawbacks24 TERMS TO KNOW: Nonrenewable resources Oil Petroleum Crude oil Peak oil Reserves Conventional petroleum resources Hydrocarbons (compound of hydrogen and carbon) can be extracted from the Earth as solids, liquids, or as gas. As demand outstrips supply, costs continue to go up. Can we continue at any cost?

9 Petroleum is a valuable resource but it has many drawbacks24 TERMS TO KNOW: Nonrenewable resources Oil Petroleum Crude oil Peak oil Reserves Conventional petroleum resources Peak oil is the point in time when oil will reach its highest production— potential followed by steady decline.

10 Petroleum is a valuable resource but it has many drawbacks24 TERMS TO KNOW: Nonrenewable resources Oil Petroleum Crude oil Peak oil Reserves Conventional petroleum resources Different regions of the world have differing amounts of conventional oil and natural gas reserves. The Middle East has the largest reserves of both oil and natural gas.

11 Petroleum is a valuable resource but it has many drawbacks24 Different regions of the world have differing amounts of conventional oil and natural gas reserves. The Middle East has the largest reserves of both oil and natural gas. Reserves, the amount of a fuel that is economically feasible to extract from a deposit using current technology, are not evenly distributed. This has led to political problems between nations that have or don’t have enough to meet their own needs.

12 Conventional oil reserves are tapped by drilling wells24 Primary production occurs when the natural forces of pressure force oil upward. Only about 5−15% of the oil can be recovered during this phase. As pressure below ground decreases, injection wells nearby are drilled so water can be hosed in to apply more force to the remaining oil. This is secondary production and accounts for 20−40% of the reserve’s oil. Tertiary production is expensive but can extract up to 60% of the remaining oil through injecting steam or CO 2 into the reservoir. Oil is obtained by drilling through layers of dense rock to reach the reservoir below. Pumpjacks are used to increase recovery.

13 Conventional oil reserves are tapped by drilling wells24 Primary production occurs when the natural forces of pressure force oil upward. Only about 5−15% of the oil can be recovered during this phase. Tertiary production is expensive but can extract up to 60% of the remaining oil through injecting steam or CO 2 into the reservoir. Oil is obtained by drilling through layers of dense rock to reach the reservoir below. Pumpjacks are used to increase recovery. As pressure below ground decreases, injection wells nearby are drilled so water can be hosed in to apply more force to the remaining oil. This is secondary production and accounts for 20−40% of the reserve’s oil.

14 Processing oil creates fuels and products24 TERMS TO KNOW: Petrochemicals Crude oil must be distilled or refined to separate the oil into its components. The first compounds to be boiled off are the lightest liquids, such as gasoline. Jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and heavier products like asphalt and fuel oil are recovered last. Crude oil is refined into a variety of chemical products by heating it in a tower. Different-sized carbon compounds vaporize at different temperatures and are collected as separate products.

15 Processing oil creates fuels and products24 TERMS TO KNOW: Petrochemicals Crude oil must be distilled or refined to separate the oil into its components. The first compounds to be boiled off are the lightest liquids, such as gasoline. Jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and heavier products like asphalt and fuel oil are recovered last. Crude oil is refined into a variety of chemical products by heating it in a tower. Different-sized carbon compounds vaporize at different temperatures and are collected as separate products.

16 Processing oil creates fuels and products24 TERMS TO KNOW: Petrochemicals Crude oil must be distilled or refined to separate the oil into its components. The first compounds to be boiled off are the lightest liquids, such as gasoline. Jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and heavier products like asphalt and fuel oil are recovered last. Crude oil is refined into a variety of chemical products by heating it in a tower. Different-sized carbon compounds vaporize at different temperatures and are collected as separate products.

17 Petroleum use comes at a great cost24 Environmental consequences are experienced at every stage of the recovery process. Sound waves cause disorientation, drilling disturbs critical habitat, and spills have devastating long-term impacts.

18 Natural gas is another conventional energy resource24 Natural gas is used in place of oil for generating electricity and heat. Extraction methods for natural gas are similar to those used for oil and, although much cleaner burning than oil, natural gas must also be purified for use. Processes for extracting the deepest reserves are controversial due to the need for injecting fluids with toxic chemicals at high pressure. This process—fracking— imposes high risks of contamination to ground and drinking water, soil, and air. TERMS TO KNOW: Natural gas

19 Natural gas is another conventional energy resource24 TERMS TO KNOW: Natural gas

20 Natural gas is another conventional energy resource24 TERMS TO KNOW: Natural gas

21 Natural gas is another conventional energy resource24 TERMS TO KNOW: Natural gas

22 Unconventional oil resources require different harvesting techniques24 Canada has the world’s largest reservoir of crude bitumen—an unconventional, heavy, black oil. The oil is trapped in sand or clay— tar sands. It is a possible alternative to traditional fossil fuels but with serious environmental consequences. Extraction produces toxins, lakes become filled with acidic wastewater that the oil companies store at the mining site. The mining process also produces more than three times the amount of greenhouse gases than conventional oil and gas production. TERMS TO KNOW: Fracking Unconventional oil reserves Oil shale Oil or tar sands

23 Unconventional oil resources require different harvesting techniques24 Canada has the world’s largest reservoir of crude bitumen—an unconventional, heavy, black oil. The oil is trapped in sand or clay— tar sands. It is a possible alternative to traditional fossil fuels but with serious environmental consequences. Extraction produces toxins, lakes become filled with acidic wastewater that the oil companies store at the mining site. The mining process also produces more than three times the amount of greenhouse gases than conventional oil and gas production. TERMS TO KNOW: Fracking Unconventional oil reserves Oil shale Oil or tar sands

24 Oil consumption drives extraction24 TERMS TO KNOW: Energy security Reserves of nonconventional petroleum deposits exist, but they cost more and are and environmentally damaging to extract. Petroleum deposits exist in a variety of forms.

25 Oil consumption drives extraction24 The United States uses more energy than any other country in the world—tripled in last 50 years. Most of our energy usage comes from coal, petroleum, and natural gas—most of which is imported. China and India are increasing their oil consumption, forcing increased extraction, regardless of consequences. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) “…as long as we keep the driving addiction and the oil addiction that we have in this country, we will be jeopardizing really fertile, fragile ecosystems all around the country—onshore and offshore.” TERMS TO KNOW: Energy security

26 Oil consumption drives extraction24 The United States uses more energy than any other country in the world—tripled in last 50 years. Most of our energy usage comes from coal, petroleum, and natural gas—most of which is imported. China and India are increasing their oil consumption, forcing increased extraction, regardless of consequences. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) “…as long as we keep the driving addiction and the oil addiction that we have in this country, we will be jeopardizing really fertile, fragile ecosystems all around the country—onshore and offshore.” TERMS TO KNOW: Energy security

27 The Deepwater Horizon spill still threatens many marine species24 TERMS TO KNOW: Energy independence Deepwater Horizon - When the spill was finally capped, 4.9 million gallons of oil had surged into the 68,000 square miles surrounding the rig, resulting in declines in sperm whales, blue whales, and beaked whales. Risk of extinction… now.

28 PERSONAL CHOICES THAT HELP24

29 UNDERSTANDING THE ISSUE24

30 24

31 ANALYZING THE SCIENCE24

32 24

33 EVALUATING NEW INFORMATION24

34 MAKING CONNECTIONS24

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