2Wildfires How it forms: Main features: Lightning – 1 out of 5 wildfires start this wayCampfiresCigarettesArsonistsMain features:Spread slowly – burning material on the forest floorSpread rapidly – by the wind, which causes it to jump along the tree topsHelp the fire spreadDrought conditionsWind – gives it oxygen (fuel) and helps it move fasterHigh tempsLow humidity
3Wildfires Most Likely to Occur: Impact on the ecosystem: Every continent except AntarcticaCommon in areas that experiences long hot, dry periodsImpact on the ecosystem:HabitatsWatershed can have the vegetation burned off leaving it prone to erosionAnimals become endangered due to lose of habitatEconomic losses of inhabited areasLandformsCan destroy millions of acresOther impactsBeneficial for maintaining balance; plants growth comes back quickly to burned areaAffects air and water quality, soil composition, vegetation, & wildlife
5Hurricanes How it forms: Main features: Moist, Warm air above the ocean rises and cools forming clouds. The warm and cool air begins to spiral upward causing windConsidered a Hurricane when winds reach 74 mph or moreMain features:High windsTornadoesStorm Surges as it approaches landFlooding from torrential rainsMudslides or landslides
6Hurricanes Most Likely to Occur: Impact on the ecosystem: East Coast Hurricane Season: June 1 to November 30Impact on the ecosystem:HabitatsStructural and functions damage of ecosystemsDestroying animal life and habitatsEconomic losses of inhabited areasLandformsUprooting trees and defoliating vegetationOther impactsDamage could take years to rebuild
8Drought How it forms: Main features: Interruption in the water cycle Long periods of dry weather that last long enough to cause a water shortage
9Drought Most Likely to Occur: Impact on the ecosystem: Anywhere Drier monthsImpact on the ecosystem:HabitatsAdds stress to ecosystemsLandformsCracked surfacesOther impactsCrop failure, livestock death, increased forest fires, energy production, and water shortagesHeat Waves
11Volcanos How it forms: Main features: It is a vent in the Earth which allows molten rocks to escape to the surfaceMain features:Pressure builds up from gases within the magma, then an eruption occursOnce an eruption, the eruption happened the earth goes back to equilibriumEruption can be slow and fairly quiet and violently explosive
12Volcanos Most Likely to Occur: Impact on the ecosystem: Along the plates, near ventsImpact on the ecosystem:HabitatsStructural and functions damage of ecosystemsDestroying animal life and habitatsEconomic losses of inhabited areasCould cause more greenhouse gasesLandformsNew land can be createdAfter the eruption, soil becomes very rich, so plant life returning is highly likelyOther impactsHazards include hot, poison gases, lava flow, land and mudslides, earthquakes, fires, explosions, rockslides, flash flooding, and tsunamisThe Ash can affect breathing, contaminating water supplies, collapse roofs, disrupt machinery, jet engine failure while flying
14Tornados How it forms: Main features: Violently rotating column of air extending from a thunderstormFrom thunderstorms, which is where warm, moist air ahead of eastward-moving cold front. They mix creating hail, wind and tornadosMain features:Wind speeds of 250 mph or moreDamage paths can be in excess of one mile wide and 50 miles longForm to the right or in front of the path a hurricane takes as it comes on land.
15Tornados Most Likely to Occur: Impact on the ecosystem: Between the hours of 3pm to 9pm; but can occur anytimeWinter and Early Spring – which has more strong, frontal systems that form in the Central States and moves eastImpact on the ecosystem:HabitatsDestroy buildings and vegetation. Lose of vegetation can result in soil erosionAny thing in its pathEconomic losses of inhabited areasLandformsUproots treesScour the soil off the ground down to the rockOther impactsKills humans and animalsVegetation that withstood the tornado may grow in abundance in that area which, in turn could hinder animal and plant interaction.
17Earthquakes How it forms: Main features: Vibration of the Earth’s Surface that occurs after a release of energy in the crustCaused by volcanic eruption or movement of segments of the crust or the collision of the tectonic plates.The crust may bend and as the stress builds and exceeds the strength of the rock, it breaks and snaps into a new positionMain features:Shaking of the earth; waves travel outward from the source and the speed of the wave depends on the source and the materials it has to travel through
18Earthquakes Most Likely to Occur: Impact on the ecosystem: Over tectonic plates and fault linesNear volcanosImpact on the ecosystem:HabitatsDestruction of the habitatsLarge cracks in the ground, causing standing bodies of water to disappearProperty damage and loss of lifeLandformsLand of either side of the fault can raise, lower, move away or toward each otherOther impactsLiquefaction of the groundLandslidesAvalanchesFirestsunamis
20Tsunamis How it forms: Main features: Large ocean waves caused by the following:EarthquakesVolcanic eruptionsMeteorite impactUnderwater landslidesMain features:A series of waves that can travel mph in open oceanIn open ocean, Boats do not feel the waves because the wavelength are several hundred miles apart and the amplitude is only a few feet.As they approach land, the speed deceases and the amplitude increases (basically it gets slower and taller)From the starting point, the waves travel outward in all directionsAs the waves approach land, the time in between waves ranges from 5-90 minutesThe first wave is usually not the largest or most destructiveThe water pulls back before the waves arriveThe waves come to shore as a rapidly rising, turbulent surge of debris filled water
21Tsunamis Most Likely to Occur: Impact on the ecosystem: During any seasonAreas of risk are less than 25ft. Above sea level and within one mile of shoreImpact on the ecosystem:HabitatsLoss of habitat or human homesFloodingExtreme DamageLandformsFlooding of estuaries and riversOther impactsContamination of drinking waterFires from broken gas linesDrowning
23Floods How it forms: Main features: Overflowing of water onto normally dry landIntense or long term precipitation from storms, hurricanes, melting snow or iceMain features:Over abundance of water in a lake, river, flood plainThey can last a few minutes or monthsThe amount of flooding is controlled by the amount of water that builds up, how porous the soil is, and the amount of water already in the soil.
24Floods Most Likely to Occur: Impact on the ecosystem: Anywhere Coast FloodplainsImpact on the ecosystem:HabitatsPaving the ground for housesProperty loss or damageTotal destruction of a habitatLandformsRoads and parking lotsAsphalt and concrete is not porousOther impactsContamination of drinking waterDestruction of crop and livestock