19 Firefighters Killed – June 30 th, 2013 Nineteen members of the Granite Mountain Hotshots lost their lives battling the Yarnell Fire Images used under Fair Use Commons – Public Safety Training 7/2/20133www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
Images used under Fair Use Commons – Public Safety Training 19 Firefighters Killed – June 30 th, 2013 7/2/20134www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
19 Firefighters Killed – June 30 th, 2013 Granite Mountain Hot Shot Team Andrew Ashcraft, 29Robert Caldwell, 23Travis Carter, 31 Dustin Deford, 24Christopher MacKenzie, 30Eric Marsh, 43 Grant McKee, 21Sean Misner, 26Scott Norris, 28 Wade Parker, 22John Percin, 24Anthony Rose, 23 Jesse Steed, 36Joe Thurston, 32Travis Turbyfill, 27 William Warneke, 25Clayton Whitted, 28Kevin Woyjeck, 21 Garret Zuppiger, 27 7/2/20135www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
The 19 members of the Granite Mountain Hotshots lost on June 30 th were also structural firefighters. These 19 men were members of the Prescott AZ Fire Department. These 19 men represented over 20% of the PFD. 19 Firefighters Killed – June 30 th, 2013 7/2/20136www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
Other Fatal Wildfires 7/2/20137www.FullyInvolvedFire.com FIRE:YEAR:DEATHS: South Fork Fire - Idaho20038 Firefighters Hayman Fire – Colorado20025 Firefighters Storm King Mountain – CO199414 Firefighters Loop Fire – California196612 Firefighters Inaja Fire – California195611 Firefighters These are just a few examples of large loss fires for firefighters. There are many more examples. Each underscores the importance of our training.
Addressing Dangerous Mindsets: The large dangerous fires only happen out West. I’m an East Coast firefighter. That can’t happen to me. Those were all wildland firefighters. I am a structural firefighter. That can’t happen to me. 7/2/20138www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
Firefighter Fatalities at Wildfires: 7/2/20139www.FullyInvolvedFire.com NIOSH Report Number: F2011-09 NIOSH Report Number: F2011-09 Volunteer fire fighter dies and 5 volunteer fire fighters are injured during wildland urban interface fire in Texas. Attack 5 was overrun by the fire crossing CR323 from east to west.. (Photo courtesy of the Texas Forest Service.) April 15 th, 2011
Firefighter Fatalities at Wildfires: 7/2/201310www.FullyInvolvedFire.com NIOSH Report Number: F2006-10 NIOSH Report Number: F2006-10 On March 1, 2006, a volunteer fire fighter (the victim) was critically injured and another volunteer fire fighter was seriously injured while fighting a wildland/urban interface fire in Oklahoma. The fire burned over their position, destroying the grass truck, critically injuring the victim, and seriously injuring the fire fighter March 1, 2006
Firefighter Fatalities at Wildfires: 7/2/201311www.FullyInvolvedFire.com NIOSH Report Number: F2003-36 NIOSH Report Number: F2003-36 On October 29, 2003, a 38-year-old male career fire fighter (the victim) was killed and a 48-year-old male career Captain was severely injured when fire overran their position. The incident occurred during the protection of a residential structure during a wildland fire operation October 29, 2003
Firefighter Fatalities at Wildfires: 7/2/201312www.FullyInvolvedFire.com NIOSH Report Number: 99-F14 NIOSH Report Number: 99-F14 Two Volunteer Fire Fighters Die While Fighting a Wildland Fire – Kentucky. The firefighters died trying to outrun the fire. As the fire grew in intensity and spot fires continued to break over the fire line, the two victims became separated from the rest of the crew. April 06, 1999
Addressing Dangerous Mindsets: Operating in the Urban Interface presents other unique challenges that can kill or injure firefighters. 7/2/201313www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
Firefighter Fatalities at Wildfires: 7/2/201314www.FullyInvolvedFire.com NIOSH Report Number: F2010-15 NIOSH Report Number: F2010-15 Volunteer Fire Chief Killed When Rubber-Tracked Vehicle Overturns at Brush Fire – Washington The vehicle rolled at least 3 times before coming to rest on the driver’s side, facing west, pinning the Fire Chief beneath the vehicle’s canopy. June 23, 2010
Firefighter Fatalities at Wildfires: 7/2/201315www.FullyInvolvedFire.com NIOSH Report Number: F2008-14 NIOSH Report Number: F2008-14 Volunteer Fire Chief and Fire Fighter Killed when their Engine plummeted from a Fire-Damaged Wooden Bridge Into a Dry Creek Bed – Colorado Key contributing factors identified in this investigation include: excessive speed for reduced visibility/smoke conditions April 15, 2008
Firefighter Fatalities at Wildfires: 7/2/201316www.FullyInvolvedFire.com NIOSH Report Number: F2000-25 NIOSH Report Number: F2000-25 A volunteer fire fighter died and a second was seriously injured after fuel tank explosion in Iowa. The incident occurred at a grass fire that spread to structures. April 07, 2000
Firefighter Fatalities at Wildfires: 7/2/201317www.FullyInvolvedFire.com NIOSH Report Number: 99-F46 NIOSH Report Number: 99-F46 Fire fighter dies after coming into contact with a downed power line at a wildfire - Arkansas. The victim was stomping out embers in the smoldering brush when he was electrocuted by a downed power line. November 3, 1999
Addressing Dangerous Mindsets: Dangers to structural firefighters responding to and battling wildfires are real! These dangers include far more than the threat of burnover: Power Lines, Structural Collapse, Vehicle Accidents and more… 7/2/201318www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
Addressing Dangerous Mindsets: In Florida and other areas of high heat, heat stroke and heat exhaustion are very real threats. Especially if firefighters are wearing structural gear at wildland incidents. There are numerous LODD events involving heat stroke of firefighters at various types of incidents. This threat is very real for wildfires. 7/2/201319www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
Addressing Dangerous Mindsets: It can happen to structural firefighters! It can happen in any part of the country! It can happen to any of us! 7/2/201320www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
Protecting Ourselves and Being Safe 10 Standard Fire Orders 18 Watchout Situations L.A.C.E.S. 7/2/201321www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
10 Standard Fire Orders The original ten Standard Firefighting Orders were developed in 1957 by a task force. The Standard Firefighting Orders were based in part on the successful "General Orders" used by the United States Armed Forces. The Standard Firefighting Orders are organized in a deliberate and sequential way to be implemented systematically and applied to ALL fire situations. -US Forest Service 7/2/201322www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
10 Standard Fire Orders 1)Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts. During your initial briefing fire weather should be addressed. If it is not, ASK! Remain alert of weather conditions and changes in forecast during fire operations. 7/2/201323www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
10 Standard Fire Orders 2) Know what your fire is doing at all times. Be aware of fire conditions. Remain alert to how the fire is burning and where it is burning. 7/2/201324www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
10 Standard Fire Orders 3) Base all actions on current and expected behavior of the fire. Recognize fuels and anticipate fire changes. Be prepared for weather changes that may change fire behavior. 7/2/201325www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
10 Standard Fire Orders 4) Identify escape routes and safety zones and make them known. During your crew briefing safe zones and escape routes should be identified. In the urban interface this could include previously burnt areas, large parking lots, bodies of water, and even swimming pools. If safe zones and escape routes are not identified, ASK! 7/2/201326www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
10 Standard Fire Orders 5) Post lookouts when there is possible danger. Lookouts can help recognize fire changes and alert crews. For structural crews operating in the urban interface buildings and other obstructions often prevent firefighters from seeing the fire. In addition, lookouts can help firefighters be alert for other hazards such as power lines. 7/2/201327www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
10 Standard Fire Orders 6) Be alert. Keep calm. Think clearly. Act decisively. It is critical to remain calm, identify threats, and respond accordingly. We must be thinking firefighters not heroes that blindly charge in. 7/2/201328www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
10 Standard Fire Orders 7) Maintain prompt communications with your forces, your supervisor, and adjoining forces. Communication is critical. Respond immediately to messages, speak clearly, and report changes or hazards you observe. 7/2/201329www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
10 Standard Fire Orders 8) Give clear instructions and insure they are understood. Ensure all messages are understood. When receiving messages, briefly repeat your orders back to confirm you correctly understood. 7/2/201330www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
10 Standard Fire Orders 9) Maintain control of your forces at all times. In structural firefighting we would not separate a two person crew to search two floors of a building. In wildfires, follow the same crew integrity rules. We leave the asphalt together. We return to the asphalt together. 7/2/201331www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
10 Standard Fire Orders 10) Fight fire aggressively, having provided for safety first. Remember to evaluate the risk vs. gain. PROVIDE FOR SAFETY ABOVE ALL ELSE!!! 7/2/201332www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
18 Watchouts Situations Shortly after the Standard Firefighting Orders were incorporated into firefighter training, the 18 Situations That Shout “Watch Out!” were developed. These 18 situations are more specific and cautionary than the Standard Fire Orders and describe situations that expand the 10 points of the Fire Orders. If firefighters follow the Standard Firefighting Orders and are alerted to the 18 Watch Out Situations, much of the risk of firefighting can be reduced. -US Forest Service 7/2/201333www.FullyInvolvedFire.com
1 - Fire not scouted and sized up. 2 - In country not seen in daylight. 3 - Safety zones and escape routes not identified. 7/2/201334www.FullyInvolvedFire.com 18 Watchouts Situations
4 - Unfamiliar with weather and local factors influencing fire behavior. 5- Uninformed on strategy, tactics, and hazards. 6 - Instructions and assignments not clear. 7/2/201335www.FullyInvolvedFire.com 18 Watchouts Situations
7 - No communication link with crewmembers/supervisors. 8 - Constructing line without safe anchor point. 9 - Building fireline downhill with fire below. 7/2/201336www.FullyInvolvedFire.com 18 Watchouts Situations
10 - Attempting frontal assault on fire. 11 - Unburned fuel between you and the fire. 12 - Cannot see main fire, not in contact with anyone who can. 7/2/201337www.FullyInvolvedFire.com 18 Watchouts Situations
13 - On a hillside where rolling material can ignite fuel below. 14 - Weather is getting hotter and drier. 15 - Wind increases and/or changes direction. 7/2/201338www.FullyInvolvedFire.com 18 Watchouts Situations
16 - Getting frequent spot fires across line. 17 - Terrain and fuels make escape to safety zones difficult. 18 - Taking a nap near the fire line. 7/2/201339www.FullyInvolvedFire.com 18 Watchouts Situations
If firefighters follow the Standard Firefighting Orders and are alerted to the 18 Watch Out Situations, much of the risk of firefighting can be reduced. 7/2/201340www.FullyInvolvedFire.com Together these are the 10 & 18
It is not easy to remember the 10 & 18. The 10 & 18 should be reviewed often. To help condense the 10 & 18 use LACES. 7/2/201341www.FullyInvolvedFire.com Together these are the 10 & 18
LACES was established to consolidate down to five. The theory was the belief that under stressful circumstances human beings could only remember four to six key fundamental learned behaviors. 7/2/201342www.FullyInvolvedFire.com L.A.C.E.S.
L - LOOKOUTS A - ANCHOR POINTS C – COMMUNICATIONS E – ESCAPE ROUTES S – SAFETY ZONES 7/2/201343www.FullyInvolvedFire.com L.A.C.E.S.
7/2/201344www.FullyInvolvedFire.com L.A.C.E.S. L) LOOKOUTS: A competent and trusted person located in an advantageous position who has the responsibility of watching for potential fire problems and then relating the situation to the their supervisor. In mountain terrain, that could be one person situated on an opposite slope and watching for an uphill run. Other lookout sources that can be used are: aircraft pilots, fire tower operators or possibly one person on a crew assigned the job of watching a specific hazard.
7/2/201345www.FullyInvolvedFire.com L.A.C.E.S. A) ANCHOR POINTS An advantageous location, usually a barrier to fire spread, from which to start building a fire break or line. If done properly this will prohibit fire from establishing itself on the other side of an unsuspecting crew who could end up being surrounded with little chance for escape. An example of an anchor point could be a river, road, location without fuels or using a second crew to produce line in the opposite direction.
7/2/201346www.FullyInvolvedFire.com L.A.C.E.S. C) Communications Can be provided in several forms: Face to Face, written Incident Action Plan, Briefing sessions, use of a Radio or Cell phone (if available). Crews are dependent on a variety of people to help ensure their safety because they will be concentrating on their job and may not be able to spot fire problems until too late. Information must be communicated to everyone concerned with the intent that it is known before an incident can occur.
7/2/201347www.FullyInvolvedFire.com L.A.C.E.S. E) Escape Routes A pre-determined route that can be used by anyone in the event that fire begins an unexpected run that will jeopardize the safety of crews or anyone else on the fire line. The escape route will take everyone to another pre-determined location (safety zone). Some consideration when establishing the escape route: should be able to walk it, should be marked (flagging tape), should be timed, should be away from the head of the fire, should be known to all, should be scouted.
7/2/201348www.FullyInvolvedFire.com L.A.C.E.S. S) Safety Zones Safety zones where a firefighter may find refuge from danger. Clean sites that are clear of vegetation (natural or man-made). Considerations when establishing a site are: How long will it take to get there? Is it large enough for everyone? Will fire behavior (intensity) adversely effect occupants? Are there any other hazards (snags, rolling rocks)? Does everyone know where they are?
L - LOOKOUTS A - ANCHOR POINTS C – COMMUNICATIONS E – ESCAPE ROUTES S – SAFETY ZONES 7/2/201349www.FullyInvolvedFire.com L.A.C.E.S.
Remember LACES on every fire! 7/2/201350www.FullyInvolvedFire.com L.A.C.E.S.
LACES should be committed to memory and used at all fires. In addition the 10 & 18 should be reviewed often. 7/2/201351www.FullyInvolvedFire.com Together these are the 10 & 18
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