Important GHG Terms Anthropogenic Emissions: Man-made emissions (e.g., fossil fuels combustion) Add new CO2 (and other GHGs) to atmosphere; not part of natural carbon cycle Biogenic Emissions: CO2 emissions only Part of natural closed loop carbon cycle Not considered new emissions to atmosphere
Recycling rate impact 1 ton bottles 1 ton paper 1 ton food 1 ton wood 1 ton cans 1 ton carpet 1 ton grass = 1 ton diverted
Greenhouse Gas emission impact = ? mmt CO2e 1 ton bottles 1 ton paper 1 ton food 1 ton wood 1 ton cans 1 ton carpet 1 ton grass
Waste Reduction Model (WARM) WARM can quantify and communicate GHG Benefits Metric tons of Carbon Equivalent (MTCE) Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (MTCO2E) Energy benefits – British Thermal Units (BTU) www.epa.gov/warm
WARM Background The primary application of WARM is to support materials-related decision-making in the context of climate change. WARM compares the emissions and offsets resulting from a material in a baseline and an alternative management pathway in order to provide decision- makers with comparative emission results. WARM does not include emissions from the use phase of a product’s life, since use does not have an effect on the waste management emissions of a product.
WARM Formula The general formula for net GHG emissions for each scenario modeled in WARM: Net GHG emissions = Gross manufacturing GHG emissions - (Increase in carbon stocks + Avoided utility GHG emissions)
Materials Management Decisions Affecting GHG Reduction: Energy consumption (specifically combustion of fossil fuels) and the resulting GHG emissions associated with material extraction, manufacturing, transporting, and end-of-life management of the material or product. Non-energy-related manufacturing emissions, such as the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) released when limestone used in steel manufacturing is converted to lime, or the perfluorocarbons (PFCs) generated during the aluminum smelting process.
Materials Management Decisions Affecting GHG Reduction: Methane (CH 4 ) emissions from decomposition of organic materials in landfills. CO 2 and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from waste combustion. Carbon sequestration and storage, which refer to natural or manmade processes that remove carbon from the atmosphere and store it for long periods or permanently.
Streamlined Life Cycle Methodology Begins at a “waste generation” reference point Focus on GHGs emitted, carbon stored, or utility energy displaced at following stages: Raw material acquisition (upstream) Manufacturing (upstream) Waste management (downstream) Transportation of raw material and waste
Emission Factors Developed for: Source reduction Recycling Composting Combustion Landfilling 26 material types and 6 categories of mixed materials (paper, metals, plastics, organics, MSW, and recyclables)
http://epa.gov/epawaste/conserve/tools/warm/SWMGHGreport.html Documentation explains the calculation of emission factors by material type, or group of materials, arranged into individual chapters Chapter-based, material-focused formats provide detailed and up-to-date information about the WARM emission factors Several Background Documents are available that provide additional useful information pertaining to the WARM emission factorsBackground Documents
Documentation for WARM Greenhouse Gas Emission and Energy Factors Asphalt Concrete Asphalt Shingles Carpet Clay Bricks Concrete Drywall Fiberglass Insulation Fly Ash Glass Metals Organics Paper Products Personal Computers Polylactide (PLA) Biopolymers Plastics Tires Vinyl Flooring Wood Flooring Wood Products