Evaporation Transfer of H 2 O from liquid to vapor phase –Diffusive process driven by Saturation (vapor density) gradient ~ ( s – a ) Aerial resistance ~ f(wind speed, temperature) Energy to provide latent heat of vaporization (radiation) Transpiration is plant mediated evaporation –Same result (water movement to atmosphere) Summative process = evapotranspiration (ET) –Dominates the fate of rainfall ~ 95% in arid areas ~ 70% for all of North America
Evapo-Transpiration ET is the sum of –Evaporation: physical process from free water Soil Plant intercepted water Lakes, wetlands, streams, oceans –Transpiration: biophysical process modulated by plants (and animals) Controlled flow through leaf stomata Species, temperature and moisture dependent
Four Requirements for ET Vapor Pressure Gradient Energy Water Wind NP TP
Energy Inputs Radiation Budget –R total = Total Solar Radiation Inputs on a horizontal plane at the Earth’s Surface –R net = R total – reflected radiation = R total * (1 – albedo) –Albedo (α) values Snow 0.9 Hardwoods 0.2 Water 0.05 Flatwoods pine plantation 0.15 Flatwoods clear cut ____ Burn ____ Asphalt 0.05
Energy and Temperature The simplest conceptualization of the ET process focuses solely on temperature. –Blaney-Criddle Method: ET = p * (0.46*T mean + 8) –Where p is the mean daytime hours –T mean is the mean daily temp (Max+Min/2) –ET (mm/day) is treated as a monthly variable
Vapor Deficit Drives the Process Distance between actual conditions and saturation line –Greater distances = larger evaporative potential Slope of this line ( ) is an important term for ET models –Usually measured in mbar/°C –Graph shows mass water per mass air as a function of T
Wind Boundary layer saturates under quiescent conditions –Inhibits further ET UNLESS air is replaced Turbulence at boundary layer is therefore necessary to ensure a steady supply of undersaturated air
Water Availability: PET vs. AET PET (potential ET) is the expected ET if water is not limiting –Given conditions of: w ind, Temperature, Humidity AET (actual ET) is the amount that is actually abstracted (realizing that water may be limiting) –AET = * PET –Where is a function of soil moisture, species, climate ET:PET is low in arid areas due to water limitation ET ~ PET in humid areas due to energy limitation
Methods of Estimating ET Since ET is the largest flux OUT of the watershed, we need good estimates Techniques have focused mostly on predicting capacity (i.e., PET, where water is not limiting) –energy balance methods –mass transfer or aerodynamic methods –combination of energy and mass transfer (Penman equation) –pan evaporation data
Evaporation from a Pan National Weather Service Class A type Installed on a wooden platform in a grassy location Filled with water to within 2.5 inches of the top Evaporation rate is measured by manual readings or with an analog output evaporation gauge Mass balance equation Pans measure more evaporation than natural water bodies because: –1) less heat storage capacity (smaller volume) –2) heat transfer –3) wind effects
Diurnal Water Level Variation (White, 1932) Diel variation in water level yields ET (during the day) and net groundwater flux (at night) Curiously, not widely used
Actual Diurnal Data Nighttime slope is groundwater flow (inflow is UP, outflow is DOWN) Assuming constant GW flow, daytime slope is ET + GW. Specific yield (S y )
What is Specific Yield? How much water (in units of cm) drains out of a soil; also called dynamic drainable porosity
Energy Balance Method Assumes energy supply the limiting factor. Consider energy balance on a small lake with no water inputs (or evaporation pan) heat stored in system sensible heat transfer to air HsHs RnRn QeQe G net radiation energy used in evaporation heat conducted to ground (typically neglected)
Energy Budget Energy in = Energy out (conservation law) –Energy In = R total –Energy Out Albedo Latent Heat Sensible Heat Soil Heat Flux If R total = 800 cal/cm 2 /day and = 0.25 R net = 800 * (1 – 0.25) = 600 cal/cm 2 /day
Energy Budget Estimates of ET R net = E + H + G –We want to know E E = (R net – (H+G))/ What are evaporative losses if: – R total = 800 cal/cm 2 /day – Albedo = 0.2 – = 586 cal/g – H = 100 cal/cm 2 /d (convected heat) – G = 50 cal/cm 2 /d (soil heating)
R tot = 800 cal/cm/d Albedo = 0.2 =586 cal/g H = 100 cal/cm/d lost G = 50 cal/cm/d lost to ground Static Computation R net = E + H + G = 800 * (1 – 0.2) = 640 640 = (586*E) + 100 + 50 E = 0.84 cm/d Annual ET = 0.84 * 365 * 1 m/100 cm = 3.07 m
Mass Transfer (Aerodynamic) Method Assumes that rate of turbulent mass transfer of water vapor from evaporating surface to atmosphere is limiting factor Mass transfer is controlled by (1) vapor gradient (e s – e) and (2) wind velocity (u) which determines rate at which vapor is carried away.
Combination Method (Penman) Evaporation can be estimated by aerodynamic method (E a ) when energy supply not limiting and energy method (E r ) when vapor transport not limiting Typically both factors limiting so use combination of above methods Weighting factors sum to 1. = vapor pressure deficit = psychrometric constant
Combination Method (Penman) Penman is most accurate and commonly used method if meteorological information is available. –Need: net radiation, air temperature, humidity, wind speed If not available use Priestley-Taylor approximation: Based on observations that second term (advection) in Penman equation typically small in low water stress areas. The α term is crop coefficient that assumes no “advection limitation”. Usually >1 (1.2 to 1.7), suggesting that actual ET is greater than what is predicted from radiation alone.
Time Scales of Variability Controls on ET create variability at scales from seconds to centuries –Eddies change ET at the time scale of seconds –Diel cycles affect water fluxes over 24 hours –Weather patterns affect fluxes at days to weeks Water availability Vapor deficit Wind and energy –Climate variability at decadal and beyond
Total System ET – Ordered Process Intercepted Water Transpiration Surface Water Soil Water Why? Implications for: –Cloud forests –Understory vegetation in wetlands –Deep rooted arid ecosystems
Interception Surface tension holds water falling on forest vegetation. –Leaf Storage Fir 0.25” Pines 0.10” Hardwoods 0.05” Litter 0.20” SP Plantations 0.40”. Interception Loss (% of rainfall) Hardwoods 10-20% (less LAI) Conifers 20-40% Mixed slash and Cypress Florida Flatwoods 20%
Transpiration Plant mediated diffusion of soil water to atmosphere –Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) CO 2 H2OH2O 1 : 300 Transpiration and productivity are tightly coupled Transpiration is the primary leaf cooling mechanism under high radiation Provides a pathway for nutrient uptake and matrix for chemical reactions Worldwide, water limitations are more important than any other limitation to plant productivity
Transpiration Dominates the Evaporation Process Large surface area More turbulent air flow Conduits to deeper moisture sources Hardwood ~80% White Pine~60% Flatwoods ~75% T/ET Trees have:
w soil) -0.1 MPa w (root) -0.5 MPa w (stem) -0.6 MPa w (small branch) -0.8 MPa w (atmosphere) -95 MPa The SPAC (soil-plant-atmosphere continuum)
The driving force of transpiration is the difference in water vapor concentration, or vapor pressure difference, between the internal spaces in the leaf and the atmosphere around the leaf
Transpiration The physics of evaporation from stomata are the same as for open water. The only difference is the conductance term. Conductance is a two step process –stomata to leaf surface –leaf surface to atmosphere
How Does Water Get to the Leaf? Water is PULLED, not pumped. Water within the whole plant forms a continuous network of liquid columns from the film of water around soil particles to absorbing surfaces of roots to the evaporating surfaces of leaves. It is hydraulically connected.
Even a perfect vacuum can only pump water to a maximum of a little over 30 feet. At this point the weight of the water inside a tube exerts a pressure equal to the weight of the atmosphere pushing down > 100 meters So why doesn’t the continuous column of water in trees taller than 34 feet collapse under its own weight? And how does water move UP a tall tree against the forces of gravity?
Water is held “up” by the surface tension of tiny menisci (“menisci” is the plural of meniscus) that form in the microfibrils of cell walls, and the adhesion of the water molecules to the cellulose in the microfibrils cell wall microfibrils of carrot
Cohesion-Tension Theory: (Böhm, 1893; Dixon and Joly, 1894) The cohesive forces between water molecules keep the water column intact unless a threshold of tension is exceeded (embolism). When a water molecule evaporates from the leaf, it creates tension that “pulls” on the entire column of water, down to the soil.
ET = Rain * 0.80ET = Rain * 0.95 1,000 mm * 0.80 = 800 mm 1,000 mm * 0.95 = 950 mm Assume Q & ΔS = 0 G = 200 mm G = 50 mm 4x more groundwater recharge from open stands than from highly stocked plantations. ? G = P - ET NRCS is currently paying for growing more open stands, mainly for wildlife.
Controls on Stand Water Use More leaves per area = more water use Foresters don’t measure LAI Proxies for LAI
A Fair Comparison Pine stands are clear-cut every 20- 25 years (low ET) Compare water yield (Rain – ET) over entire rotation
Ecosystem Service – Water Yield Forest management may yield “new” water Win-win for other forest services Who pays and how much?
Trading Environmental Priorities? Water for Carbon Water for Energy Jackson et al. 2005 (Science)
Surface Water Evaporation Air Temp Air relative humidity Water temp Wind Radiation Water Quality Actual surface water evaporation ~ pan evaporation * 0.7
Soil Water Evaporation Stage 1. For soils saturated to the surface, the evaporation rate is similar to surface water evaporation. Stage 2. As the surface dries out, evaporation slows to a rate dependent on the capillary conductivity of the soil. Stage 3. Once pore spaces dry, water loss occurs in the form of vapor diffusion. Vapor diffusion requires more energy input than capillary conduction and is much, much, slower. Note that for soils under a forest canopy, R net, vapor pressure deficit, and turbulent transport (wind) are lower than for exposed soils.
Forest Soil Soil water loss with different cover