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Water Budget II: Evapotranspiration

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Presentation on theme: "Water Budget II: Evapotranspiration"— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Budget II: Evapotranspiration
P = Q + ET + G + ΔS


3 Evaporation Transfer of H2O from liquid to vapor phase
Diffusive process driven by Saturation (vapor density) gradient ~ (rs – ra) Aerial resistance ~ f(wind speed, temperature) Energy to provide latent heat of vaporization (radiation) Transpiration is plant mediated evaporation Same result (water movement to atmosphere) Summative process = evapotranspiration (ET) Dominates the fate of rainfall ~ 95% in arid areas ~ 70% for all of North America

4 Evapo-Transpiration ET is the sum of Evaporation: physical process
from free water Soil Plant intercepted water Lakes, wetlands, streams, oceans Transpiration: biophysical process modulated by plants (and animals) Controlled flow through leaf stomata Species, temperature and moisture dependent

5 Four Requirements for ET
Energy Water NP Vapor Pressure Gradient Wind TP

6 3850 zettajoules per year NASA

7 Energy Inputs Radiation Budget
Rtotal = Total Solar Radiation Inputs on a horizontal plane at the Earth’s Surface Rnet = Rtotal – reflected radiation = Rtotal * (1 – albedo) Albedo (α) values Snow 0.9 Hardwoods 0.2 Water 0.05 Flatwoods pine plantation 0.15 Flatwoods clear cut ____ Burn ____ Asphalt 0.05

8 Energy and Temperature
The simplest conceptualization of the ET process focuses solely on temperature. Blaney-Criddle Method: ET = p * (0.46*Tmean+ 8) Where p is the mean daytime hours Tmean is the mean daily temp (Max+Min/2) ET (mm/day) is treated as a monthly variable

9 Vapor Deficit Drives the Process
Distance between actual conditions and saturation line Greater distances = larger evaporative potential Slope of this line (d) is an important term for ET models Usually measured in mbar/°C Graph shows mass water per mass air as a function of T

10 Wind Boundary layer saturates under quiescent conditions
Inhibits further ET UNLESS air is replaced Turbulence at boundary layer is therefore necessary to ensure a steady supply of undersaturated air

11 Water Availability: PET vs. AET
PET (potential ET) is the expected ET if water is not limiting Given conditions of: wind, Temperature, Humidity AET (actual ET) is the amount that is actually abstracted (realizing that water may be limiting) AET = a * PET Where a is a function of soil moisture, species, climate ET:PET is low in arid areas due to water limitation ET ~ PET in humid areas due to energy limitation

12 Methods of Estimating ET
Since ET is the largest flux OUT of the watershed, we need good estimates Techniques have focused mostly on predicting capacity (i.e., PET, where water is not limiting) energy balance methods mass transfer or aerodynamic methods combination of energy and mass transfer (Penman equation) pan evaporation data

13 Evaporation from a Pan Mass balance equation
Pans measure more evaporation than natural water bodies because: 1) less heat storage capacity (smaller volume) 2) heat transfer 3) wind effects National Weather Service Class A type Installed on a wooden platform in a grassy location Filled with water to within 2.5 inches of the top Evaporation rate is measured by manual readings or with an analog output evaporation gauge

14 Diurnal Water Level Variation (White, 1932)
Diel variation in water level yields ET (during the day) and net groundwater flux (at night) Curiously, not widely used

15 Actual Diurnal Data Nighttime slope is groundwater flow (inflow is UP, outflow is DOWN) Assuming constant GW flow, daytime slope is ET + GW. Specific yield (Sy)

16 What is Specific Yield? How much water (in units of cm) drains out of a soil; also called dynamic drainable porosity

17 Energy Balance Method Assumes energy supply the limiting factor.
Consider energy balance on a small lake with no water inputs (or evaporation pan) heat stored in system sensible heat transfer to air Hs Rn Qe G net radiation energy used in evaporation heat conducted to ground (typically neglected)

18 Energy Budget Energy in = Energy out (conservation law)
Energy In = Rtotal Energy Out Albedo Latent Heat Sensible Heat Soil Heat Flux If Rtotal = 800 cal/cm2/day and a = 0.25 Rnet = 800 * (1 – 0.25) = 600 cal/cm2/day

19 Energy Budget Estimates of ET
Rnet = lE + H + G We want to know E E = (Rnet – (H+G))/l What are evaporative losses if: Rtotal = 800 cal/cm2/day Albedo = 0.2 l = 586 cal/g H = 100 cal/cm2/d (convected heat) G = 50 cal/cm2/d (soil heating)

20 Static Computation Rnet = lE + H + G = 800 * (1 – 0.2) = 640
E = 0.84 cm/d Annual ET = 0.84 * 365 * 1 m/100 cm = 3.07 m Rtot = 800 cal/cm/d Albedo = 0.2 l =586 cal/g H = 100 cal/cm/d lost G = 50 cal/cm/d lost to ground

21 Energy Budget – Bowen Ratio
b = H/lE G

22 Mass Transfer (Aerodynamic) Method
Assumes that rate of turbulent mass transfer of water vapor from evaporating surface to atmosphere is limiting factor Mass transfer is controlled by (1) vapor gradient (es – e) and (2) wind velocity (u) which determines rate at which vapor is carried away.

23 Combination Method (Penman)
Evaporation can be estimated by aerodynamic method (Ea) when energy supply not limiting and energy method (Er) when vapor transport not limiting  Typically both factors limiting so use combination of above methods Weighting factors sum to 1.  = vapor pressure deficit g = psychrometric constant

24 Combination Method (Penman)
Penman is most accurate and commonly used method if meteorological information is available. Need: net radiation, air temperature, humidity, wind speed If not available use Priestley-Taylor approximation: Based on observations that second term (advection) in Penman equation typically small in low water stress areas. The α term is crop coefficient that assumes no “advection limitation”. Usually >1 (1.2 to 1.7), suggesting that actual ET is greater than what is predicted from radiation alone.

25 Time Scales of Variability
Controls on ET create variability at scales from seconds to centuries Eddies change ET at the time scale of seconds Diel cycles affect water fluxes over 24 hours Weather patterns affect fluxes at days to weeks Water availability Vapor deficit Wind and energy Climate variability at decadal and beyond

26 High Resolution ET Observations



29 Total System ET – Ordered Process
Intercepted Water  Transpiration  Surface Water  Soil Water Why? Implications for: Cloud forests Understory vegetation in wetlands Deep rooted arid ecosystems

30 Evapotranspiration has Multiple Components

31 Interception Interception Loss (% of rainfall)
Surface tension holds water falling on forest vegetation. Leaf Storage Fir 0.25” Pines 0.10” Hardwoods 0.05” Litter 0.20” SP Plantations 0.40”. Interception Loss (% of rainfall) Hardwoods 10-20% (less LAI) Conifers 20-40% Mixed slash and Cypress Florida Flatwoods 20%

32 Transpiration Plant mediated diffusion of soil water to atmosphere Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) Transpiration and productivity are tightly coupled Transpiration is the primary leaf cooling mechanism under high radiation Provides a pathway for nutrient uptake and matrix for chemical reactions Worldwide, water limitations are more important than any other limitation to plant productivity CO2 H2O 1 : 300

33 Transpiration Dominates the Evaporation Process
Trees have: Large surface area More turbulent air flow Conduits to deeper moisture sources T/ET Hardwood ~80% White Pine~60% Flatwoods ~75%

34 Cover Evaporation Interception Transpiration Forest 10% 30% 60% Meadow 25% 50% Ag 45% 15% 40% Bare 100%

35 The SPAC (soil-plant-atmosphere continuum)
Yw (stem)  -0.6 MPa Yw (small branch)  -0.8 MPa Yw (atmosphere)  -95 MPa Yw (root)  -0.5 MPa Yw(soil)  -0.1 MPa

36 The driving force of transpiration is the difference in water vapor concentration, or vapor pressure difference, between the internal spaces in the leaf and the atmosphere around the leaf

37 Transpiration The physics of evaporation from stomata are the same as for open water. The only difference is the conductance term. Conductance is a two step process stomata to leaf surface leaf surface to atmosphere

38 Transpiration

39 How Does Water Get to the Leaf?
Water is PULLED, not pumped. Water within the whole plant forms a continuous network of liquid columns from the film of water around soil particles to absorbing surfaces of roots to the evaporating surfaces of leaves. It is hydraulically connected.

40 Even a perfect vacuum can only pump water to a maximum of a little over 30 feet. At this point the weight of the water inside a tube exerts a pressure equal to the weight of the atmosphere pushing down > 100 meters So why doesn’t the continuous column of water in trees taller than 34 feet collapse under its own weight? And how does water move UP a tall tree against the forces of gravity?

41 cell wall microfibrils of carrot
Water is held “up” by the surface tension of tiny menisci (“menisci” is the plural of meniscus) that form in the microfibrils of cell walls, and the adhesion of the water molecules to the cellulose in the microfibrils cell wall microfibrils of carrot

42 Cohesion-Tension Theory:
(Böhm, 1893; Dixon and Joly, 1894) The cohesive forces between water molecules keep the water column intact unless a threshold of tension is exceeded (embolism). When a water molecule evaporates from the leaf, it creates tension that “pulls” on the entire column of water, down to the soil. To understand WHY the pipeline is vulnerable: LOOK AT MECHANISM: COHESION – TENSION – THEORY about 100 yrs ago – proposed independently by Boehm and by Dixon and Joly Transpiration Capillary forces – Tension – NEGATIVE PRESURE Water is pulled up – cohesive forces between water molecules keep the water column together Conduits are dead Class: Tug-of-war – the air pulls on one end, the soil particles on the other end Very simple mechanism and very cheap - driven by the sun Once the pipeline is in place plants don’t have to use energy for water transport What makes the pipeline “vulnerable”? It’s the MAGNITUDE of the NEGATIVE Xylem Pressure

43 ? ET = Rain * 0.80 ET = Rain * 0.95 1,000 mm * 0.95 = 950 mm 1,000 mm * 0.80 = 800 mm Assume Q & ΔS = 0 G = P - ET G = 50 mm G = 200 mm 4x more groundwater recharge from open stands than from highly stocked plantations. NRCS is currently paying for growing more open stands, mainly for wildlife.


45 Controls on Stand Water Use
More leaves per area = more water use Foresters don’t measure LAI Proxies for LAI

46 A Fair Comparison Pine stands are clear-cut every 20-25 years (low ET)
Compare water yield (Rain – ET) over entire rotation

47 Ecosystem Service – Water Yield
Forest management may yield “new” water Win-win for other forest services Who pays and how much?

48 Trading Environmental Priorities?
Water for Carbon Water for Energy Jackson et al (Science)

49 Surface Water Evaporation
Air Temp Air relative humidity Water temp Wind Radiation Water Quality Actual surface water evaporation ~ pan evaporation * 0.7

50 Soil Water Evaporation
Stage 1. For soils saturated to the surface, the evaporation rate is similar to surface water evaporation. Stage 2. As the surface dries out, evaporation slows to a rate dependent on the capillary conductivity of the soil. Stage 3. Once pore spaces dry, water loss occurs in the form of vapor diffusion. Vapor diffusion requires more energy input than capillary conduction and is much, much, slower. Note that for soils under a forest canopy, Rnet, vapor pressure deficit, and turbulent transport (wind) are lower than for exposed soils.

51 Soil water loss with different cover
Forest Soil

52 Rooting Depth Effects Surface 2 months later

53 Next Time… Streamflow

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