2Coarse (A) retained in C.R.(%) Aggregates mixture and design1.3——the method of grading design: trial and error method6.04~813.210.80.0755.08~16—11.60.157.012~2212.40.380518~3016.00.612.024~4122.51.1813.536~5324.02.62.3618.570~8818.104.22.1685~1005.210016mid-value ofEnvelope in C.R.（%）gradingEnvelope in P.Fine (C) retainedin C.R.(%)Medium (B) retainedCoarse (A) retained in C.R.(%)Mesh size（mm）21.048~681.650.54.751.2pan86.8
3Example of Aggregate Mixture Design 64~870.5—0.0751510~209411.00.31615~279723.00.62720~3410036.01.183728~4658.72.364838~5822.214.171.1246252~7293.819.89.582. 575~9061.597. 595~10019.26.5midenvlopeenvelopefillerchipCrushed agg.Objective envelope（%）Passing for each kind aggregate (%）Sieve size（mm）7162~8010034.513.2(65.5)(29)106~1492—0.15
9——Components of Petroleum Asphalt（沥青组分） 2.1——Components of Petroleum Asphalt（沥青组分）Asphalt正庚烷沉淀Asphaltene（沥青质）不可溶解部分Soft Asphaltene（软沥青质）可溶解部分正庚烷冲洗甲苯冲洗甲苯/乙醇冲洗Saturated（饱和分）Aromatics（芳香分）Resin（胶质）
10Petroleum asphalt2.1——Components of Petroleum Asphalt（沥青组分）四组分：饱和分（Saturated）芳香分（Aromatics ）胶质（ Resin ） 沥青质（ Asphaltene ） （ S, Ar, R, As ）
11Petroleum asphalt2.1——Colloid structure of Petroleum Asphalt（沥青的胶体结构）2412414sol-gel typeGel type33sol typeDiagram of Colloid structure of Petroleum Asphalt1- Saturated； 2-Aromatics； Resin； 4-Asphaltene
12Petroleum asphalt 2.1 Colloid structure sol type sol-gel type gel type ——Colloid structure of Petroleum Asphalt（沥青的胶体结构）Colloid structuresol typesol-gel typegel typeP.I<-2-2~+2>+2
13main properties of asphalt Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt——introduction2.2main properties of asphaltphysicalpropertiesViscosity（黏滞性）low temperaturepropertytemperaturesusceptibilityAdhesiveness黏附性密度体积膨胀系数介电常数黏 度稠 度延性脆性针入度指数（PI）Durability耐久性visco-elastic粘弹性
14Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Density 2.2Relative density (25℃/25 ℃)= Asphalt density (15 ℃) ×0.996密度瓶Weigh the following mass successively:1. m瓶2. m瓶+满水3. m瓶+沥青4. m瓶+沥青+水14
15Technical Properties of Petroleum Asphalt 2.2Technical Properties ofPetroleum Asphalt
16银烛秋光冷画屏， 轻罗小扇扑流萤。 天阶夜色凉如水，坐看牵牛织女星。 ——杜牧 Across the screen the autumn moonstares coldly from the sky;With silken fan I sit and flickthe fireflies sailing by,The night grows colder every hour,——it chills me to the heartTo watch the Spinning Damselfrom the herd boy far apart.By Du Mu
17Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Viscosity (黏滞性) 2.2Viscosity means a capability that the particles of asphalt material resist shearing deformation under external force.当得到表征动力粘度的公式：表示沥青层间的速度变化梯度（剪变率）为一个单位时，单位面积沥青可承受的的内磨阻力。动力黏度与密度之比为运动黏度：
18Measurement on viscosity Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt——Viscosity (黏滞性)2.2Viscosity can be measured by different methods.Measurement on viscosity动力黏度（Pa.S）运动黏度（mm2/S）表观黏度（Pa.S）相对黏度真空减压毛细管法毛细管法布洛克菲尔德粘度计法稠 度高温稳定性针入度（0.1mm）软化点（℃）
19Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Relative viscosity: Penetration（针入度）2.2Relative viscosity such as penetration is consistency rather than viscosity actually, which means a standard needle penetrates depth (0.1mm) into the asphalt sample under specified conditions (test temperature 25℃, mass of standard needle 100g, time of penetration 5s). So penetration can be expressed as P25℃,100g,5s.PenetrometerSchematic of penetration testThe lower of penetration value, the higher consistency is.Penetration not only expresses the consistency of asphalt sample, but it is the basis of asphalt grading. The greater of the value of penetration, the higher asphalt grade is.
20Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Relative viscosity: Softening point (软化点)2.2Softening point expresses the specified softening level (℃: TR&B) of asphalt sample when heated under some specified conditions (e.g. rate of temperature: 5℃/min.).The higher softening point, the better of performance at high temperature asphalt is.Softening point can be considered as a temperature under same consistency, while penetration is a consistency under same temperature condition.Schematic of softening point testSoftening point test apparatus
21Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——properties at low temperature: Ductility（延度）2.2Ductility is the total plastic deformation (mm) of asphalt sample when it is stretched under specified condition (e.g. temperature: 15℃ or10 ℃, drawing speed: 5cm/min.).The greater ductility at lower temperature, the better low temperature performance of asphalt is.Test specimenDemonstration of ductility test
22Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Temperature susceptibility（感温性）2.2Asphaltic material may vary from solid to liquid, depending on the temperature. This characteristic is known as temperature susceptibility.Temperature susceptibility can be expressed as penetration index (PI: 针入度指数) and index of penetration and viscosity number (PVN：针入度黏度指数).The former indicates the temperature susceptibility of asphalt under softening point, while the latter indicates the property above the softening pointer.
23Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Temperature susceptibility（感温性）2.2PI can be expressed as:Here:which（A） is coefficient of penetration andtemperature.PI determining(1) When temperature of asphalt is at the softening point, penetration of the asphalt is nearly 800(0.1mm) at this temperature, So
24Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Temperature susceptibility（感温性）2.2(2) Measuring several penetrations under different temperature condition (such as 15℃, 20 ℃, 25 ℃, 30 ℃, etc), through the mathematical regression, the coefficient of penetration and temperature (A) is find out. (Note the regression coefficient should not less than 0.997)(3) Through the monograph to find PI directly.
25Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Temperature susceptibility（感温性）2.2Significance of PIExpressing the degree of temperature susceptibility under softening point;The greater PI, the lower temperature susceptibility of asphalt is;Division types of colloid structure of asphalt:PI<-2, sol typePI>+2, gel typePI= -2~ +2, sol-gel type
26Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Temperature susceptibility（感温性）2.2Equivalent softening point: means the corresponding temperature when penetration is 800(0.1mm), which shows the high temperature performance of asphalt.Equivalent breaking point: the corresponding temperature when penetration is 1.2(0.1mm), which reflects the low temp. performance.
27Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Adhesiveness (黏附性) 2.2When asphalt mixes with aggregate particles, asphalt forms film on the particles. Adhesiveness represents connection degree of this thin film. The higher degree, the better adhesiveness is.Alkali aggregate has better adhesiveness with asphalt than acid agg, which means the better water stability of asphalt mixture is.Evaluation method:Boiling water method for coarse agg;Immersion method for fine agg.
28Technical Properties of Petroleum Asphalt 2.2Technical Properties ofPetroleum Asphalt
29Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Durability (耐久性) 2.2Influence factors on durability of asphalt:temperatureoxidationultraviolet raywaterhardeningEvaluation methodsthin film oven test（TFOT）: for short-term agingrotation thin film oven test (RTFOT): for short-term aging, especially for modified asphaltpressure aging vessel (PAV): for long-term agingEvaluation indexesmass losspenetration ratioresidual ductility薄膜烘箱(Thin film oven test)压力老化箱(Pressure aging vessel)旋转薄膜烘箱(Rotate thin film oven test)
30Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Visco-elastic property (黏弹性) 2.2Asphalt is a typical visco-elastic material, which means asphalt shows viscosity property under low temperature condition while shows elastic property under high temperature condition.This kind special property can be expressed by the stiffness modulus. This modulus is related not only with stress and strain, but with temperature and loading time.Stiffness of asphalt can be read from the nomograph.
312.2 Technical Property of Petroleum Asphalt ——Visco-elastic property (黏弹性)2.2Nomograph of asphalt stiffness modulus
32Technical Specifications of Petroleum Asphalt 2.2Based on current specifications of our country, asphalt marks are divided by penetration, which means the greater penetration, the higher marks asphalt is.To heavy traffic asphalt (GB/T15180—2000), the are 5 marks: AH-50, AH-70, AH-90, AH-110 and AH-130.To road petroleum asphalt (JTG F ), there are 7 marks, commonly used asphalt marks are: mark50, mark70, mark90, mark110 and mark130, etc.
33Technical Specifications of Petroleum Asphalt 2.2The smaller of penetration,the lower mark asphalt is,and the more consistency to asphalt,which this mark of asphalt is more suitable tothe hot weather condition.
34Chinese specification Technical Specifications of Petroleum Asphalt2.2Chinese specification粘稠道路石油沥青（针入度分级penetration grade）IndexLevelAsphalt160#130#110#90#70#50#30#Penetration degree@25 oC, , 5s (0.1mm)80-10060-8040-6020-40Suitable climate subarea2-12-23-21-11-21-32-31-42-4Penetration IndexA-1.5～＋1.0B-1.8～＋1.0Softening point (R&B) ≥384043454446495536394253C35374150Viscosity @ 60 oC (Pa.s)≥-6012016014018020026010 oC (cm) ≥3020152510815 oC (cm) ≥A、B10080Wax content (％) ≥2.23.04.5Flashing point (COC)(oC) ≥230245solubility ≥99.5After TFOT (or RTFOT)Quality loss % ≤0.8Penetration ratio after evaporation ≥485457616365525862Ductility ratio after evaporation (10 oC) ≥1264－2Ductility ratio after evaporation (15 oC) ≥34
35Asphalt quality grades Technical Specifications of Petroleum Asphalt2.2Asphalt quality grades(沥青质量等级)All layers of third and under third grade highwayCLower layer of expressway and first grade highwayAll layers of second and under second grade highwayUsed for basis asphaltBAll layers of all grade highwayASuitable forGrades
36Technical Specifications of Petroleum Asphalt 2.2——The brief Introduction of Stratagem Highway Researching Plan (SHRP) in America美国战略公路研究计划(SHRP)是1987年由美国国会通过的一项为期5年（ ）的研究计划，其投资总额为1.5亿美元，目的是改善其国家道路的使用性能和耐久性，使得这些道路对使用者及其维护者都更加安全。该计划的资金来自联邦资助公路基金的0.25％的预留费。开发及评价道路施工、养护、管理创新技术的工作都以合同的形式委托给了大学、咨询机构和研究人员。研究成果分为四大部分：沥青、混凝土及结构、路面性能、公路管理等。1991年ISTEA(水路运输功效联合法案 )提供了1.08亿美元，由联邦公路管理局(FHWA)管理，主要是用6年的时间帮助各州及公路行业把SHRP的成果推广应用并继续路面长期性能(LTPP)的研究。如今，已开发的SHRP技术每年可以为美国节约大量的资金。联邦公路管理局已开发出一个有效的、创新的、灵活的实施计划，并承诺和公路行业的合作伙伴一起尽快地、有效地发挥这些效益.
37Technical Specifications of Petroleum Asphalt 2.2——characteristics of SHRPAsphalt properties are evaluated according to different three stages:——during the transportation and storage stage;——blending and spreading process;——service stage of asphalt pavement.All specifications are provided under same requirement rather than same temperature.Put forward some new evaluate indexes and corresponding instruments.
38——The brief Introduction of SHRP Technical Specifications of Petroleum Asphalt2.2——The brief Introduction of SHRPRV试验（P48） Rotary viscosimeter（旋转式粘度计）：measure viscosity of asphalt (用于测量沥青的 粘度).38
39——The brief Introduction of SHRP Technical Specifications of Petroleum Asphalt2.2——The brief Introduction of SHRPDSR试验Dynamic Shear Rheometer（动态剪切流变仪）（P58）：Determination of viscoelastic properties of asphalt within temperature at 5-85℃ before and after aging, and also presentation the ability for anti-rutting at high temperature condition (测定未老化和老化之后的沥青在5-85℃温度范围内线粘弹性性质，并可用于反映沥青的高温抗车辙能力).
40——The brief Introduction of SHRP Technical Specifications of Petroleum Asphalt2.2——The brief Introduction of SHRPDTT试验（P51）Direct Tension Test（直接拉伸仪）：Evaluation of asphalt material performances at low temperature, such as stress and strain when destruction, especially to evaluate the performances for polymer modified asphalt. (评价低温下沥青胶结料性质，如破坏时的应力和应变，特别适用于聚合物改性沥青，也用于评价沥青的低温性能)40
41——The brief Introduction of SHRP Technical Specifications of Petroleum Asphalt2.2——The brief Introduction of SHRPBBR试验（P50）Bending Beam Rheometer （弯曲梁流变仪）：Measurementaccurately of stiffness at low temperature and creep rate for asphalt (精确测量沥青的低温劲度模量和蠕变速率,用于评价沥青的低温性能).41
42Technical Specifications of SHRP 2.2Performance GradePG46PG52-34-40-46-10-16-22Average 7-day Maximum Pavement Design Temp（℃）<46<52Minimum Pavement Design Temp（℃）>-34>-40>-46>-10>-16>-22Original BinderFlash Point （℃）>230Viscosity，max，3Pa.s,Test Temp（℃）135Dynamic Shear，G*/sinδ，min，1.0kPa, Test （℃）4652RTFOT or TFOTMass loss, max, (%)1Dynamic Shear，G*/sinδ，min，2.2kPa,Test （℃）PAVPAV Aging Temp, （℃）90100Dynamic Shear，G*/sinδ，min，5000kPa,Test （℃)1074252219Creep stiffness，S，max，300MPa,m-value,min,0.35Test （℃）-24-30-36-6-12Direct Tension Failure Strain,min,1.0%Test （℃)
46Purposes of modification Polymer Modified Asphalt——Introduction2.3.1Purposes of modificationImprove hightemperaturestabilityResist crackingunder lowtemperatureEnhanceanti-agingcapabilityImproveadhesivenessbetweenasphalt andaggregate
47Polymer Modified Asphalt ——classifications2.3.1SBSRubberMain types of modifications:Resin—聚乙烯（PE）、乙烯-乙酸共聚物（EVA）;Rubber—丁苯橡胶（SBR）、废弃轮胎橡胶粉;Thermoplastic elastomeric—苯乙烯丁二烯嵌段聚合物（SBS）.Anti-rutting agentfiber
48Polymer Modified Asphalt ——Index Evaluation Methods 2.3.1Segregation test（离析试验）——to judge the consolute stability between modified agent and asphalt;Elastic recovery test（弹性恢复试验）——to evaluate automatic recovery capacity on deformation for asphalt modified with SBS after stretching;Dynamometric ductility test(测力延度试验)——to detect the ability of modified asphalt resisting external tension.Toughness and tenacity test（黏韧性试验）——to be appropriate for asphalt modified with rubber,
49Polymer Modified Asphalt ——Commonly Used modified asphalts 2.3.1Type of thermoplastic elastomer (热塑性橡胶类)—— SBS(苯乙烯丁二烯嵌段聚合物)；Type of rubber（橡胶类）—— SBR(丁苯橡胶)；Type of thermoplastic resin（热塑性树脂类）—— PE(聚乙烯)，EVA(乙烯-乙酸乙烯共聚物)；Type of thermosetting resin（热固性树脂类）——EP(环氧树脂).
50Polymer Modified Asphalt ——SBS modified asphalt 2.3.1SBS modified asphalt is most widely used on road pavement at present. Because this type modified asphalt can be benefit both to high and low temperature performances.SBS is a polymer made of butadiene (丁二烯) and styrene (苯乙烯) in embedded way.It is this special structure that makes SBS particular features.SBS原料
53Polymer Modified Asphalt ——SBS modified asphalt 2.3.1Compatibility is a key factor that affects modification effect. Benefits to compatibility include:——The ratio of S/B, 30:70 is better than 40/60;——Molecular weight is great, it has fine modification result, but the processes becomes difficult;——SBS with star style has better modification result than the line style, but also is difficult to process of preparation;——The more aromatics in asphalt, the more benefit to compatibility.
54Polymer Modified Asphalt ——Technical Requirements for Modified Asphalt2.3.1According to the type of Polymer, the modified asphalts are classified to three categories: Ⅰ(SBS), Ⅱ (SBR), Ⅲ(EVA and PE)；Each type of category is classified to A、B、C and D (except II) grade based on softening point. From A to D, penetration becomes smaller, viscosity becomes increase, which means performance on high temperature is improved while performance on low temperature becomes poor.Besides ordinary evaluation indexes, some special indexes such as segregation, elastic recovery, toughness and tenacity are offered to evaluate the performances of modified asphalt.
55Polymer Modified Asphalt ——Technical requirements for modified asphalt2.3.1Indexes.SBS (I)（热塑性弹性体类）SBR (II)（橡胶类）EVA、PE (III)（树脂类）I-AI-BI-CI-DII-AII-BII-CIII-AIII-BIII-CIII-DPenetration oC, , 5s (0.1mm)>10080-10060-8030-60>8040-6030-40Penetration Index ≥-1.2-0.8-0.4-1.0-0.65 oC，5cm/min (cm) ≥5040302060－Softening point TR&B (℃) ≥4555485256≤3Flash point (℃) ≥230Solubility (%) ≥99Recovery of elasticity 25℃(%) ≥6575Toughness and tenacity (N·m) ≥5Toughness (N·m) ≥2.5Storage stabilitySegregation, difference of softening point after 48h ( ℃) ≤无改性剂明显析出、凝聚TFOT(或RTFOT)后残留物Quality loss %1.0Penetration ratio after 25℃(%) ≤58(cm) ≥25151055
57Emulsified asphalt ——Introduction 2.3.2Asphalt heated in liquid state is scattered in mixture of water and emulsified agent by mechanical action to form emulsified asphalt.Advantages of emulsified asphalt:——It can be used under normal temperature so as to save energy and reduce pollution;——It can prolong seasonal construction, which is rarely affected by low temperature and rain day.——It has good adhesiveness and workability to aggregates, so as to save asphalt and ensure construction quality.
58Emulsified asphalt ——Composition 2.3.2Asphalt: higher grade asphalt is suitable to emulsify.Water: low hardness water is preferred.Emulsified agent: it is also known as surface activity agent which plays very important role.Stabilizing agent: it improves stability of emulsified asphalt.
59Emulsified asphalt ——Emulsified Agent 2.3.2Emulsified agent is one of the surface activity agents. This substance has special molecular structure which consists two parts: one is polarity on the end of molecular and one is no polarity on the another end of molecular;Emulsified agent can be classified into:Types of emulsified agentsNonionic surfactant(非离子型)Ionic surfactant(离子型)Cation surfactant(阳离子型)Anionic surfactant(阴离子型)Zwitterionic surfactant(两性离子型)
60——Mechanism of Emulsification Emulsified asphalt——Mechanism of Emulsification2.3.2Because any one molecular of emulsified agent has two different structure, this molecular can be absorbed on the surface of asphalt directionally, which nonionic part is towards to asphalt while ionic part is towards to water.In this way, surface energy between asphalt and water is reduced remarkably. Asphalt can be scattered steady in the water to form emulsified asphalt.
61——Mechanism of demulsification Emulsified asphalt——Mechanism of demulsification2.3.2In order to bring into play asphalt cohesiveness, asphalt is surely released from emulsified solution, which is known as demulsification.The causes to demulsify include:—charge adsorption；—water evaporation;—acid-base neutralization.
62Emulsified asphalt Retained mass after sieving; ——Evaluation Indexes for Emulsified Asphalt2.3.2Retained mass after sieving;Residue after evaporation and properties;Viscosity;Adhesiveness;Stability in storage, and stability in storage at low temperature;Feature on ionic electric charge;Speed of demulsification.