Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Carbon Oxygenated Hydrogen Distillation Ethanol – The way Oscar made it
Distillation uses heat to sort and process hydrocarbon molecules into “Fractions”, based on their boiling points. “Fractions” are complex mixtures of chemical compounds that all have a similar boiling point.
Methane and Ethane Molecules
Ethane and Ethanol Molecules H-C-C-OH H Ethanol C 2 H 5 OH
Typical Crude Unit
Propane and Normal Butane Molecules
Pentane Molecule H-C-C-C-C-C-H H H H H H C 5 H 12 Pentane
Refinery “Slang” C 1 =Methane C 2 =Ethane C 3 =Propane C 4 =Butane C 5 =Pentane Etc.
Typical Crude Unit
Asphalt is produced from the bottom of the distillation tower, hence the nickname “bottom of the barrel”.
“Neat” Asphalt is unmodified, and is used in the same form as when it came off of the distillation tower. Typical Neat Asphalt grades include: 1.PG58-28(Produced in Montana) 2.PG64-22(Produced in Montana)
Examples of Modified Asphalt Mills
Polymers = Horses and Elephants? Huh???
Polymer Modified Asphalt Asphalt+ Polymer Less Cold Weather Cracking Stiffer at High Temperatures
Polymers = $ $ $ $ $
Example of an Emulsion Mill
Asphalt Emulsions can be made in several ways, with the goal being consistent dispersion of the molecules
Pay Attention to what you’re doing! An Example of what can happen.
Hunting with a friend?
Safety Film now
OIL TANK SWITCHING CHART FOR STATE AND FEDERALLY FUNDED PROJECTS SWITCHING TO: SWITCHING FROM: PG 58-28 PG 58-34 (Polymer Modified) PG 64-22 PG 64-28 (Polymer Modified) PG 64-34 (Polymer Modified) PG 70-28 (Polymer Modified) PG 58-28OK DO NOT MIX PG 58-34 (Polymer Modified) OK DO NOT MIX PG 64-22 DO NOT MIX OK DO NOT MIX PG 64-28 (Polymer Modified) OK DO NOT MIX OK DO NOT MIX PG 64-34 (Polymer Modified) OK DO NOT MIX PG 70-28 (Polymer Modified) OK DO NOT MIX OK DO NOT MIX OK To avoid penalties when switching from one asphalt grade to another, please empty your tanks and return the asphalt to its supplier. If the remaining asphalt was purchased from Montana Refining Co., please deliver it to M.R.C. for a full credit to your account. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact us at the phone number listed below. Montana Refining Company 1900 Tenth St. N.E. Great Falls, MT 59404 1-406-761-4100
PETROLEUM REFINERIES: WHAT ARE THEY DOING IN THERE?
Petroleum refineries come in all shapes and sizes. Their job is to safely and efficiently process various crude oils into useful products for consumers, while operating in an environmentally safe manner.
Refineries employ people with advanced training in several different professions, ranging from Operations, to Chemical Engineering, to Marketing.
WHAT IS CRUDE OIL AND WHERE DOES IT COME FROM?
Crude Oil is a complex amalgamation of chains of hydrocarbon molecules
Crude oil is produced in many different countries and oceans all around the globe
Crude Oil can be produced in several different ways. Land based liquid crude oil wells Ocean based liquid crude production Land based mining techniques for production of solid crudes, such as Bitumen and Oil Shale
Solid Crudes require additional processing for ease of Transport & Refining
How do you turn crude oil into something useful?
A petroleum refinery’s job is to break crude oil hydrocarbon molecule chains down into slightly different groupings of molecules.
There are several different ways to process molecules in order to sort or change them. Distillation using heat Chemical ReactionsChanges in Pressure Differences in molecular weight
How is a refinery set up to do all this? The processing concept is relatively simple.
“The Five Pillars of Refining” 1. Distillation 2. Catalytic Cracking 3. Catalytic Reforming 4. Alkylation 5. Hydroprocessing
“Heavy” fractions such as asphalt have a higher boiling point. “Light” fractions such as gasoline or propane have a lower boiling point.
What does a Catalytic Cracker do? It breaks long molecules into smaller molecules in the presence of high heat levels and a catalyst.
What does a Catalytic Reformer do, and how does it work? It re-arranges the molecular structure of the hydrocarbon molecules using catalysts (typically platinum) in the presence of heat.
What does an Alkylation Unit do? An “alky” unit operates at lower temperatures and pressures, using an acid catalyst to re- arrange or recombine the hydrocarbons.
What is Hydroprocessing? There are 2 types: 1.Hydrotreating, which is the addition of hydrogen molecules without breaking the molecule into smaller pieces. 2. Hydrocracking, which is the high pressure cracking of long chain molecules into shorter chain molecules
Flow Chart for Pascagoula, Chevron’s Refinery in Mississippi. Capacity- 350,000 Barrels per day
So how is Asphalt made?
Asphalt is comprised of the highest boiling point material, and has the heaviest molecular weight hydrocarbon chains.
Trinidad Lake “Neat” Asphalt gathering process in 2002.
Asphalt Emulsion and Modified Asphalt can be produced by passing the asphalt and modifiers through a shear mill.
A simple asphalt emulsion mill setup.
They even make portable emulsion mills that you can put in an airplane.
Emulsions are built to “break”, sooner or later.
Stages in breaking of a Cationic Emulsion
Now that we’ve made the emulsion, what do we do with it? How do we get the pearls on the pig?
Today’s asphalt distributors
Today’s highway needs often demand modified paving grades. Hot Asphalt for Hot Mix
“Modified” Asphalt is made by adding polymers, and is usually run through some type of shear mill. Examples of Modified Asphalt grades include : 1.PG64-34(Produced in Montana) 2.PG70-28(Produced in Montana) 3.PG64-28(Produced in Montana) 4.PBA6a(mod)(California) 5.GGB3(California) 6.PG76-22CC(Clark County, Nevada) 7.PG76-22TR(Arizona) 8.CRA Type 1(Arizona)
Modified Asphalt shear mills are set up in much the same way that emulsion mills are, but without the addition of water.
One type of SBS Mill setup Mill Tank Sales or FOR LOAD OUT
Pictures of stationary and portable Modified Asphalt production units.
OIL TANK SWITCHING CHART FOR STATE AND FEDERALLY FUNDED PROJECTS SWITCHING TO: SWITCHING FROM: PG 58-28 PG 58-34 (Polymer Modified) PG 64-22 PG 64-28 (Polymer Modified) PG 64-34 (Polymer Modified) PG 70-28 (Polymer Modified) PG 58-28OKDO NOT MIX PG 58-34 (Polymer Modified) OK DO NOT MIX PG 64-22DO NOT MIX OKDO NOT MIX PG 64-28 (Polymer Modified) OKDO NOT MIXOK DO NOT MIX PG 64-34 (Polymer Modified) OK DO NOT MIX PG 70-28 (Polymer Modified) OKDO NOT MIXOK DO NOT MIXOK To avoid penalties when switching from one asphalt grade to another, please empty your tanks and return the asphalt to its supplier. If the remaining asphalt was purchased from Montana Refining Co., please deliver it to M.R.C. for a full credit to your account. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact us at the phone number listed below. Montana Refining Company 1900 Tenth St. N.E. Great Falls, MT 59404 1-406-761-4100