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California Mechanical Code 2010 Chapter 5 & 6 LANES POINTS.

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Presentation on theme: "California Mechanical Code 2010 Chapter 5 & 6 LANES POINTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 California Mechanical Code 2010 Chapter 5 & 6 LANES POINTS

2 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Part I LANES POINTS

3 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Scope – This chapter includes requirements for environmental air ducts, product – conveying systems, and commercial hoods and kitchen ventilation Definitions – Specific definitions to Exhaust systems (see CMC text) LANES POINTS

4 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Product – Conveying Ducts – Classifications – Class 1.Ducts conveying nonabrasives, such as smoke, spray, mists, fogs, noncorrosive fumes and gases, light find dust, or powders. – Class 2.Ducts conveying moderately abrasive particulate in light concentrations, such as sawdust and grain dust, and buffing and polishing dust. – Class 3.Ducts conveying Class 2 materials in high concentrations and highly abrasive materials in low concentrations, such as manganese, steel chips, and coke. – Class 4.Ducts conveying highly abrasive materials in high concentrations. – Class 5.Ducts conveying corrosives, such as acid vapors. LANES POINTS

5 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Motors, Fans, and Filters General. – Motors and fans shall be sized to provide the required air movement. Motors in areas that contain flammable vapors or dusts shall be of a type approved for such environments. A manually operated remote control installed at an approved location shall be provided to shut off fans or blowers in flammable vapor or dust systems. Electrical equipment used in operations that generate explosive or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall be interlocked with the ventilation system so that the equipment cannot be operated unless the ventilation fans are in operation. Motors for fans used to convey flammable vapors or dusts shall be located outside the duct or shall be protected with approved shields and dustproofmg. Motors and fans shall be accessible for servicing and maintenance. LANES POINTS

6 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Fans. – Parts of fans in contact with explosive or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall be of nonferrous or nonsparking materials or their casing shall be lined or constructed of such material. When the size and hardness of materials passing through a fan could produce a spark, both the fan and the casing shall be of nonsparking materials. When fans are required to be spark-resistant, their bearings shall not be within the airstream, and all parts of the fan shall be grounded. Fans in systems handling materials that are likely to clog the blades, and fans in buffing or woodworking exhaust systems, shall be of the radial-blade or tube-axial type. LANES POINTS

7 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Fans [cont.’d] – Equipment used to exhaust explosive or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall bear an identification plate stating the ventilation rate for which the system was designed. – Fans located in systems conveying corrosives shall be of materials that are resistant to the corrosive or shall be coated with corrosion-resistant materials. LANES POINTS

8 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Environmental Air Ducts Makeup and Exhaust-Air Ducts. – Environmental air ducts not regulated by other provisions of this code shall comply with this section. Ducts shall be substantially airtight and shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 6. Exhaust ducts under positive pressure shall not extend into or through ducts or plenums. Exhaust ducts shall terminate outside the building and shall be equipped with back-draft dampers. [OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] Exception: Back-draft dampers are not required when the exhaust fan must operate continuously. Environmental air ducts that have an alternate function as a part of an approved smoke-control system do not require design as Class 1 product-conveying ducts. LANES POINTS

9 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Domestic Range Vents. – Ducts used for domestic kitchen range ventilation shall be of metal and shall have smooth interior surfaces. Ducts for domestic range hoods shall only serve cooking appliances. LANES POINTS There are Exceptions to this code – see CMC text Chapter 5 Part 504.2

10 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Clothes Dryers Moisture Exhaust Ducts. – Moisture exhaust ducts shall terminate on the outside of the building and shall be equipped with a back-draft damper. Screens shall not be installed at the duct termination. Ducts for exhausting clothes dryers shall not be connected or installed with sheet metal screws or other fasteners that will obstruct the flow. Clothes dryer moisture exhaust ducts shall not be connected to a gas vent connector, gas vent, or chimney, and shall only serve clothes dryers. Clothes dryer moisture exhaust ducts under positive pressure shall not extend into or through ducts or plenums. LANES POINTS

11 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Domestic Clothes Dryers. – When a compartment or space for a domestic clothes dryer is provided, a minimum four (4) inch diameter (102 mm) moisture exhaust duct of approved material shall be installed in accordance with this section and Section – When a closet is designed for the installation of a clothes dryer, a minimum opening of 100 square inches (64,516 mm2) for makeup air shall be provided in the door or by other approved means. LANES POINTS

12 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Domestic Clothes Dryers. [cont.’d] Exception: Listed clothes dryer transition ducts not more than six (6) feet (1,829 mm) in length may be used in connection with domestic dryer exhausts. – Flexible clothes dryer transition ducts shall not be concealed within construction Length Limitation. – Unless otherwise permitted or required by the dryer manufacturer's installation instructions and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, domestic dryer moisture exhaust ducts shall not exceed a total combined horizontal and vertical length of fourteen (14) feet (4,263 mm), including two (2) 90 degree (1.57 rad) elbows. Two (2) feet (610 mm) shall be deducted for each 90 degree (1.57 rad) elbow in excess of two. LANES POINTS

13 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Commercial Clothes Dryers. – Commercial dryer exhaust ducts shall be installed in accordance with their listings. The installation of commercial clothes dryer exhaust ducts shall comply with the appliance manufacturer's installation instructions. LANES POINTS

14 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Termination of Environmental Air Ducts. – Environmental air duct exhaust shall terminate a minimum of three (3) feet (914 mm) from property line and three (3) feet (914 mm) from openings into the building. LANES POINTS

15 505.2 Minimum Velocities and Circulation Table 5 -1 Minimum Conveying Velocities fpmM/S Vapor, gases, smoke, fumesAny Fine light dusts, such as cotton, lint, and wood flour (100 mesh and under) 2,000(10.2) Dry dusts; powders, such as fine rubber molding powder, soap dust (12.7) Industrial dusts, Average dusts, such as sawdust, grinding dusts, coal dust, Heavy dusts, such as metal turnings, lead dusts; Moist dusts and chips 3,500 4,000 4,500 (17.8) (20.3) (22.9) LANES POINTS The velocity and circulation of air in work areas shall be such that contaminant's are captured by an airstream at the area where the emissions are generated and conveyed into a product- conveying duct system. Mixtures within work areas where contaminant's are generated shall be diluted below twenty-five (25) percent of their lower explosive limit or lower flammability limit with air that does not contain other contaminant's. The velocity of air within the duct shall be not less than set forth in Table 5-1.

16 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Makeup Air. – Makeup air shall be provided to replenish air exhausted by the ventilation system. Makeup-air intakes shall be located so as to avoid recirculation of contaminated air within enclosures Materials. – Materials used in product- conveying duct systems shall be suitable for the intended use and shall be of metal. LANES POINTS

17 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Materials. Exception: – Ducts serving a Class 5 system may be constructed of approved nonmetallic material when the corrosive characteristics of the material being conveyed make a metal system unsuitable and when the mixture being conveyed is nonflammable. – Approved nonmetallic material shall be either a listed product having a flame-spread index of twenty-five (25) or less and a smoke-developed rating of fifty (50) or less on both inside and outside surfaces without evidence of continued progressive combustion, or shall have a flame-spread index of twenty-five (25) or less and shall be installed with an automatic fire- sprinkler protection system inside the duct. LANES POINTS

18 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Materials. Exception: – Ducts used in central vacuum cleaning systems within a dwelling unit shall be constructed of materials in compliance with the applicable standards referenced in Chapter 17. Penetrations of fire walls or floor- ceiling or roof-ceiling assemblies shall comply with the Building Code. – Copper or ferrous pipes or conduits extending from within the separation between a garage and dwelling unit to the central vacuuming unit may be used. – Aluminum ducts shall not be used in systems conveying flammable vapors, fumes, or explosive dusts, nor in Class 2, 3, or 4 systems. Galvanized steel and aluminum ducts shall not be used when the temperature of the material being conveyed exceeds 400°F (205°C). LANES POINTS

19 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Supports. – Spacing of supports for ducts shall not exceed twelve (12) feet (3,658 mm) for eight (8) inch (203 mm) ducts nor twenty (20) feet (6,096 mm) for larger ducts, unless justified by the design Duct supports shall be designed to carry the weight of the duct half filled with material. Where sprinkler protection is provided in the duct, the hanger's design shall include the weight of the duct half filled with water or with the material being conveyed, whichever has the higher density. Loads shall not be placed on connecting equipment. – Exception: Where adequate drainage is provided, the weight of the water shall not require consideration. LANES POINTS

20 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Supports. [cont.’d] Hangers and supports exposed to corrosive atmospheres shall be Type 316 SS or equivalent To avoid vibration and stress on the duct, hangers and supports shall be securely fastened to the building or structure Hangers and supports shall be designed to allow for expansion and contraction. [NFPA 91:4.5.6] Fire Protection. Sprinklers or other fire-protection devices shall be installed within ducts having a cross-sectional dimension exceeding ten (10) inches (254 mm) when the duct conveys flammable vapors or fumes. Sprinklers shall be installed at twelve (12) foot intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. In vertical runs, sprinklers shall be installed at the top and at alternate floor levels. LANES POINTS

21 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Duct Clearances. – All ductwork and system components handling combustible material and operating at less than 140°F (60°C) shall have a clearance of not less than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) from combustible construction or any combustible material. LANES POINTS

22 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Duct Clearances. – Exceptions: (1) When the ductwork system is equipped with an approved automatic extinguishing system designed for the specific hazard, the clearance shall be permitted to be reduced to six (6) inches (152 mm ) from combustible materials and 1 /2 inch (13 mm) from combustible construction. (2) When the combustible material and construction is protected by the use of materials or products listed for protection purposes or in accordance with Table 5-2. LANES POINTS

23 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Protection from Physical Damage. – Ducts installed in locations where they are subject to physical damage shall be protected by suitable guards Exhaust Outlets. – The termination point for exhaust ducts discharging to the atmosphere shall be not less than the following: Ducts conveying explosive or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts: thirty (30) feet (9,144 mm) from property line; ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) from openings into the building, six (6) feet (1,829 mm) from exterior walls or roofs; thirty (30) feet (9,144 mm) from combustible walls or openings into the building that are in the direction of the exhaust discharge; ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) above adjoining grade. LANES POINTS

24 Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems Other product-conveying outlets: – ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) from property line; three (3) feet (914 mm) from exterior wall or roof; ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) from openings into the building; ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) above adjoining grade. LANES POINTS

25 Chapter 5 Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Part II LANES POINTS

26 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation General Requirements. – Cooking equipment used in processes producing smoke or grease-laden vapors shall be equipped with an exhaust system that complies with all the equipment and performance requirements of this standard, and all such equipment and performance shall be maintained per this standard during all periods of operation of the cooking equipment. Specifically, the following equipment shall be kept in good working condition: Cooking equipment Hoods Ducts (if applicable) Fans Fire suppression systems Special effluent or energy control equipment All airflows shall be maintained. Maintenance and repairs shall be performed on all components at intervals necessary to maintain these conditions. LANES POINTS

27 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Cooking equipment that has been listed in accordance with UL 197 or an equivalent standard for reduced emissions shall not be required to be provided with an exhaust system. [NFPA 96: *] Testing of cooking equipment listed in The responsibility for inspection, maintenance, and cleanliness of the ventilation control and fire protection of the commercial cooking operations shall be the ultimate responsibility of the owner of the system provided that this responsibility has not been transferred in written form to a management company or other party. [NFPA 96:4.1.5] LANES POINTS

28 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation All solid-fuel cooking equipment shall comply with the requirements of Section Multiple-tenancy applications shall require the concerted cooperation of design, installation, operation, and maintenance responsibilities by tenants and by the building owner All interior surfaces of the exhaust system shall be accessible for cleaning and inspection purposes Cooking equipment used in fixed, mobile, or temporary concessions, such as trucks, buses, trailers, pavilions, tents, or any form of roofed enclosure, shall comply with this standard unless all or part of the installation is exempted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction Clearances – See CMC text for listed equipment clearances LANES POINTS

29 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Hoods. – Where Required. Hoods shall be installed at or above all commercial-type deep fat fryers, broilers, fry grills, steam-jacketed kettles, hot-top ranges, ovens, barbecues, rotisseries, dishwashing machines, and similar equipment that produces comparable amounts of steam, smoke, grease, or heat in a food-processing establishment. For the purpose of this section, a food-processing establishment shall include any building or portion thereof used for the processing of food, but shall not include a dwelling unit. LANES POINTS

30 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Construction of commercial hoods Wall mounted commercial hoods Seam weld joints on commercial hoods Hood insulating materials Hood size Grease tight construction LANES POINTS

31 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Fire Dampers. – A fire-actuated damper shall be installed in the supply air plenum at each point where a supply air duct inlet or a supply air outlet penetrates the continuously welded shell of the assembly. [NFPA 96: ] – The Air damper shall be listed for such use or be part of a listed exhaust hood with or without exhaust damper. [NFPA 96: ] – The actuation device shall have a maximum temperature rating of 141°C (286°F). [NFPA 96: ] LANES POINTS

32 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation – Supply air plenums that discharge air from the face rather than from the bottom or into the exhaust hood and that are isolated from the exhaust hood by the continuously welded shell extending to the lower outermost perimeter of the entire hood assembly shall not require a fire- actuated damper. [NFPA 96: ] LANES POINTS

33 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Listed Hood Assemblies. – Listed hood assemblies shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and the manufacturer ' s instructions. [NFPA 96:5.4.1] Listed hood assemblies shall be tested in accordance with UL 710, Exhaust Hoods for Commercial Cooking Equipment, or equivalent. [NFPA 96:5.4.2] LANES POINTS

34 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Solid-Fuel Hood Assemblies. – Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is to be used, the solid-fuel hood assembly shall comply with Section Listed Ultra Violet Hoods Exhaust Outlets Grease Removal Devices in Hoods LANES POINTS

35 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Grease Filters Exhaust Duct Systems – General. – Ducts shall not pass through fire walls or fire partitions. – All ducts shall lead as directly as is practicable to the exterior of the building, so as, not to unduly increase any fire hazard. LANES POINTS

36 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation – Duct systems shall not be interconnected with any other building ventilation or exhaust system. – All ducts shall be installed without forming dips or traps that might collect residues. In manifold (common duct) systems, the lowest end of the main duct shall be connected flush on the bottom with the branch duct. Duct systems serving a Type I hood shall be so constructed and installed that grease cannot become pocketed in any portion thereof, and the system shall slope not less than'/4 inch per lineal foot (21 mm/m) toward the hood or toward an approved grease reservoir. Where horizontal ducts exceed seventy-five (75) feet (22,860 mm) in length, the slope shall be not less than one (1) inch per lineal foot (83 mm/m). LANES POINTS

37 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Openings required for accessibility shall comply with Section A sign shall be placed on all access panels stating the following: ACCESS PANEL—DO NOT OBSTRUCT Duct bracing and supports shall be of noncombustible material, securely attached to the structure and designed to carry gravity and lateral loads within the stress limitations of the Building Code. Bolts, screws, rivets, and other mechanical fasteners shall not penetrate duct walls Ducts, Non-Grease. Ducts and plenums serving Type II hoods shall be constructed of rigid metallic materials as set forth in Chapter 6. Duct bracing and supports shall comply with Chapter 6. Ducts subject to positive pressure shall be adequately sealed. LANES POINTS

38 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Clearance. – Clearance between ducts and combustible materials shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of Section – Listed grease ducts shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listings and manufacturers' instructions. LANES POINTS

39 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation – Openings shall be provided at the sides or at the top of the duct, whichever is more accessible, and at changes of direction. Openings shall be protected by approved access panels that comply with Section Exception: Openings shall not be required in portions of the duct that are accessible from the duct entry or discharge. LANES POINTS

40 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation – For hoods with dampers in the exhaust or supply collar, an access panel for cleaning and inspection shall be provided in the duct or the hood collar. This access panel shall be as close to the hood as possible but shall not exceed eighteen (18) inches (457 mm). Exception: Dampers that are accessible from under the hood. LANES POINTS

41 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation – Openings in Ducts Horizontal Ducts On non-listed ductwork, the edge of the opening shall be not less than 1'/z inch (38.1 mm) from all outside edges of the duct or welded seams. [NFPA 96: ] Vertical Ducts – Where personnel entry is not possible, adequate access for cleaning shall be provided on each floor. [NFPA 96: ] LANES POINTS

42 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Access Panels. Access panels shall be of the same material and thickness as the duct (Section ). Access panels shall have a gasket or sealant that is rated for 1,500°F (815.6°C) and shall be grease- tight. Fasteners, such as bolts, weld studs, latches, or wing nuts, used to secure the access panels shall be carbon steel or stainless steel and shall not penetrate duct walls. – EXCEPTION: Listed grease duct access door assemblies (access panels) shall be installed in accordance with their terms of the listings and the manufacturer’s instructions. LANES POINTS

43 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Openings for installation, servicing, and inspection of listed fire protection systems devices and for duct cleaning shall be provided in ducts and enclosures and shall conform to the requirements of Section Enclosure openings required to reach access panels in the ductwork shall be large enough for the removal of the access panel. – Listed Grease Ducts – Other Grease Ducts LANES POINTS Notice in the code there are drawings to help install these critical systems correctly and safely.

44 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Exterior Installations Interior Installations Termination of Exhaust Systems Rooftop Terminations Wall Terminations Solid Fuel Duct Systems In-Line Exhaust Fans LANES POINTS

45 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Airflow. – The air velocity through any duct shall be not less than 500 feet per minute (152.4 meters per minute) and not more than 2,500 feet per minute (457.2 m per minute). [NFPA 96: ] Exception: Transition duct sections shall be permitted to be connected to hoods and exhaust fans that do not meet this velocity, provided that they do not exceed three (3) feet (914 mm) in length and do not contain traps for grease. – Transition duct sections that do not exceed three (3) feet (914 mm) in length and do not contain grease traps shall be permitted to be connected to hoods and exhaust fans that do not meet this velocity. [NFPA 96: ] LANES POINTS

46 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Replacement Air. Replacement air quantity shall be adequate to prevent negative pressures in the commercial cooking area(s) from exceeding 0.02 inch water column (4.98 kPa). When its fire- extinguishing system discharges, makeup air supplied internally to a hood shall be shut off. [NFPA 96: ] Exception: Compensating hoods shall meet the airflow requirements specified in Sections through Compensating hoods shall extract at least 20 percent of their required exhaust airflow from the kitchen area. LANES POINTS

47 Chapter 5 Part II Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation Common Duct (Manifold) Systems Solid Fuel Air Movement Requirements Auxiliary Equipment – Dampers. Dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts or exhaust duct systems. – Electrical Equipment – Other Equipment Fire Extinguishing Equipment LANES POINTS

48 Chapter 6 Duct Systems LANES POINTS

49 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Scope. – Ducts and plenums that are portions of a heating, cooling, absorption or evaporative cooling, or product conveying system shall comply with the requirements of this chapter. – Sizing Requirements. Duct systems used with blower-type equipment that are portions of a heating, cooling, absorption, evaporative cooling, or outdoor- air ventilation system shall be sized in accordance with Chapter 17, or by other approved methods. Exception: [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Duct sizing calculations are not required for existing duct systems: LANES POINTS Dept. of Housing and Community Development

50 Chapter 6 Duct Systems The performance criteria and requirements herein contemplate a duct that is a structural assembly having the capacity to support occupant health and safety while minimizing its own contribution to property damage under emergency conditions. Ducts can supply fresh or treated air in support of life and health, can convey products of combustion away from a fire zone, can maintain a pressure differential that facilitates evacuation and reduces the spread of fire LANES POINTS This appears by all means a definition of a “duct” and it’s function under this code.

51 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Material. – General. Supply air, return air, and outside air for heating, cooling, or evaporative cooling systems shall be conducted through duct systems constructed of metal as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible, or another approved duct construction standard. Rectangular ducts in excess of two (2) inches w.g. shall comply with the ANSI/SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible, or another approved duct construction standard. Ducts, plenums, and fittings may be constructed of concrete, clay, or ceramics when installed in the ground or in a concrete slab, provided the joints are tightly sealed. LANES POINTS

52 Chapter 6 Duct Systems – In other than Group A, E, H, I, L, and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, corridors shall not be used to convey air to or from. rooms if the corridor is required be of fire-resistive construction per the Building Code. In Group A, E, H, I, L, and R occupancies, high- rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, corridors shall not be used to convey air to or from rooms except where permitted in accordance with Section of the California Building Code. LANES POINTS UBC Chapter 6 -12; Occupancy Group A = Assembly building with a stage, Group E = any building used for educational purpose grades 12 or less, Group H = hazardous materials storage, Group I = nurseries for children, Group M = garages, carports, sheds and agricultural buildings, Group R = hotels, apartment houses

53 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Exception: [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] (See Section ). LANES POINTS OSHPD = Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development Sec Corridors shall not be used to convey supply, return, or exhaust air to or from any room if the corridor is required to be of fire resistive construction per the California Building Code. Exceptions: see text Chapter 4 Section

54 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Not permitted for [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Concealed building spaces or independent construction within buildings may be used as ducts or plenums. When gypsum products are exposed in ducts or plenums, the air temperature shall be restricted to a range from 50º F (10º C) to 125º F (52º C), and moisture content shall be controlled so that the material is not adversely affected. For the purpose of this section, gypsum products shall not be exposed in ducts serving as supply from evaporative coolers, and in other air-handling systems regulated by this chapter when the temperature of the gypsum product will be below the dew point temperature. – See Chapter 8 for limitations on combustion products venting systems extending into or through ducts or plenums. – See Chapter 5 for limitations on environmental air systems exhaust ducts extending into or through ducts or plenums. – Exhaust ducts under positive pressure and venting systems shall not extend into or pass through ducts or plenums, For appliance vents and chimneys, see Chapter 8. LANES POINTS

55 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Combustibles Within Ducts or Plenums. – Materials exposed within ducts or plenums shall be noncombustible or shall have a flame spread index not greater than twenty-five (25) and a smoke developed index not greater than fifty (50), when tested as a composite product m accordance with one of the following test methods: NFPA 255, Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, ASTM E 84, Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or UL 723, Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials; except as indicated below. LANES POINTS

56 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Exceptions : 1)Return-air and outside-air ducts, plenums, or concealed spaces that serve a dwelling unit shall be permitted to be of combustible construction. 2)Air filters meeting the requirements of Sections and )Water evaporation media in an evaporative cooler. 4)Charcoal filters when protected with an approved fire suppression system. 5)Electrical wiring in plenums shall comply with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. Electrical wires and cables and optical fiber cables shall be listed and labeled as suitable for use in plenums and shall have a flame spread distance not greater than five (5) feet (1,524 mm), an average optical density not greater than 0.15, and a peak optical density not greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance with NFPA 262, Flame Travel and Smoke of Wires and Cables for Use in Air-Handling Spaces. LANES POINTS

57 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Exception: 6)Nonmetallic fire sprinkler piping in plenums shall be listed and labeled as suitable for use in plenums and shall have a flame spread distance not greater than five (5) feet (1,524 mm), an average optical density not greater than 0.15 and, a peak optical density not greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance with UL 1887, Fire Test of Plastic Sprinkler Pipe for Visible Flame and Smoke Characteristics. LANES POINTS

58 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Exception: 7)Nonmetallic pneumatic tubing in plenums shall be listed and labeled as suitable for use in plenums and shall have a flame spread distance not greater than five (5) feet (1,524 mm), an average optical density not greater than 0.15, and a peak optical density not greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance with UL 1820, Fire Test of Pneumatic Tubing for Flame and Smoke Characteristics. LANES POINTS

59 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Exception: 8)Loudspeakers and recessed lighting fixtures, including their assemblies and accessories, in plenums shall be listed and labeled as suitable for use in plenums and shall have a peak rate of heat release not greater than 100 kilo-watts, an average optical density not greater than 0.15, and a peak optical density not greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance with UL 2043, Fire Test for Heat and Visible Smoke Release for Discrete Products their Accessories Installed in Air-Handling Spaces. LANES POINTS

60 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Exception: 9)Smoke detectors. 10)Duct insulation, coverings, and limning and other supplementary materials complying with Section )Materials in a Group H, Division 6 fabrication area including the areas above and below the fabrication area sharing a common air recirculation path with the fabrication area. LANES POINTS

61 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Factory-Made Air Ducts. – Factory-made air ducts shall be approved for the use intended or shall conform to the requirements of the referenced standard for air ducts in Chapter 17. Each portion of a factory-made air duct system shall be identified by the manufacturer with a label or other suitable identification indicating compliance with the referenced standard for air ducts in Chapter 17 and its class designation. These ducts shall be listed and shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listing. Flexible air connectors are not permitted. LANES POINTS

62 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Flexible Ducts. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] – In hospital building projects and all other health-care facilities, including clinics and correctional treatment centers, flexible ducts of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) in length may be used to connect supply, return or exhaust-air terminal devices to rigid duct systems. Where constant volume or variable volume or mixing- boxes are utilized, flexible duct of not more than 10 feet (3048mm), may be used on the inlet side for alignment. An internal impervious liner shall be provided to isolate insulation material form conditioned air. LANES POINTS

63 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Joints and Seams of Ducts. – Joints of duct systems shall be made substantially air-tight by means of tapes, mastics, gasketing, or other means. – Crimp joints for round ducts shall have a contact lap of at least 1 ½ inches (38mm) and shall be mechanically fastened by means of at least three (3) sheet-metal screws equally spaced around the joint, or an equivalent fastening method. – Joints and seams for inch (0.41mm) (No. 28 gauge) and inch (0.33mm) (No. 30 gauge) residential rectangular ducts shall be as specified in the ANSI / SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards – Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard for inch (0.48 mm) (No. 26 gauge) material. LANES POINTS

64 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Joints and Seams of Ducts. (cont. ‘d) – Joints and seams for rectangular duct systems shall be as specified in the ANSI / SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards – Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard. – Joints and seams for flat oval ducts and round ducts other than single dwelling units shall be as specified in the ANSI / SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standard – Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard. – Joints and seams and all reinforcements for factory-made air ducts and plenums shall meet with the conditions of prior approval in accordance with the installation instructions that shall accompany the product. Closure systems for rigid air ducts and plenums shall be listed in accordance with UL 181A, Standard for Closure Systems for Use with Rigid Air Ducts and Air Connectors. Closure systems for flexible air duct shall be listed in accordance with UL 181B, Standard for Closure Systems for Use with Flexible Air Ducts and Air Connectors. LANES POINTS

65 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Metal. – Every duct, plenum, or fitting of metal shall comply with the ANSI / SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards – Metal and Flexible or duct systems complying with UL 181 for Factory Made Air Ducts and Air Connectors. LANES POINTS

66 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Tin. – Existing tin ducts may be used when cooling coils are added to a heating system, provided the first ten (10) feet (3048mm) of the duct or plenum measured from the cooling coil discharge are constructed of metal of the gauge thickness set forth in the ANSI / SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards – Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard or are of approved materials and construction. Tin ducts completely enclosed in inaccessible concealed areas need not be replaced. All accessible ducts shall be insulated to comply with the ANSI / SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards – Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard. For the purpose of this subsection, ducts shall be considered accessible where the access space is thirty (30) inches (762mm) or greater in height. LANES POINTS

67 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Vibration Isolators. – Vibration isolators installed between mechanical equipment and metal ducts (or casing) shall be made of an approved material and shall not exceed ten (10) inches (254mm) in length. LANES POINTS The HVAC trade uses “flexible duct connectors” as a vibration isolator in duct systems.

68 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Quality of Material. – Galvanized steel shall be of lock forming quality with a minimum coating of 1.25 ounces of zinc per square foot (0.04 kg / m 3 ) conforming to the requirements of ASTM A653 / A653M-07 Standard Specification for Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coat (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coat (Galvannealed) by the Hot Dip Process LANES POINTS

69 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Installation of Ducts. – General Ducts Under Floor or Crawl Space. Air ducts installed under a floor in a crawl space shall be installed as follows: – Shall not prevent access to any area of the crawl space. – Where it is required to move under ducts for access to areas of the crawl space a minimum vertical clearance of eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) shall be provided. LANES POINTS

70 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Metal Ducts. – Ducts shall be securely fastened in place at each change of direction and as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards' Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard. Vertical rectangular ducts and vertical round ducts shall be supported as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard. Riser ducts shall be held in place by means of metal straps or angles and channels to secure the riser to the structure. LANES POINTS

71 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Metal Ducts. (cont.’d) – Metal ducts shall be installed with at least four (4) inches (102 mm) separation from earth. Metal ducts when installed in or under a concrete slab shall be encased in at least two (2) inches (51 mm) of concrete. – Ducts shall be installed in a building with adequate clearance so as to permit retaining the full thickness of fireproofing on structural members. LANES POINTS

72 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Metal Ducts. (cont.’d) – Supports for rectangular ducts as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard, when suspended from above, shall be installed on two opposite sides of each duct and shall be riveted, bolted, or metal screwed to each side of the duct at not more than the intervals specified. LANES POINTS

73 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Metal Ducts. (cont.’d) – Horizontal round ducts forty (40) inches (1,016 mm) or less in diameter; when suspended from above shall be supported at intervals not more than as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard with one hanger installed to comply with the requirements listed below: LANES POINTS

74 Chapter 6 Duct Systems – Ducts shall be equipped with tight-fitting circular bands extending around the entire perimeter of the duct at each specified support interval. – Circular bands shall be not less than one (1) inch (25 mm) wide nor less than equivalent to the gauge of the duct material it supports. Exception: Ducts ten (10) inches (254 mm) and less in diameter may be supported by No. 18 gauge galvanized steel wire. – Each circular band shall be provided with a suit- able means of connecting to the suspending support. – Ducts shall be braced and guyed to prevent lateral or horizontal swing. LANES POINTS

75 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Factory-Made Air Ducts. – Listed Class 0 or Class 1 factory-made air ducts may be installed in any occupancy covered by this code. – Factory-made air ducts shall not be used for vertical risers in air-duct systems serving more than two stories. Such ducts shall not penetrate construction where fire dampers are required. – Factory-made air ducts shall be installed with at least four (4) inches (102 mm) of separation from earth, except when installed as a liner inside of concrete, tile, or metal pipe; they shall be protected from physical damage. – The temperature of the air to be conveyed in any of these classes of ducts shall not exceed 250°F (122°C). LANES POINTS

76 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Protection of Ducts. – Ducts installed in locations where they are exposed to mechanical damage by vehicles or from other causes shall be protected by approved barriers Support of Ducts. – Installers shall provide the manufacturer's field fabrication and installation instructions. – In the absence of specific supporting materials and spacing, approved factory-made air ducts may be installed as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard. LANES POINTS The UMC has standards which also must be followed in Chapter 10

77 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Protection Against Flood Damage. – In flood hazard areas, ducts shall be located above the design flood elevation or shall be designed and constructed to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the ducts during floods up to the design flood elevation. If the ducts are located below the design flood elevation, the ducts shall be capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flooding to the design flood elevation. LANES POINTS

78 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Insulation of Ducts. – Supply-, return-air ducts and plenums of a heating or cooling system shall be insulated to achieve the minimum thermal (R) value as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4J Cold air ducts shall be insulated wherever necessary or to prevent condensation problems. LANES POINTS

79 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Exceptions: 1)Factory-installed plenums, casings, or ductwork furnished as a part of HVAC equipment tested and rated in accordance with approved energy efficiency standards. 2)Ducts or plenums located in conditioned spaces. 3)For runouts less than ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) in length to air terminals or air outlets, the rated R. value of insulation need not exceed R-3.5 (R-0.6). 4)Backs of air outlets and outlet plenums exposed to unconditioned or indirectly conditioned spaces with face areas exceeding five (5) square feet (0.5 m) need not exceed R-2 (R-0.4); those five (5) square feet (0.5 m 2 ) or smaller need not be insulated. 5)Ducts and plenums used exclusively for evaporative cooling systems. LANES POINTS

80 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Exception: (cont.’d) – Approved materials shall be installed within ducts and plenums for insulating, sound deadening, or other purposes. Materials shall have a mold, humidity, and erosion-resistant surface that meets the requirements of the referenced standard for air ducts in Chapter 17. Duct liners in systems operating with air velocities exceeding 2,000 feet per minute (10.16 m1s) shall be fastened with both adhesive and mechanical fasteners, and exposed edges shall have adequate treatment to withstand the operating velocity. LANES POINTS

81 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Exception: (cont.’d) – Insulation applied to the surface of ducts, including duct coverings, linings, tapes, and adhesives, located in buildings shall have a flame- spread index not greater than twenty-five (25) and a smoke developed index not greater than fifty (50), when tested in accordance with NFPA 255, Method of Test of Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or in accordance with ASTM E 84, Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or in accordance with the provisions of UL 723, Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. The specimen preparation and mounting procedures of ASTM E 2231, Specimen Preparation and Mounting of Pipe and Duct Insulation Materials to Assess Surface Burning Characteristics, shall be used. Air duct coverings and linings shall not flame, glow, smolder, or smoke when tested in accordance with ASTM C 411, Hot-Surface Performance of High-Temperature Thermal Insulation, at the temperature to which they are exposed in service. In no case shall the test temperature be below 250°F (121°C). LANES POINTS

82 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Exception: (cont.’d) – Factory-made air ducts and faced insulations intended for installation on the exterior of ducts shall be legibly printed with the name of the manufacturer, the thermal resistance (R) value at installed thickness, and the flame-spread index and smoke developed index of the composite material. LANES POINTS

83 Chapter 6 Duct Systems [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 (surgical clinics) & 4] – Thermal acoustical lining materials shall not be installed within ducts, terminal boxes, sound traps, and other in-duct systems serving areas such as operating, cesarean operating rooms, delivery rooms, post anesthesia care units, cystoscopy, cardiac cath labs, nurseries, intensive care units, newborn intensive care units, and airborne infection Isolation rooms unless terminal filters with 90 percent average efficiency based on ASHRAE Standard or minimum efficiency rating value (MERV) of 14 are installed downstream of the duct lining. LANES POINTS

84 Chapter 6 Duct Systems – [OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] Thermal or acoustical lining materials shall not be installed within ducts which are downstream of the percent high- efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter or with minimum efficiency rating value (MERV) of 17 required in Section for protective environment rooms. LANES POINTS

85 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Smoke Dampers, Fire Dampers, and Ceiling Dampers. – Smoke Dampers. Smoke dampers shall comply with the standards for leakage-rated dampers referenced in Chapter 17, and shall be installed in accordance with approved manufacturer's installation instructions when required by the Building Code. Smoke dampers shall be labeled by an approved agency. LANES POINTS

86 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Fire Dampers. – Fire dampers shall comply with the standard for fire dampers referenced in Chapter 17, and shall be installed in accordance with the approved manufacturer's installation instructions when required by the Building Code. Fire dampers shall have been tested for closure under airflow conditions and shall be labeled for both maximum airflow permitted and direction of flow. When more than one damper is installed at a point in a single air path, the entire airflow shall be assumed to be passing through the smallest damper area. Fire dampers shall be labeled by an approved agency. – Ductwork shall be connected to damper sleeves or assemblies in accordance with the fire damper manufacturer’s installation instruction. LANES POINTS

87 Chapter 6 Duct Systems – Multiple Arrangements. When size requires the use of multiple dampers, the installation shall be framed in an approved manner to ensure that the dampers remain in place. LANES POINTS

88 Chapter 6 Duct Systems – Access and Identification. Dampers shall be provided with an approved means of access large enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the damper and its operating parts. The access shall not impair fire-resistive construction. Access shall not require the use of tools, keys, or special knowledge. Access points shall be permanently identified on the exterior by a label with letters not less than 1 / 2 inch (12.7 mm) in height reading: SMOKE DAMPER or FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in ducts shall be tight fitting and suitable for the required duct construction. LANES POINTS

89 Chapter 6 Duct Systems – Freedom from Interference. Dampers shall be installed in a manner to ensure positive closing or opening as required by function. Interior liners or insulation shall be held back from portions of a damper, its sleeve, or adjoining duct that would interfere with the damper's proper operation. Exterior materials shall be installed so as to avoid interference with the operation or maintenance of external operating devices needed for proper function. LANES POINTS

90 Chapter 6 Duct Systems – Temperature Classification of Operating Elements. Fusible links, thermal sensors, and pneumatic or electric operators shall have a temperature rating or classification as required by the Building Code. – When the automatic activation of a smoke damper or a combination smoke-fire damper occurs, the HVAC system serving such dampers shall immediately shut down. LANES POINTS

91 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Ventilating Ceilings – General Perforated ceiling may be used for air supply within the limitations of this section. Exit corridors, when required to be of fire-resistive construction by the Building Code, shall not have ventilating ceilings. – [OSHPD 1, 2, 3, & 4] Ventilating ceilings are not permitted in health facilities. LANES POINTS

92 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Requirements. – Ventilating ceilings shall comply with the following provisions: Suspended ventilating ceiling material shall have a Class I flame-spread classification on both sides, deter-mined in accordance with the Building Code. Suspended ventilating ceiling supports shall be of noncombustible materials Lighting fixtures recessed into ventilating ceilings shall be of a type approved for that purpose. LANES POINTS

93 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Use of Under-Floor Space as Supply Plenum for Dwelling Units. – An under-floor space may be used as a supply plenum, provided: The use of under-floor space shall be limited to dwelling units not more than two stories in height. Except for the floor immediately above the under-floor plenum, supply ducts shall be provided extending from the plenum to registers on other floor levels. – Exception: In flood hazard areas, under-floor spaces shall not be used as supply plenums unless the flood opening requirements in the Building Code are satisfied. LANES POINTS There are limitations to this code under the RCM (Residential Compliance Manual) As presented under the current California Energy Commission

94 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Such spaces shall be cleaned of all loose combustible scrap material and shall be tightly and substantially enclosed The enclosing material of the under-floor space, including the sidewall insulation, shall be not more flammable than one (1) inch (25 mm) (nominal) wood boards (flame-spread index of 200). Installation of foam plastics is regulated by the Building Code Access shall be through an opening in the floor and shall be not less than twenty-four (24) inches by twenty-four (24) inches (610 mm x 610 mm). LANES POINTS There are UBC codes restrictions that require 22 x 30 minimum access.

95 Chapter 6 Duct Systems A furnace supplying warm air to under-floor space shall be equipped with an automatic control that will start the air-circulating fan when the air in the furnace bonnet reaches a temperature not higher than 150°F (66°C). Such control shall be one that cannot be set higher than 150°F (66°C) A furnace supplying warm air to such space shall be equipped with an approved temperature limit control that will limit outlet air temperature to 200°F (93°C). LANES POINTS

96 Chapter 6 Duct Systems A noncombustible receptacle shall be placed below each floor opening into the air chamber, and such receptacle shall conform to the following: – The receptacle shall be securely suspended from the floor members and shall be not more than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) below the floor opening. – The area of the receptacle shall extend three (3) inches (76 mm) beyond the opening on all sides. – The perimeter of the receptacle shall have a vertical lip at least one (1) inch (25.4 mm) high at the open sides if it is at the level of the bottom of the joists, or three (3) inches (76 mm) high if the receptacle is suspended. LANES POINTS

97 Chapter 6 Duct Systems – Floor registers shall be designed for easy removal in order to give access for cleaning the receptacles. – Exterior walls and interior stud partitions shall be fire- stopped at the floor. – Each wall register shall be connected to the air chamber by a register box or boot. – A duct conforming with Section shall extend from the furnace supply outlet at least six (6) inches (152 mm) below combustible framing. – The entire ground surface of the under-floor space shall be covered with a vapor barrier having a minimum thickness of four (4) mils ( mm) and a flame-spread index of 200 or less. – Fuel-gas lines and plumbing waste cleanouts are not located within the space. LANES POINTS

98 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Automatic Shutoffs. – Air-moving systems supplying air in excess of 2000 cubic feet per minute (944 L/s) to enclosed spaces within buildings shall be equipped with an automatic shutoff. Automatic shutoff shall be accomplished by interrupting the power source of the air-moving equipment upon detection of smoke in the main supply-air duct served by such equipment. Smoke detectors shall be labeled by an approved agency, approved and listed by California State Fire Marshal for air duct installation and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's approved installation instructions. Such devices shall be compatible, with the operating velocities, pressures, temperatures, and humidity of the system. Where fire detection or alarm systems are provided for the building, the smoke detectors required by this section shall be supervised by such systems, and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and the California Building and Fire Codes. LANES POINTS

99 Chapter 6 Duct Systems Exceptions: 1)When the space supplied by the air-moving equipment is served by a total coverage smoke-detection system complying with the California Fire Code, interconnection to such system may be used to accomplish the required shutoff 2)Automatic shutoff is not required when all occupied rooms served by the air- handling equipment have direct exit to the exterior and the travel distance does not exceed 100 feet (30,480 mm). 3)Automatic shutoff is not required for Group R, Division 3 and Group U Occupancies. 4)Automatic shutoff is not required for approved smoke control systems or where analysis demonstrates shutoff would create a greater hazard such as may be encountered in air-moving equipment supplying specialized portions of Group H Occupancies. Such equipment shall be required to have smoke detection with remote indication and manual shutoff capability at an approved location. 5)Smoke detectors that are factory installed in listed air-moving equipment may be used in lieu of smoke detectors installed in the main supply-air duct served by such equipment. LANES POINTS


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