Presentation on theme: "Family and Consumer Sciences – Culinary Arts Unit 8 th Grade."— Presentation transcript:
Family and Consumer Sciences – Culinary Arts Unit 8 th Grade
Basic Kitchen Sanitation Micro-organisms are bacteria that can help or harm the human body. Micro-organisms can do 3 things to food 1.) Ferment Food – Make the food change. (Food where good micro-organisms can be found include yogurt, bread, and cheese.) 2.) Spoil food – Make it go bad (You know a food has spoiled by how it looks, smells, or tastes)
How Do Micro-organisms Affect Food? 3.) Poison food – These are micro-organisms that can make you sick. These Micro-organisms are called pathogens. *Pathogens are micro-organisms that are poisonous to the human body. *Pathogens do not change the way a food looks, smells, or tastes. They are invisible, odorless, and tasteless to us, but they can still make us sick.
Examples of Pathogens Salmonella – Found in raw chicken, turkey, and eggs (All Poultry Products). Also found in turtles. E-Coli – Commonly found in the lower intestine of warm blooded organisms. Ingested through contaminated food or water, and is also found in raw beef. Campylobacter Jejuni – One of the most common sources of food borne illness in the U.S. Outbreaks of Campylobacter have most often been associated with unpasteurized dairy products, contaminated water, poultry, and produce.
Cross Contamination Happens when bacteria is transferred from one food or surface to another. Cross Contamination can lead to food borne illness. Sanitation is the first step for preventing cross contamination.
Food Borne Illness Food borne illness or food poisoning is caused by… - Germs from your hands that grow on the food you touch - Dirty cook ware and dirty utensils being used to prepare food - Spoiled Food Upset stomach, vomiting, headaches, cramps, diarrhea, and even death can be results of food poisoning or food borne illness.
Steps to Preventing Cross-Contamination Do not let raw food and cooked food come into contact with each other. Keep food hot food hot and cold food cold. Heat kills bacteria and cold stops it from growing. Wash your hands. Sanitize surfaces and kitchen tools used with warm water and soap or anti-bacterial cleaning agents. Read expiration dates on food. Expiration dates tell us when food should no longer be consumed.
The Danger Zone of Food Safety The danger zone where micro-organisms grow best is between: 40 and 140 degrees Fahrenheit. Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold to fight off food borne illness! Food should not be left in the danger zone for more than 2 hours. Other tips to keep food safe… Use a meat thermometer. Defrost frozen food properly - In the refrigerator - In the microwave - In a cold water bath, change the water every half hour.
Kitchen Safety When cooking on a stovetop the pan handle should always face inward, to avoid accidents. - If the handle is out the pan can be knocked and cause a grease fire or a child can pull down hot food/liquid onto themselves. When using a knife blade to cut you should curve your fingers and slant the knife blade away from you. Dull knives cause more accidents than sharp knives. - I have to apply more pressure, because dull knives do not cut as easily so my hand might slip. People aren’t as careful with dull knives.
Kitchen Safety Continued Never put an appliance in water unless it is labeled immersible, meaning it can be completely submerged in water. - Ex: The removable blender jar can go in the dishwasher, but the part with the electrical circuits can not. Before you use an appliance for the first time you should read the appliance booklet to see how it functions and how it should be cleaned. Metal or aluminum foil can never be used in the microwave. It will cause sparking and could lead to a fire. Make sure the dish says microwave safe.
Wash Your Hands!!!!!!!!! The three times to wash your hands when cooking are: 1.) Before cooking 2.) During cooking 3.) After handling of food (Always wash hands for a minimum of 20 seconds.)
Steps to Putting Out a Grease Fire!!!! A grease fire occurs when you are cooking with any kind of fat. Examples: Butter, Grease, Vegetable Oil, and Olive Oil. Can I use water on a Grease Fire? NO!!!!!!!!!!!!! Remember never use water on a grease fire. Oil and water do not mix. Water will cause the fire to spread. It may even cause an explosion. Steps to putting out a grease fire: 1.) Turn off burner 2.) Cover with a non-glass pan lid 3.) Use baking soda (If you don’t have baking soda you can use salt or flour) 4.) Use Fire Extinguisher 5.) Get out and call 911!!!!
By using the big G, you can figure out the basics of measuring liquid volume There are: 8 ounces (oz.) in a cup 2 cups in a pint 2 pints in a quart 4 quarts in a Gallon 128 oz. in a Gallon
Basic Measuring in the Kitchen The yield of the recipe tells us how many servings a recipe will make and people it will feed. Tablespoons and teaspoons are used for both liquid and dry ingredients. The abbreviation for a Tablespoon is Tbsp. The abbreviation for a teaspoon is tsp. There are 3 tsp. for every 1 Tbsp.
Measuring Liquid and Dry Ingredients In a liquid measuring cup you will find:1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 3/4 and 1 cup sizes. Items measured using a liquid measuring cup include: (Water, Cooking Oil, Milk, and Sauces) The curve where the liquid meets the line of measurement is called: -The meniscus (A term used for measuring liquid volume)
Measuring Continued To properly measure liquids make sure the liquid measuring cup is on a level surface, and you are down at eye level. Dry Measurement There are 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, and 1 cup sizes. Items measured using dry measuring cups include: Sugar, Flour, Peanut Butter, and Shortening.
Measuring Continued To properly measure dry ingredients make sure you use a spoon to fill the dry measuring cup with ingredients. You can also dip the dry cup in and then level it off. Level off the extra with the flat edge of your knife or handle of your spoon. Never pack down dry ingredients, unless instructed. For example: Brown sugar, cooked rice, and chopped parsley need to be packed down because they are moist. Dry ingredients and liquid ingredients do not weigh the same so you need to use the correct measuring cup while cooking.