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Water Testing By Lin Wozniewski How Do You Tell If There May Be a Problem Somewhere & the Water Should be Tested? High population density.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Testing By Lin Wozniewski How Do You Tell If There May Be a Problem Somewhere & the Water Should be Tested? High population density."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Testing By Lin Wozniewski

2 How Do You Tell If There May Be a Problem Somewhere & the Water Should be Tested? High population density next to water High population density next to water High industrialization next to water High industrialization next to water Agriculture next to water Agriculture next to water “Straightened” river or artificial lake shores “Straightened” river or artificial lake shores Garbage along/in water Garbage along/in water Shallow water bottom Shallow water bottom

3 How Do You Tell If There May Be a Problem Somewhere? No Fish/Dead Fish No Fish/Dead Fish People complaining of headaches etc. People complaining of headaches etc. Readings on key indicators higher/lower than normal Readings on key indicators higher/lower than normal Large changes in readings from one area to another Large changes in readings from one area to another “Normal” readings where you would not expect them – need to unexpected chemistry “Normal” readings where you would not expect them – need to unexpected chemistry New populations of species New populations of species

4 Pollution or Contamination? It is a pollutant if it is supposed to be there, but the substance is present in higher quantity than it should be. – –Fertilizers, some ions, etc. – –Sometimes metals are thought of as contaminants, but many soils contain arsenic and mercury naturally It is a contaminant if it is not supposed to be there at all – –Plastics

5 Possible Types of Pollution ORGANIC decomposition of once- living material decomposition of once- living material human & animal waste, algae human & animal waste, algaeINORGANIC suspended & dissolved solids suspended & dissolved solids silt, salt, minerals silt, salt, minerals TOXIC heavy metals and lethal organic compounds heavy metals and lethal organic compounds iron, mercury, PCBs iron, mercury, PCBsTHERMAL water heated by urban runoff or industry water heated by urban runoff or industry streets, nuclear power streets, nuclear power BIOLOGICAL introduction of non-native species (zebra mussels)

6 How Do We Test for These Types of Pollution? DO (Dissolved Oxygen) DO (Dissolved Oxygen) BOD 5 (5 Day Biological Oxygen Demand) BOD 5 (5 Day Biological Oxygen Demand) pH (Test for acidity) pH (Test for acidity) Conductivity (TDS- Total Dissolved Solids) Conductivity (TDS- Total Dissolved Solids) Turbidity (How Clear is the Water) Turbidity (How Clear is the Water) Temperature (Thermal Pollution) Temperature (Thermal Pollution) Colorimetry (Test for metals) Colorimetry (Test for metals) Coliform (Test for Organic Pollution) Coliform (Test for Organic Pollution) Ion tests (Chlorine, phosphate, nitrogen, etc Ion tests (Chlorine, phosphate, nitrogen, etc Chlorophyl  Chlorophyl 

7 Dissolved Oxygen Measures how much oxygen is dissolved in the water and available for plants and animals to breath Measures how much oxygen is dissolved in the water and available for plants and animals to breath Sources Sources –Dissolved air –Photosynthesis Measured with a probe Measured with a probe Best if done in the water body – can be done up to two hours later Best if done in the water body – can be done up to two hours later Because of temperature dependence, it is measured in % Saturation Because of temperature dependence, it is measured in % Saturation

8 Amount of Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) your water sample would need to be 100% Saturated at the given temperature.* Sea Level

9 Calculate % Saturation: __DO mg/L__ (your sample) Max DO mg/L (from chart determined by water temp) X 100% Example at 19º C: 8.0 x 100% = 84.6% 8.0 x 100% = 84.6% State Standard > 5 mg/L, not 5 mg/L, not < 4 mg/L

10 Using the DO Probe The probe has to be filled with solution The probe has to be filled with solution The probe has to be warmed up for 10 minutes before use. The probe has to be warmed up for 10 minutes before use. The TI has an internal calibration curve. You can use it, or do a calibration set yourself The TI has an internal calibration curve. You can use it, or do a calibration set yourself

11 BOD 5 day Measures how much of the dissolved oxygen is used up during the course of 5 days Measures how much of the dissolved oxygen is used up during the course of 5 days DO measures are taken at the same time as collection every day for 5 days DO measures are taken at the same time as collection every day for 5 days Tells about how much of the oxygen dissolved in the water is being used up by microorganisms & hence how much is available to fish. Tells about how much of the oxygen dissolved in the water is being used up by microorganisms & hence how much is available to fish. Is confounded by COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) Is confounded by COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) Measured on water taken back to lab Measured on water taken back to lab

12 BOD 5 DO (Original sample) – DO (Day 5) = BOD 5 DO (Original sample) – DO (Day 5) = BOD 5 Typical range for BOD 5 = 0 to 6.3 mg/L Indiana Average = 1.5 mg/L

13 pH Measure of how acidic or basic the water is Measure of how acidic or basic the water is From 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very basic) From 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very basic) Influenced by geology, rain, and discharge from point sources Influenced by geology, rain, and discharge from point sources Affects toxicity of other chemicals; many aquatic organisms are very pH-sensitive Affects toxicity of other chemicals; many aquatic organisms are very pH-sensitive Changes with temperature, in response to high levels of photosynthesis; related to alkalinity Changes with temperature, in response to high levels of photosynthesis; related to alkalinity Typical range for pH = 7.2 to 8.8 Typical range for pH = 7.2 to 8.8 Indiana Average = 8.0 Indiana Average = 8.0 State Standard = between State Standard = between Due to the state’s limestone geology, Indiana surface waters will typically have a pH that is relatively basic (> 7). Due to the state’s limestone geology, Indiana surface waters will typically have a pH that is relatively basic (> 7).

14 pH Can be measured right in water body Can be measured right in water body Is a measure of how much pollution: Sulfur Oxides, Phosphate, Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide is dissolved in the lake since most of these form weak acids in water Is a measure of how much pollution: Sulfur Oxides, Phosphate, Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide is dissolved in the lake since most of these form weak acids in water Uses a sensitive glass electrode that MUST be kept wet at all times. Uses a sensitive glass electrode that MUST be kept wet at all times. Electrode MUST be taken out of the buffer solution prior to being placed in water to be measured Electrode MUST be taken out of the buffer solution prior to being placed in water to be measured Should not need to calibrate Should not need to calibrate

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16 Alkalinity A measure of how much buffering capacity the body of water has. A measure of how much buffering capacity the body of water has. If acid is put in pure water, the pH will change a lot. If acid is put in pure water, the pH will change a lot. If acid is put into a buffer, the pH will change very little – at least until the buffering capacity is reached. If acid is put into a buffer, the pH will change very little – at least until the buffering capacity is reached. Living systems have natural buffering mechanisms which are added to the water. Living systems have natural buffering mechanisms which are added to the water. Limestone also has an ability to add buffering capacity. Limestone also has an ability to add buffering capacity.

17 TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) A conductivity test is used as a measure of TDS since most dissolved solids are ionic A conductivity test is used as a measure of TDS since most dissolved solids are ionic Used in connection with pH as a measure of the amount of ammonia, phosphate, nitrate, etc. dissolved in the body of water Used in connection with pH as a measure of the amount of ammonia, phosphate, nitrate, etc. dissolved in the body of water Can be measured right in the body of water. Can be measured right in the body of water. Probe MUST be inserted into water far enough for water to cover hole in side of probe Probe MUST be inserted into water far enough for water to cover hole in side of probe

18 Ideal Drinking water from reverse osmosis, distillation, deionization, microfiltration, etc PPM Often considered acceptable range for carbon filtration, mountain springs or aquifers PPM Average tap water PPM Hard water.170 PPM or above Less desirable PPM Unpleasant levels from tap water, aquifers or mountain springs PPM The EPA's maximum contamination level.500 PPM Total Dissolved Solids

19 Turbidity A measure of how clear the water is A measure of how clear the water is Fish can not survive if they can not see food Fish can not survive if they can not see food Sample is compared with a standard that comes with the machine Sample is compared with a standard that comes with the machine Sample must be mixed but not shaken (stirred, not shaken) because water bubbles will confound the test Sample must be mixed but not shaken (stirred, not shaken) because water bubbles will confound the test Is a measure of how much material is suspended in the body of water Is a measure of how much material is suspended in the body of water Typical range for TURBIDITY = 0 to 173 NTU Typical range for TURBIDITY = 0 to 173 NTU Indiana Average = 36 NTU Indiana Average = 36 NTU

20 Turbidity NTU - Nephelometer Turbidity Units: a unit of measurement commonly used in electronic turbidity meters that indicate how far light can penetrate into a water sample before the cloudiness of the sample cuts into the light. NTU - Nephelometer Turbidity Units: a unit of measurement commonly used in electronic turbidity meters that indicate how far light can penetrate into a water sample before the cloudiness of the sample cuts into the light.

21 Secchi Disk A different way of measuring the turbidity of the water. A different way of measuring the turbidity of the water. A disk with black and white areas is attached to a cord that has knots in it. A disk with black and white areas is attached to a cord that has knots in it. The disk is lowered slowly into the body of water until it disappears. The disk is lowered slowly into the body of water until it disappears. The point on the rope that just touches the water is noted The point on the rope that just touches the water is noted The disk is pulled out and the depth at which the disc disappeared is noted. The disk is pulled out and the depth at which the disc disappeared is noted. Secchi Disks measure the water clarity at many depths & can not be connected to turbidity directly Secchi Disks measure the water clarity at many depths & can not be connected to turbidity directly

22 Temperature Must be done in the body of water Must be done in the body of water What we are looking for is a difference in temperature in the body of water that might indicate thermal pollution What we are looking for is a difference in temperature in the body of water that might indicate thermal pollution Temperature of the water will determine how much oxygen can be dissolved into the water Temperature of the water will determine how much oxygen can be dissolved into the water –The higher the temperature of the water, the less oxygen can be dissolved in the water State Water Quality Standard: < 5° F change downstream (approximately 2.8° C) State Water Quality Standard: < 5° F change downstream (approximately 2.8° C)

23 Oxygen & Temperature Graph

24 Colorimetry Most heavy metals either have colored ions, or can be reacted with a reagent that will make the ion colored that can be inserted in a colorimeter and the results compared using a calibration curve Most heavy metals either have colored ions, or can be reacted with a reagent that will make the ion colored that can be inserted in a colorimeter and the results compared using a calibration curve

25 Calibration Curves The calculators display the output of the colorimeters in absorbance. The calculators display the output of the colorimeters in absorbance. These readings then have to be referenced to a standard. These readings then have to be referenced to a standard. To make the calibration curves, solutions of known amounts of ions are tested and the absorbance recorded. To make the calibration curves, solutions of known amounts of ions are tested and the absorbance recorded. A graph is then made with the concentration of the ion being tested on the X axis and the absorbance on the Y A graph is then made with the concentration of the ion being tested on the X axis and the absorbance on the Y

26 Calibration Curves Continued A best fit line is then put in. A best fit line is then put in. The absorbance of the sample is followed to the line and the concentration is then read off the corresponding X- axis The absorbance of the sample is followed to the line and the concentration is then read off the corresponding X- axis

27 Calibration Curve Example

28 Ion Tests These are done with probes These are done with probes Some possible ion tests (there are many others) Some possible ion tests (there are many others) –Ammonium (NH 4 + ) –Calcium (Ca +2 ) –Chloride (Cl -1 ) –Nitrates (NO 3 -1 ) –Phosphorous (Usually PO 4 -3 ) The output from the probe is recorded on the calculator as a millivolt reading. The output from the probe is recorded on the calculator as a millivolt reading. These also require a calibration curve to interpret. These also require a calibration curve to interpret.

29 Phosphates Nutrient essential to plant growth, naturally present in low concentrations Nutrient essential to plant growth, naturally present in low concentrations Enters water via runoff; present in fertilizers, attached to soil particles, and in organic waste Enters water via runoff; present in fertilizers, attached to soil particles, and in organic waste Can lead to eutrophication = nutrient overload and the system’s response (lots of plant growth) Can lead to eutrophication = nutrient overload and the system’s response (lots of plant growth) High P often results in low DO High P often results in low DO

30 Phosphate range Can be in the form of salts of phosphate (Orthophosphate) or organophosphate Can be in the form of salts of phosphate (Orthophosphate) or organophosphate There are no state water quality standards for Orthophosphate. However, we do know the Total Phosphate There are no state water quality standards for Orthophosphate. However, we do know the Total Phosphate Typical range (0 to 0.85 mg/L) and Typical range (0 to 0.85 mg/L) and Average (0.05 mg/L). Average (0.05 mg/L). We generally expect orthophosphate to be less than total phosphate, since orthophosphate is but one component of total phosphate. We generally expect orthophosphate to be less than total phosphate, since orthophosphate is but one component of total phosphate.

31 Nitrates Nutrients essential to plant growth Nutrients essential to plant growth Sewage is main source to rivers and streams Sewage is main source to rivers and streams Excessive amounts contribute to eutrophication Excessive amounts contribute to eutrophication High nitrate levels often correspond to high total phosphates and low DO High nitrate levels often correspond to high total phosphates and low DO Typical range for NITRATE (NO 3 -1 ) = 0 to mg/L Typical range for NITRATE (NO 3 -1 ) = 0 to mg/L Indiana Average = mg/L Indiana Average = mg/L

32 Ammonium Ammonia is a gas Ammonia is a gas Ammonia reacts with water to form ammonium hydroxide – a weak base Ammonia reacts with water to form ammonium hydroxide – a weak base NH 3 + H 2 O  NH 4 OH  NH OH - NH 3 + H 2 O  NH 4 OH  NH OH - Ammonium is the only positively charged polyatomic ion Ammonium is the only positively charged polyatomic ion Found in a lot of fertilizers as a source of nitrogen for plant growth Found in a lot of fertilizers as a source of nitrogen for plant growth Generally measured with a probe and then compared to a calibration curve Generally measured with a probe and then compared to a calibration curve

33 Calcium Often leached out of limestone bedrock Often leached out of limestone bedrock One of the major measures of Hard Water One of the major measures of Hard Water Measured with a probe and compared to a calibration curve Measured with a probe and compared to a calibration curve Tends to be high in southern Indiana & well water, but low in Northern Indiana & surface water Tends to be high in southern Indiana & well water, but low in Northern Indiana & surface water

34 Chlorides Used as a measure of salinity Used as a measure of salinity –Particularly in sea water A measure of the amount of salts likely to be dissolved in the water. A measure of the amount of salts likely to be dissolved in the water. Most chlorides are soluble Most chlorides are soluble Measured with a probe and checked against a calibration curve Measured with a probe and checked against a calibration curve

35 How to Use Ion Probes Probes are stored in long term bottles with just Distilled Water in sponge Probes are stored in long term bottles with just Distilled Water in sponge Probes need to be taken out and put in short term storage bottles with High Standard ~ ¾ least 30 minutes, but not > 24 hrs Probes need to be taken out and put in short term storage bottles with High Standard ~ ¾ least 30 minutes, but not > 24 hrs Plug probe into TI Plug probe into TI Turn on TI Turn on TI Push APPS button Push APPS button Arrow down to DataMate (or push 4) Arrow down to DataMate (or push 4) Push 1 Push 1 Arrow down to Mode & push enter Arrow down to Mode & push enter Push 4 Push 4

36 How to Use Ion Probes on TI Arrow up to Channel 1 Arrow up to Channel 1 Push 2 the Push 2 again Push 2 the Push 2 again When voltage reading is stable press enter When voltage reading is stable press enter Enter 100 Enter 100 Clean off probe & dry Clean off probe & dry Put into low standard Put into low standard When voltage reading is stable press enter When voltage reading is stable press enter Enter 1 then Press 1 again & Press 1 again Enter 1 then Press 1 again & Press 1 again Clean off probe & dry Clean off probe & dry Put into sample & press 2 Put into sample & press 2 Clean & dry probe Clean & dry probe Read concentration in mg/100 ml directly- calculator uses internal calibration curve Read concentration in mg/100 ml directly- calculator uses internal calibration curve

37 Coliform Biological contamination can be found by using a substrate that will color different colonies of bacteria differently. Biological contamination can be found by using a substrate that will color different colonies of bacteria differently. This allows the scientist to determine not only how large the bacteria count in the body of water is, but also what types of bacteria are present This allows the scientist to determine not only how large the bacteria count in the body of water is, but also what types of bacteria are present These bacteria are not so much a problem by themselves, but indicate that animal waste is being put into the water and the other parts of the waste are the contaminate These bacteria are not so much a problem by themselves, but indicate that animal waste is being put into the water and the other parts of the waste are the contaminate

38 Coliscan Easygel Blue and purple colonies are E.coliBlue and purple colonies are E.coli Pink colonies are coliformsPink colonies are coliforms Teal colonies are non-coliformsTeal colonies are non-coliforms Best if incubated at 35 o C for 24 hoursBest if incubated at 35 o C for 24 hours

39 E. coli Typical range for E. coli = 133 to 1,157 colonies/100 mL Typical range for E. coli = 133 to 1,157 colonies/100 mL Indiana Average = 645 colonies/100mL Indiana Average = 645 colonies/100mL State Water Quality Standard for total body contact recreation: State Water Quality Standard for total body contact recreation: <235 colonies/100 mL (single sample), and <235 colonies/100 mL (single sample), and < 125 colonies/100 mL (Geometric mean of 5 samples equally spaced over 30 days) < 125 colonies/100 mL (Geometric mean of 5 samples equally spaced over 30 days)

40 Chlorophyll  This requires a sophisticated spectrophotometer This requires a sophisticated spectrophotometer This is one of the tests done on water samples that are provided to IU as part of the Clear Lakes program This is one of the tests done on water samples that are provided to IU as part of the Clear Lakes program

41 Interrelationships

42 Sources of Pollution Point Sources Point Sources –Used to be largest souce of pollution –Most of these sources have already been cleaned up –Individual factories, etc. Non-Point Sources Non-Point Sources –Now the largest source of pollution –Grease, oil, gasoline dripping off vehicles –Salt put on roads –Run off from residential fertilizing –Much more difficult to legislate clean up

43 Programs that empower students Hoosier River Watch Hoosier River Watch –http://www.in.gov/dnr/nrec/2945.htm –Requires teacher training –Kits are available for checkout and use. –Students enter data directly into a database & the data is used by real scientists Clean Lakes Program Clean Lakes Program –http://www.indiana.edu/~clp/index.html –Run by IU –Kits are available –Student collected data goes into real database Other programs out there too Other programs out there too

44 Resources For activities like the ones we are handing out (grouped by grade and subject): For activities like the ones we are handing out (grouped by grade and subject): –http://education.ti.com/educationportal/activi tyexchange/activity_list.do?cid=us tyexchange/activity_list.do?cid=ushttp://education.ti.com/educationportal/activi tyexchange/activity_list.do?cid=us For information on water quality (and all kinds of other natural resource education questions): For information on water quality (and all kinds of other natural resource education questions): –http://www.in.gov/dnr/nrec/

45 Resources North American Association for Environmental Education North American Association for Environmental Education –http://eelink.net/pages/Student%20En vironmental%20Education%20Sites vironmental%20Education%20Siteshttp://eelink.net/pages/Student%20En vironmental%20Education%20Sites


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