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Resin lifetime By François de Dardel
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 2 RESIN LIFETIME: HOW LONG WILL MY RESIN LAST ? Question 1 : How long can I keep my resin before changing it ? Question 2 : What resin life does R&H guarantee ? Answer : Many parameters influence resin life
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 3 Factors influencing lifetimeType of stress Type of processMechanical Fluidised Resin transfers (MBs, CPP) Continuous ion exchange Suspended solidsMechanical Specific flow rateMechanical Frequency of regenerationOsmotic OxidantsChemical FoulantsChemical TemperatureThermal LIFETIME Factors
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 4 PHYSICAL STABILITY External forcesInternal forces purely mechanicalosmotic Osmotic >> mechanical forces (by 10 to 100 times)
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 5 MECHANICAL STABILITY Breaking weight test (Chatillon test) Is a simple, straightforward test Measuring the force under which an individual bead breaks (60 beads) But meaningless It does not reflect operating conditions of resin
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 6 BREAKING WEIGHT TEST Results g/bead Even a resin with a low breaking weight value can perform perfectly in fixed beds. Some Amberlite IRA402 have been used for more than 10 years without total replacement. Long bars are better Chatillon test
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 7 OSMOTIC STABILITY Results of cycling (H 2 SO 4 — NaOH) test No correlation with breaking weight test ! Note: IRC86 does not break in its normal operation (H — > Ca exchange), but should not be used for neutralising NaOH Acid - Base Cycling % broken Short bars are better
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 8 OSMOTIC STABILITY Volume variation vs. ionic form (1) SBA ml WAC H+H+ Na IRC86 SAC H+H+ Na IR120 WBA FBHCl IRA96 OH — Cl — IRA
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 9 OSMOTIC STABILITY Volume variation vs. ionic form (2) Variation in volume is due to change in hydration of active group SO 3 - O H H H + O HH O H H O H H O H H Na + SO 3 - O H H O H H R R O H H RC O O H + - O H H O H H O H H O H H Na + RC O O - N CH R SAC WAC WBA - 8 % + 80 % ! + 25 % O H H H + Cl - N CH R O H H O HH O H H
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 10 Variation in volume is here a pure osmotic effect (dehydration) 6 % Amberjet 4400 OH — in H 2 O Amberjet 4400 OH — in 4% NaOH OSMOTIC STABILITY Volume variation vs concentration
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 11 Cl 2, O 3, O 2 + worsening factors such as metals ( catalyse oxidation ) temperature ( accelerates reaction ) Matrix breaks down resin swells and gets soft More DVB = better resistance (macroporous resins are better) Maximum acceptable chlorine ( in conventional applications ) IRC861mg/L HP3360.1mg/L IR1200.2mg/L Amberjet mg/L Amberjet mg/L Ambersep mg/L IRA4020.1mg/L Amberjet mg/L IRA960.05mg/L Maximum acceptable chlorine ( in conventional applications ) IRC861mg/L HP3360.1mg/L IR1200.2mg/L Amberjet mg/L Amberjet mg/L Ambersep mg/L IRA4020.1mg/L Amberjet mg/L IRA960.05mg/L CHEMICAL STABILITY OXIDATION
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 12 CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION FOULING All resins Oil, grease Bacteria, algae Cation resins Na exchange: Fe, Mn H exchange: CaSO 4 in case of H 2 SO 4 regeneration Anion resins Organics, silica
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 13 Resistance to fouling Type 1 poor high affinity for organics difficult to regenerate thus high tendency to fouling Type 2 better better regenerability thus less easily fouled Acrylic good aliphatic structure no Van der Waals attraction good elution of organics Natural organics foul Anion resins Natural organics foul Anion resins ORGANIC FOULING of Anion Resins
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 14 N = Organics (ppm of KMnO 4 ) Total anions ( meq/L) N measures the fouling risk of the water. The table shows the value under which a given resin can be used safely N measures the fouling risk of the water. The table shows the value under which a given resin can be used safely FOULING INDEX ResinN max A ’ Jet A ’ Jet IRA4024 IRA4106 IRA45815 IRA47815 IRA9006 IRA91010 IRA9612 IRA67 20 ResinN max A ’ Jet A ’ Jet IRA4024 IRA4106 IRA45815 IRA47815 IRA9006 IRA91010 IRA9612 IRA67 20
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 15 Organic load is the quantity of organics passing through the resin bed Organic load is the quantity of organics passing through the resin bed AmberjetAmberlitemax. g/L R 4200IRA IRA IRA9003 IRA4588 IRA47810 IRA9210 IRA9612 IRA6725 AmberjetAmberlitemax. g/L R 4200IRA IRA IRA9003 IRA4588 IRA47810 IRA9210 IRA9612 IRA6725 MAXIMUM ORGANIC LOAD Recommended maximum load per cycle in g/L R as KMnO 4
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 16 REMOVAL OF ORGANICS Resins do remove organics from water; however, resins are not designed for that purpose. No guarantee can be given for % removal. Approximate figures :Organic removal WBA40 to 70 % SBA Styrenic gel20 to 60 % Styrenic MR50 to 100 % Acrylic gel40 to 80 % Acrylic MR60 to 100 %
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 17 ELUTION OF ORGANICS Approximate figures :Elution WBA50 to 100 % SBA Type 130 to 70 % Type 260 to 95 % Acrylic90 to 100 % Treatment for fouled resins: Alkaline brine 10 % NaCl + 2 % NaOH Hydrochloric acid 10 % hot HCl Fouling = Accumulation of organics when elution (during regeneration) is less than 100% Fouling = Accumulation of organics when elution (during regeneration) is less than 100%
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 18 TEMPERATURE STABILITY Frost: no measurable effect down to - 40°C Allow resin to thaw at 10 to 30°C Heat: cation OK up to 100°C Beware of oxidants / metals can catalyse reaction Heat: anion resins are sensitive WBA styrenicup to 60 °C WBA acrylicup to 35 °C SBA type 1up to 60 °C SBA type 2up to 30 °C SBA acrylicup to 35 °C (higher temperatures possible in certain special applications)
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 19 Hofmann ’ s degradation reaction example shown: type 1 SBA resin : effect is worse with type 2 TEMPERATURE STABILITY
© 2009 Dow Water & Process Solutions Lifetime 20 Nobody knows the date of resin death.... but Follow all recommendations, this will guarantee long life to your resins. CONCLUSION
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