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Ultrasound, not just your daddy leak detector anymore. Presented by Paul Klimuc SDT Ultrasound Solutions What Industry Listens To.

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Presentation on theme: "Ultrasound, not just your daddy leak detector anymore. Presented by Paul Klimuc SDT Ultrasound Solutions What Industry Listens To."— Presentation transcript:


2 Ultrasound, not just your daddy leak detector anymore. Presented by Paul Klimuc SDT Ultrasound Solutions What Industry Listens To

3 2 Defect Detection 101 The benefit of ultrasonic is that the energies produced are detectable much earlier in the failure curve.

4 P-F Interval Condition Time P F

5 P-F Interval Infrared Vibration Condition Time P F

6 5 Static Condition Indicators RMS Max RMS Peak Crest Factor

7 6 What is RMS? Acronym for Root Mean Square Reflects the amount of energy present Physical unit (we use): dBµV

8 7

9 8 RMS: advantages/disadvantages Positive: Stable Repeatable Suited for trending Negative: Insensitive to short duration events So not suited to early stage impact detection

10 9 Max RMS: advantages/disadvantages Positive: Stable and repeatable Comparison with RMS: steady or varying signal Suited for trending Negative: Insensitive to early stage impact detection

11 10 What is Peak? The highest value detected in the time signal Physical unit used: dBµV The Sampling Rate is 8K.

12 11 Peak : advantages/disadvantages Positive: Very sensitive to any change Suited for impact detection Negative: Not going to be repeatable, by the very nature of infrequent transients Trends difficult to interpret

13 12 What is Crest Factor? The Peak-to-RMS ratio Crest Factor = Peak / RMS No physical unit – it is a numeric ratio Indicates how Peaky the signal is or how many impacts/RMS

14 13 What is Crest Factor? RMS value is 20dBµV Peak is 40dBµV Crest Factor could be expressed in dB’s – 40-20=20dB Crest Factor is expressed in linear numbers – Crest Factor is 10 40dBµV = 100µV, 20dBµV = 10µV – Crest Factor is 100/10= 10

15 14 Condition indicators A guide to choosing RMSMax RMSPeakCrest Factor Leak Steam traps Lubrication Mechanical Electrical

16 15 Condition indicators A comparison guide PositiveNegative RMS Stable Repeatable Trending Insensitive to short duration events Not suited for early stage bearing failure Max RMS Steady or fluctuating signal (vs. RMS) Not suited for early stage bearing failure Peak and Crest Factor Very sensitive to any change Suited for bearing failure Not stable and repeatable Not suited for trending

17 16 Benefits Combining the 4 condition indicators: Better view of machinery health or performance (steam traps, mechanical) Better evaluation of the failure severity (lubrication, mechanical, traps) Better diagnosis capabilities (lubrication vs bearing failure) Early stage detection (mechanical)

18 17 Condition indicators and UAS UAS handles each indicator separately Select whichever you want for trend display Alarms are set up individually for each – (3 Absolute, 4 Relative, 2 Safe) x 4 = 36 alarms

19 18 Condition indicators and UAS Condition indicators: Simplicity for those who want Elaborate for those who need

20 Slow Speed Bearings

21 20 Rotating Machinery Slow Speed Condition Monitoring –Difficult with some technologies Ultrasound does not need 1 minute

22 21 Singapore Flyer A Spindle bearing measurements taken one month after rotational direction changed (Feng Shui) 37 minutes for one rotation.0004 RPM Ferris Wheel Feng Shui

23 22 Special Applications – Hoist Bearing –Doesn’t operate long enough for some tech. –14 RPM but for 10 or 20 seconds only –BPFI expected at 2.88Hz/173CPM Rotating Machinery

24 23 Time Signal –Impacts can be seen clearly

25 Expand any area of this time signal Apply a periodic cusor – You get a repetition frequency of 346cpm – 2x the inner race defect frequency (173cpm) Time Signal

26 25 Rotating Machinery Inner Race Defect Discovered –Spalling across the length of the raceway

27 26 Bearing failure example Healthy bearing: RMS = 24.4 dBµV, Peak = 43.1 dBµV, CF = 8.6

28 27 Bearing failure example Defective bearing: RMS = 47.7 dBµV, Peak = 75.4 dBµV, CF = 21.9

29 28 What’s the problem? Over lubrication is – A huge killer of bearings – Consumes far too much grease – Consumes far too much time – Reduces reliability

30 29 Applications Lubrication: Lubrication is friction Correctly greased: regular and pleasant signal (low RMS value) Under or over greased: friction, and so signal is increasing RMS is the suited indicator, throw in Peak to detect possible early stage damage

31 30 The horror stories

32 31 Lubrication example Healthy bearing being lubricated: Correctly greased: RMS = 51.2 dBµV Under-greased: RMS = 57.8 dBµV

33 32 On-condition lubrication Bearing needed grease:

34 33 On-condition lubrication Bearing already overgreased:

35 34 On-condition lubrication Using trending:

36 35 Using an accelerometer Vibration Ultrasound Thermal Imaging Oil Analysis Motor Current Analysis

37 36 Keeping it simple The 270 has IR temperature measurement – But it is not an IR camera The 270 has vibration measurement – But it is not a vibration data collector – That’s not the intention

38 37 Using an accelerometer Adds one extra tool to the powerful SDT270 Means that users can make diagnosis that bit easier – Don’t need to go back to office to change tools – Don’t need to ask somebody else to do it

39 38 What can I measure? Velocity in ips or mm/s 10-1,000Hz Acceleration in g 10-10,000Hz RMS and Peak calculated Dynamic measurement (Time) of both now possible with the Raw option instead of Ht. All options controlled inside UAS Sensor Options Supports 100mV/g ONLY

40 This should get your attention

41 Electrical Applications Use ultrasound to find electrical faults – Arcing – Tracking – Corona – Special areas Flow Loose part monitoring

42 BEFORE CLEANINGAFTER CLEANING Find it, Fix it, Check it Measurement Cycle

43 42

44 Valve Inspections 1. Do a comparison method before and after the valve. OR 2. Contact the valve and listen.

45 44 Valves and Hydraulics Find internal leakage and passing valves Perform inspections without disassembly Save hours or even days from complicated repairs Ultrasonic Inspection of Hydraulics: Place contact sensor on valve body and wait for system to cycle. Ultrasound will tell you that the valve is passing or stuck in shut position.

46 Valve Body Inspection Checking valve for flow –Upstream and downstream –Works for any gas or liquid

47 Valve Inspections Identify the difference between a closed and 10% open 60cm bypass recycle valve –Dynamic measurements captured downstream –Time signals identically scaled Valve closedValve opened 10%

48 47 Steam Trap example Good trap: Max RMS (43.3 dBµV) is higher than RMS (29.7 dBµV) Peak (51.7 dBµV) RMS Max RMS

49 48 Trap example Failed closed: RMS is low (9.4 dBµV) Max RMS (11.5 dBµV) is close to RMS RMS Max RMS

50 49 Trap example Failed open: RMS is high (39.5 dBµV) Max RMS is close to RMS (41.9 dBµV) RMS Max RMS


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