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CHAPTER Images shutterstock.com 6 Safeguarding Health.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER Images shutterstock.com 6 Safeguarding Health."— Presentation transcript:

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2 CHAPTER Images shutterstock.com 6 Safeguarding Health

3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Discuss causes, symptoms, and treatment of common foodborne illnesses. List the four key steps to food safety and give examples of each. Give examples of how following good safety practices can help you prevent kitchen accidents. Apply basic first aid measures. Objectives

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Food Contamination Most foodborne illnesses are caused by contaminants, including microorganisms such as bacteria Many contaminated foods do not look or smell spoiled, but they can still cause illness Harmful bacteria can get into food at any point from the farm to the table Soil, insects, humans, and cooking tools can all transfer bacteria to food Food can become contaminated at any point from the farm to the table Animals raised for food often contain microorganisms. continued

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Food Contamination Federal, state, and local governments help keep the food supply safe Avoid consuming foods that are often contaminated, including raw and undercooked meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, and unpasteurized milk Photo by Black Star/Michael Falco for FDA

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Bacterial Illnesses Symptoms of foodborne illnesses caused by bacteria or toxins produced by bacteria often include abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, headache, and/or vomiting Symptoms may appear 30 minutes to 5 days after eating contaminated food Most healthy bodies can handle small amounts of harmful bacteria http://babcock.wisc.edu/sites/default/files/documents/en_feca l.pdfhttp://babcock.wisc.edu/sites/default/files/documents/en_feca l.pdf http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2013/10/taking-aim-at- microbes-on-farm-a-good-strategy-toward-food- safety/#.VLFHgEt0UfEhttp://www.foodsafetynews.com/2013/10/taking-aim-at- microbes-on-farm-a-good-strategy-toward-food- safety/#.VLFHgEt0UfE continued

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Bacterial Illnesses Foodborne illnesses are a greater risk to infants, pregnant women, older adults, and those with impaired immune systems Those who are in high-risk groups, have severe symptoms, or suspect they have botulism should see a physician right away Symptoms of food borne illness vary depending on the type by most affect the digestive system Symptoms for botulism differs from most food borne illness and the death rate is high for botulism Botulism can be treated with an antitoxin if diagnosed in time

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Other Foodborne Illnesses Causes of foodborne illness other than bacteria include –protozoa –viruses –norovirus –hepatitis A found in shellfish –natural toxins (wild mushrooms, fruits, roots) –parasites (Page 132 Health and Wellness) –fish toxins © margouillat photo /Shutterstock © Sally Scott /Shutterstock

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Think Further Why are infants, pregnant women, and older adults at a higher risk if they contract a foodborne illness? Think Further © wavebreakmedia ltd/Shutterstock

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Four Steps to Food Safety Food safety guidelines can be summed up in four basic steps –clean –separate –cook –chill

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Clean Practice good sanitation by keeping yourself and your kitchen clean –tie back long hair –cover coughs and sneezes –wash hands, cutting boards, utensils, dishes, counters, dishcloths, and sponges often –do not store foods under the sink –dispose of garbage promptly © USDA

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Think Further What are the proper steps for hand washing and when should they be followed? © USDA

13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Separate Separate cooked and ready-to-eat foods from raw foods to prevent cross-contamination –do not wash raw meat or poultry –never use the same utensil, cutting board, or plate for raw and cooked foods –do not taste and cook with the same spoon © USDA

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cook Cooking raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs to a safe internal temperature can kill harmful bacteria (look at chart on page 135) Keep hot foods at 140 –use a thermometer to check food temperatures –stuff raw poultry, meat, and fish just before baking and cooked to an internal temperature of 165 –do not taste uncooked or partially cooked dishes –Reheat leftovers to 165, when reheating soups and gravies they should come to a full boil © USDA

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Chill Chilling foods promptly after buying or serving will keep harmful bacteria from multiplying –do not allow foods to sit out more than two hours –Keep cold foods below 40 –DO NOT refreeze foods –thaw foods in the refrigerator, under cold running water or in microwave, not at room temperature –refrigerate foods in shallow containers to speed cooling –Page 136 © USDA

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cooking for Special Occasions When cooking for a crowd, be sure appliances can keep large quantities of cold foods below 40°F and hot foods above 140°F When transporting foods for picnics and barbecues, use coolers to keep perishable foods cold until they are to be cooked or eaten and use a separate cooler for beverages

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Eating Safely When Eating Out Most reported foodborne illness cases occur in foodservice establishments A restaurant’s exterior (parking lot, exterior of building), interior (tables wiped, walls and floors clean, restrooms clean), and employees should all be clean; a concern for cleanliness should be evident Food should look and smell wholesome and be served at the proper temperature Exploring Careers Page 136

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Storing Food for Emergencies The American Red Cross recommends storing at least a three-day supply of food and water for each person to use in an emergency Be considerate of special dietary needs Choose nonperishable items (dried fruit, beef jerky) © B747/Shutterstock

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Safety in the Kitchen Taking safety precautions can help prevent kitchen accidents and injuries Most accidents are due to ignorance and carelessness Chemical poisonings, cuts, burns, fires, and falls are the most common First aid kit should be kept in kitchen © caldix/Shutterstock

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Preventing Chemical Poisonings Children are most susceptible to poisonings Keep household chemicals and medications out of children’s reach Do not place cleaning chemicals in unmarked bottles Keep a poison chart handy In a case of poisoning, call the nearest poison control center immediately

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Preventing Cuts Keep knives sharp; wash and store them separately from other utensils Never put fingers near appliance blades or beaters Wear rubber gloves when cleaning up broken glass To treat a cut, cover it with a sterile cloth and apply firm pressure to stop bleeding

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Preventing Burns and Fires Burns can be caused by scalding liquids, spattering grease, and hot cooking utensils Fires can be caused by malfunctioning electrical appliances and lack of attention to open flames Wear tight-fitting clothing and roll up long sleeves when cooking continued

23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Preventing Burns and Fires Ensure pot handles are turned away from the front of the cooktop Install a smoke alarm and keep a fire extinguisher handy To treat burns, place the burned area immediately in cold water; do not apply ointment or grease © Chris Hohne/Shutterstock

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Preventing Falls Use a step stool or ladder to reach high places instead of a chair or box Wipe up spills from floors immediately Keep floors clear of clutter When someone falls, stop any bleeding and loosen clothing around the victim’s neck Do not move the victim if a broken bone is suspected

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Preventing Electric Shock Electric shock can be caused by faulty wiring, overloaded electrical outlets, or damaged appliances Do not touch electrical items with wet hands Do not overload electrical outlets or disconnect appliances by pulling on cords Do not use damaged appliances continued

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Preventing Electrical Shock If someone receives an electric shock, cut off the power source and use a nonconducting material to pull the victim away from the electrical source before calling for emergency help

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Preventing Choking Choking occurs when a piece of food or object is lodged in the victim’s throat Chew food thoroughly Avoid talking and laughing with a full mouth Do not give young children small, round pieces of food Learn how to perform the abdominal thrust to save a choking victim

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Did You Know? Falls are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits © GWImages/Shutterstock

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 1.Name four symptoms commonly associated with foodborne illness. (Name four:) abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fatigue, headache, fever, vomiting Review

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 2.What are the four basic steps to food safety? clean, separate, cook, chill Review

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 3.Give two examples each for preventing kitchen accidents related to chemical poisonings, cuts, burns and fires, falls, electric shocks, and choking. Answers will vary. Review

32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 4.How should a burn be treated? place the burned area immediately in cold water Review


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