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Which of the pair of terms is NOT related? A.Sugar-carbohydrate B.Starch-nucleic acid C.Fat-lipid D.Starch-carbohydrate.

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Presentation on theme: "Which of the pair of terms is NOT related? A.Sugar-carbohydrate B.Starch-nucleic acid C.Fat-lipid D.Starch-carbohydrate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Which of the pair of terms is NOT related? A.Sugar-carbohydrate B.Starch-nucleic acid C.Fat-lipid D.Starch-carbohydrate

2 The function of most proteins in the body is A.To build muscle tissue B.To store energy C.To help build the cell membrane D.To provide the body with quick burst of energy

3 Which element makes the molecules organic? A.Oxygen B.Hydrogen C.Nitrogen D.Carbon ng

4 Which of the following organic compounds is the main source of energy for living things? A.Carbohydrate B.Lipid C.Nucleic Acid D.Protein art-redbull-can-weightlifting-made-from-red-bull-cans.jpg

5 Which of the following statements is true about catalysts? A.Catalysts lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. B.Catalysts are used up during a chemical reaction. C.Catalysts slow down the rate of chemical reactions. D.All catalysts are enzymes.

6 What is the term used to describe the energy needed to get a reaction started? A.Activation energy B.Cohesion energy C.Adhesion energy D.Chemical energy

7 Proteins are polymers formed from A.Lipids B.Carbohydrates C.Amino acids D.Nucleic acids

8 A person is having trouble losing weight. More than likely, they are NOT A.Taking in less calories than they are using B.They are burning fat too fast C.The body is lacking vitamins D.The exercise is using mostly sugar reserves and not eliminating fat deposits / jpg

9 All of the following are found in a DNA molecule except- A.Carbon dioxide B.Deoxyribose C.Nitrogen D.Phosphate

10 Which one of the following Macromolecues does not have any nutrition value and is not listed on a food label? A.Carbohydrates B.Nucleic acid C.Lipid D.protein utritionallabel.jpg

11 A monomer is… A.A type of covalent bond in organic molecules B.A neurotransmitter in the brain C.A building block of an organic molecule D.A type of amino acid olino-monomer.jpg

12 Which group contains only molecules that are each assembled from smaller organic compounds? A.proteins, water, DNA, fats B.Proteins, starch, carbon dioxide, water C.Proteins, DNA, fats, starch D.Proteins, carbon dioxide, DNA, starch

13 Why do most enzymes not function properly after being exposed to high temperatures? a.They have been converted to sugar. b.Their water content has been reduced. c.The enzyme’s shape has been changed. d.They have combined with another enzyme. temperature.jpg

14 The picture shows a cell model and the solutions associated with it. In this situation the cell will- A.Gain mass B.Shrink C.Increase in solute content D.Start to vibrate 98 % wat er 95% water Permeable to water only

15 If the ribosomes of a cell were destroyed what effect would this most likely have on the cell? A.It would stimulate mitotic cell division. B.The cell would be unable to synthesize proteins. C.Development of abnormal hereditary features would occur in the cell. D.Increased protein absorption would occur through the cell membrane.

16 According to the graph shown, at which pH is the enzyme most active? A.6.8 B.6.9 C.7.1 D.7.2

17 What are the large molecules that travel in and out of the cell? A.Cholesterol B.Proteins C.Lipids D.carbohydrates

18 Which macromolecule in the cell membrane would be affected directly by the grease-cutting agents in dish soap? A.Cholesterol B.Proteins C.Lipids D.Carbohydrates 0/2/stock-illustration dish-soap.jpg

19 Which organelle makes proteins using coded instructions that come from the nucleus? A.Lysosome B.Mitochondria C.Ribosome D.Plasma membrane %20cell.png

20 What would happen to a marine protozoan (unicellular) if removed from its normal saltwater habitat and placed into a freshwater pool? A.Loss of water through osmosis B.Loss of water through active transport C.Gain of water through osmosis D.Gain of water through active transport content/uploads/2011/11/freshwater-vs-saltwater- 520x5622.jpg

21 Tonicity

22 A student examines a cell under the microscope and determine that it is a eukaryote. Which structure did the student identify in order to come to this conclusion? A.Vacuole B.Nucleus C.Cell wall D.Ribosome AAAAM/MApgFtu3sfo/s1600/13964-Biology-Diagram-Of- Prokaryotic-And-Eukaryotic-Cells-Poster-Art-Print.jpg

23 In a plant cell, which organelle is uses light to produce sugar? A.Chloroplast B.Ribosomes C.Nucleus D.Mitochondrion S1WZnMxiwuO76gKT4fx7GiC3ZbvEiBbRevlMk18PCWMEQ

24 Which organelle is filled with enzymes and breaks down food and other organelles into molecules the cell can use? A.Lysosome B.Mitochondria C.Ribosome D.Plasma membrane q0SNgR_FSDtEjCUm03QTixzjp0iJZ3JsfXrdAC0A7MEw

25 Eating a sweet potato provides energy for human metabolic processes. The original source of this energy is______ A.The energy in protein molecules stored within the potato. B.From starch molecules absorbed by the potato plant. C.Made available by photosynthesis D.In vitamins and minerals found in the soil. content/uploads/2011/11/SweetPotato.jpg

26 The process of photosynthesis and respiration can be thought of as a cycle because- A.One is used only by plants and the other is used only by animals B.Both give off oxygen to be used by animals C.The products of one are used as the raw materials of the other D.They both have same purpose bioreview2.wikispaces.com/file/view/cycle.gif/ /cycl e.gif

27 The function of chlorophyll in photosynthesis is to A.Bind carbon dioxide to water B.Split to produce oxygen C.Trap light energy D.Act as a source of carbon dioxide

28 1. What is the monomer for Carbohydrates. A.Sugar B.Monosaccharide C.Fatty acid D.Nucleic acid

29 2. Changing GTGC  CTGC What type of mutation is this? A.Deletion B.Duplication C.Substitution D.Insertion

30 3. A plant cell is different from animal cell because a plant cell has: A.Nucleus B.Cell wall C.Mitochondria D.DNA

31 What should go into box 5? A.Carbon dioxide B.Glucose C.Oxygen D.Water 4. 5.

32 What is the name of the process? A.Photosynthesis B.Cellular Respirations C.Autotroph D.Heterotroph 4. 5.

33 An organism that can make their own food are called? A.Autotrophs B.Heterotrophs C.Nanotrophs D.Neotrophs

34 People who have been exposed to excessive radiation often experience mutations in their chromosomes. What conclusions can be made, if these mutations occur in the chromosomes of skin cells? A.They will pass on the mutation to their offspring. B.They will experience an increased risk of cancer C.Their skin cells may turn into liver cells D.They may develop entirely new chromosomes in all of their cells.

35 Which statement best expresses the relationship between the three structures represented above? A.DNA is produced from protein and absorbed by the cell. B.Protein is composed of DNA that is produced by the cell. C.DNA controls the production of protein in the cell. D.Cells make DNA by digesting protein.

36 DNA

37 What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide? Sugar, Phosphate Group, Nitrogenous Base

38 In DNA what are the 4 Nitrogenous bases? Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine

39 Adenine pairs with who? Thymine

40 Guanine pairs with who? Cytosine

41 If there are 30% adenine how many % of thymine are there? ___%Cytosine? 30% thymine 20% cytosine

42 What is the shape of DNA called? Double Helix

43 Which 2 part of the nucleotide makes the “backbone” of DNA? Sugar and Phosphate

44 Name 3 differences between DNA and RNA 1.RNA has Uracil/DNA has Thymine 2.RNA is single strand/ DNA is double 3.RNA can leave the nucleus where DNA can not

45 What is the name of the bond that holds the nitrogenous bases together? Hydrogen Bond

46 Cell Growth and Division

47 Cell cycle The Cell cycle consists of 4 stages what are they? G1 S phase G2 Mitosis

48 Which 3 stage of cell cycle is Interphase? G1, S phase, G2

49 What is happening to the DNA in S Phase? DNA is Replicated

50 What are the 4 phases of Mitosis? Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

51 During Metaphase what is happening to the chromosome? They line up in the middle

52 What type of cell is made through Mitosis? Somatic Cells, Body cells

53 After Mitosis how many daughter cells are created? Are they identical? 2 Daughter cells Yes

54 Are the daughter cells diploid or haploid through mitosis? Diploid =2n Same as parent

55 Meiosis

56 What type of cells are made through meiosis? Sex cells Gametes: Sperm and Egg

57 How many daughter cells are made through meiosis? 4 Daughter cells

58 Are the daughter cells of meiosis haploid or diploid? 1n Haploid ½ number if parent

59 If a parent cell has 8 chromosomes, after meiosis how many chromosomes are in each daughter cell? 4 chromosomes

60 What is cancer? Uncontrolled Cell growth

61 What are some environmental factors that can affect our genes/ cancer? Drugs, Chemicals, sun, pollution, radiation, temperature, mutation etc…

62 Transcription and Translation

63 Where can you find mRNA? Nucleus and cytoplasm (ribosome)

64 What is the purpose of mRNA? To take DNA’s message to Ribosome to make proteins

65 What is the nitrogenous bases that is only found in RNA not DNA? Uracil

66 A Codon is made up of how many nitrogen bases? 3

67 What does RNA polymerase do? It adds RNA nitrogen base to DNA

68 Where does protein synthesis take place? Ribosome

69 What is the name of RNA that is found in the Ribosome? tRNA

70 What are the monomers of protein? Amino Acids

71 What is the job of tRNA? To add amino acids by reading mRNA codons and make proteins

72 What is translation? Turning mRNA’s codon into Amino Acids and ultimately proteins

73 The reactants needed for photosynthesis include… A.Oxygen and water B.Carbon dioxide and water C.Glucose and oxygen D.Glucose and carbon dioxide esis3.gif

74 A cell with 10 chromosomes undergoes mitosis and cell division. How many daughter cells are produced and what number of chromosomes do they have? A.2 daughter cells; 5 chromosomes each B.1 daughter cell; 10 chromosomes each C.4 daughter cells; 20 chromosomes each D.2 daughter cells; 10 chromosomes each jpg

75 Which stage of mitosis is this? A.Prophase B.Anaphase C.Metaphase D.Telophase /06_Mitosis/pictures/mitosis.gif

76 During Anaphase, spindle fibers form to ensure… A.Sister chromatids are separated evenly B.Chromosomes are together C.Allow the DNA to replicate D.Duplication of chromosomes

77 How many daughter cells is produced from meiosis? A.2 identical daughter cells B.5 different daughter cells C.4 different daughter cells D.4 identical daughter cells

78 Base on the diagram we can infer that… A.The daughter cells will have same amount of chromosomes as the parent. B.The daughter cells will have double the amount as parents. C.The daughter cells will have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. home/harvey/lect/images/meiosis.gif Egg

79 What stage of mitosis is this? A.Prophase B.Metaphase C.Anaphase D.Telophase /06_Mitosis/pictures/mitosis.gif

80 The human liver contains many specialized cells that secrete bile. Only these cells produce bile because A. different cells use different parts of the genetic information they contain. B. cells can eliminate the genetic codes that they do not need. C. all of the other cells in the body lack the genes needed for the production of bile. D. these cells mutated during embryonic development. 13, ,4/stock-vector-on-off-switch jpg

81 Several matings between the same male black guinea pig and female brown guinea pig produce a total of 14 brown and 14 black guinea pigs. If black is dominant and brown is recessive, what are the genotypes of the parents? A. BB × bb B. Bb × bb C. BB × Bb D. Bb × Bb

82 What are the 6 kingdom? A.Animalia, plantae, protista, fungi, eubacteria, archaebacteria B.Animalia, google, yahoo, salt, pepper, bacteria, germs C.Lipids, fats, sugar, protein, carbohydrates, water /staff/hutchcroft/six_kingdoms.gif

83 Which 2 kingdoms are prokaryote? A.Eubacteria and animalia B.Fungi and protists C.Archaebacteria and eubacteria D.Archaebacteria and plantae

84 A: C In the above diagram is a comparison of the DNA sequences of Homo Sapiens (human), Pan troglodytes (chimp); Gorilla gorilla (gorilla); and Pongo pygmaeus (pygmy chimp). Remember that A is adenine; T is thymine; G is guanine and C is cytosine. In looking at the Homo sapiens (human) and Pan troglodytes (chimp) DNA sequence, the chimp DNA differs from the human DNA by how many nucleotide bases? a.7 b. 1 c. 3 d. 0

85 A: A Erwin Chargaff studied the DNA of organisms Electron Configuration within a single species. Chargaff discovered that the amount of adenine is about equal to the amount of thymine. Which of these explains why the ratio of adenine to thymine is nearly 1:1? a.“Adenine and thymine pair with each other." b. “Adenine binds with phosphates, while thymine binds with nitrates." c. “Adenine and thymine are identical in chemical composition." d. “Adenine bases contain a form of thymine.”

86 Thymine-guanine-thymine- cytosine describes – a. nucleotides within an RNA strand b. a sequence of bases within a DNA section c. points of DNA separation during protein synthesis d. tRNA codons for specific amino acids A: B

87 A: C Which of these will complete the mRNA strand matched to DNA? a.CAG b.AUG c.GUC d.UAC

88 Which of these functions most like the "brain" of a cell? a. The nucleus b. The Golgi apparatus c. The mitochondrion d. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum A: A

89 A: C Which statement best expresses the relationship between the three structures represented above? A. DNA is produced from protein absorbed by the cell. B. Protein is composed of DNA that is produced by the cell. C. DNA controls the production of protein in the cell. D. Cells make DNA by digesting protein.

90 What are the three parts of a DNA nucleotide? A. ribose (sugar), phosphate, thymine B. deoxyribose (sugar), amino acid, phosphate C. ribose (sugar), phosphate, uracil D. deoxyribose (sugar), phosphate, nitrogenous base A: D

91 A: A The diagram above shows how an mRNA molecule is synthesized. What else could you use to determine if the model will build a specific kind of protein? A. You would need to know the specific sequence of nitrogen bases. B. You would need to know the kind of sugar involved. C. The model would need to describe if you are viewing a prokaryotic cell or a eukaryotic cell. D. The model would need to describe if there are lysosomes present.

92 A: C In order to make enough energy from the product of cellular respiration, your body a. Requires C02 in order to make enough ATP to sustain your body for even a minute. b. Requires three molecules of glucose for every ATP molecule produced. c. Requires three phosphate molecules on each ATP molecule to be fully charged. d. Requires sugar and nothing else to make enough ATP

93 During Mitosis, the Spindle A.Helps break down the nuclear envelope. B.Helps the cytoplasm pinch in half. C.Helps separate the chromosomes. D.Helps the cell enter the Lysogenic Phase A: C

94 A: A The diagram above represents a cell process. Which statement regarding this process is correct? a. Cell B contains the same genetic information that cells A and C contain. b. Cell C has DNA that is only 50% identical to cell B. c. Cell A has DNA that is only 75% identical to cell B. d. Cells A, B, and C contain completely different genetic information.

95 A cell with 10 chromosomes undergoes mitosis and cell division. How many daughter cells are produced and what number of chromosomes do they have? a. 2 daughter cells; 5 chromosomes each b. 1 daughter cell; 10 chromosomes each c. 4 daughter cells; 20 chromosomes each d. 2 daughter cells; 10 chromosomes each A: D

96 A: C The diagram below represents chromosomes in a zygote. Which diagrams best illustrate the daughter cells that result from normal mitotic cell division of this zygote? A. B. C. D.

97 A: A The diagram above illustrates a process by which energy is released in organisms. The energy released in this process was originally present in: a. sunlight and then transferred to sugar b. sunlight and then transferred to oxygen c. the oxygen and then transferred to sugar d. the sugar and then transferred to oxygen

98 Which word equation summarizes photosynthesis? a)water + starch ---> glucose + glucose + glucose b)energy +water + carbon dioxide ---> oxygen + glucose c)glucose + oxygen ---> water + carbon dioxide + ATP d)glucose + glucose ---> maltose + water A: B

99 A: C According to the chart above the processes of photosynthesis and respiration can be thought of as a cycle because… A.one is used only by plants and the other is used only by animals B.both give off oxygen to be used by animals C.the products of one are used as the raw materials of the other D.they both have the same purpose

100 A: C What inference can be made from the diagram shown above? A. The sperm will have double the amount of chromosomes as the parent cell. B. None of the cells made copies of their chromosomes C. The sperm will have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. D. There is no relationship between the numbers of chromosomes in the parent or sperm cells.

101 A: C In the diagram above, in which structure would homologous pairs of chromosomes normally be present. A. 1, only B. 2, only C. 3, only D. either 1 or 2

102 Question 1: Identify the mutations A. B. C.

103 Question 2: Which combination represents a heterozygous individual for a trait? A.Aa B.BB C.aB D.AB

104 Question 3: What type of cross is represented in the picture? A.Incomplete dominance B.Mutation C.Crossing over D.Nondisjunction

105 Question 4: white fruit color (W) is dominant over yellow fruit color (w) and disk-shaped fruit (D) is dominant over sphere-shaped fruit (d) (parents: WwDd X WwDd) Look at the offspring and answer the following. 1.How many are white and disk shaped? 2.How many are white and sphere shaped? 3.How many are yellow and disk shaped? 4.How many are yellow and sphere shaped?

106 Question 5: Describe frame shift mutations and give the two types of mutations that are frame shifts.

107 Question 6: Define gametes

108 Question 7: Where does a mutation need to occur in order to be passed on to the offspring (children)?

109 Question 8: Black is dominant; brown is recessive. The offspring are 14 black and 14 brown. What are the genotypes of the parents? Check by making a punnett square. A. BB × b B. Bb × Bb C. Bb × bb D. BB × Bb

110 Question 9: A homozygous tall (TT) is crossed with a homozygous short (tt). What percentage of the offspring will be tall? Tall =

111 Question 10: Cross two heterozygous (Tt) tall plants and find the genotypes and phenotypes.  Genotype:  Phenotype:

112 Question 11: Look at the chart and the parents at the bottom of the chart. If you cross the two parents, which trait will all the offspring have?

113 Question 12: Illustrate a deletion mutation in chromosomes. (pg. 308)  Draw original chromosome here.  Draw chromosome with deletion mutation here.

114 Question 13: Black is dominant and white is recessive. Looking at the chart, describe how if the 1 st generation (F1) only had black rabbits how did white rabbits show up in the 2 nd (F2) generation?

115 Question 14: Widow’s peak is dominant and straight hairline is recessive. Dad has widow’s peak; Mom has straight hairline; child has straight hairline. What is the genotype of dad?

116 Question 15: Illustrate a translocation mutation in chromosomes. (pg. 308)  Draw original chromosome here.  Draw chromosome with translocation mutation here.

117 Question 16: Which of the following is best supported by the information above? a.Mutations located on chromosome 17 will result in cancer. b.Mutated BRCA1 alleles are only one factor involved in cancer. c.Cancerous growth will cause a mutation in some BRCA1 alleles. d. Women with a mutant allele of BRCA1 will develop cancer.

118 Question 17: What type of mutation is represented in the picture below if gene 1 is normal and gene 2 is abnormal?

119 Question 18: Looking at the offspring in the punnett square, take a female and cross her with a male. Genotypes: Phenotypes:

120 Special notes:  All cells in the body contain the same DNA.  Cells undergo differentiation to develop different organs in the body.  The function of the cell determines which genes will be expressed.  Genes are regulated to determine which genes are turned on and off.


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