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Water JAM 2010 NC-AWWA_WE 2013 Sustainable Supplemental Carbon Sources Hunter Long 1, Katya Bilyk 1, Wendell Khunjar 1 Jeff Nicholson 2, Bill Balzer 2,

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Presentation on theme: "Water JAM 2010 NC-AWWA_WE 2013 Sustainable Supplemental Carbon Sources Hunter Long 1, Katya Bilyk 1, Wendell Khunjar 1 Jeff Nicholson 2, Bill Balzer 2,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Water JAM 2010 NC-AWWA_WE 2013 Sustainable Supplemental Carbon Sources Hunter Long 1, Katya Bilyk 1, Wendell Khunjar 1 Jeff Nicholson 2, Bill Balzer 2, Charles Bott 2 James Grandstaff 3 Steven Chiesa 4 Jared Alder 5 1 Hazen and Sawyer 2 HRSD 3 Henrico County DPU 4 Santa Clara University 5 OpenCEL 93 rd Annual Fall Conference Embassy Suites Charlotte | Concord, NC | November | 2013

2 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Outline  Nansemond TP Overview  Co-Fermentation Pilot  Results and Discussion  Future Work  Henrico County WRF Overview  OpenCEL Pilot  Results and Discussion  Future Work  Conclusions and Lessons Learned  Nansemond TP Overview  Co-Fermentation Pilot  Results and Discussion  Future Work  Henrico County WRF Overview  OpenCEL Pilot  Results and Discussion  Future Work  Conclusions and Lessons Learned

3 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Nansemond Treatment Plant Suffolk, VA 30 mgd Design Flow 5-Stage Bardenpho Annual Average TN (5.0 mg/L) and P (1.0 mg/L) goals

4 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Local Conditions  Low sCOD:TKN PCE, high industrial load  Waste methanol: $1,800/d for denitrification  EBPR preferred over chemical P precipitation due to an Ostara struvite reactor on site  Primary Solids are pumped at around 340,000 gpd (10 dT/day)  Grease Trap Waste (GTW) haulers regularly discharge 5,600 gpd on average (0 to 15,000 gpd)  Additional 2,000 – 9,000 gpd GTW could be diverted from other facilities  Low electrical energy cost does not justify installation of CHP, co- digestion of GTW is not needed  Low sCOD:TKN PCE, high industrial load  Waste methanol: $1,800/d for denitrification  EBPR preferred over chemical P precipitation due to an Ostara struvite reactor on site  Primary Solids are pumped at around 340,000 gpd (10 dT/day)  Grease Trap Waste (GTW) haulers regularly discharge 5,600 gpd on average (0 to 15,000 gpd)  Additional 2,000 – 9,000 gpd GTW could be diverted from other facilities  Low electrical energy cost does not justify installation of CHP, co- digestion of GTW is not needed

5 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Study Overview  PS and GTW Fermentation:  Produce onsite carbon for denitrification  Offset supplemental carbon purchase  Remove GTW from NTP’s mainstream process  Enhance biological phosphorus removal  Pilot Objectives:  Determine VFA and rbCOD production from GTW and PS  Determine optimal ratio of GTW:PS (fermenter) and GTW:ADS (blend tank)  Evaluate effect of temperature and SRT on fermentation  PS and GTW Fermentation:  Produce onsite carbon for denitrification  Offset supplemental carbon purchase  Remove GTW from NTP’s mainstream process  Enhance biological phosphorus removal  Pilot Objectives:  Determine VFA and rbCOD production from GTW and PS  Determine optimal ratio of GTW:PS (fermenter) and GTW:ADS (blend tank)  Evaluate effect of temperature and SRT on fermentation

6 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Pilot Overview

7 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Pilot Overview

8 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Primary Sludge Feed Characteristics ParameterAverageStandard Deviation ParameterAverageStandard Deviation pH Temp18 to 27°C TS, %0.74%0.21TKN, mg/L25886 VS, %79%6.5NH 3, mg/L tCOD, mg/L11, TP, mg/L sCOD, mg/L42747o-PO 4, mg/L tCOD:TKN = 45.7 sCOD:TKN = 1.66 tCOD:TP =205.6sCOD:TP = 7.44

9 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Grease Trap Waste Feed Characteristics ParameterAverage Standard Deviation ParameterAverage Standard Deviation pH Temp37°C2°C TS, %6.44%2.38TKN, mg/L VS, %96.1%1.8NH 3, mg/L tCOD, mg/L117, TP, mg/L sCOD, mg/L9, o-PO 4, mg/L tCOD:TKN = 225 sCOD:TKN = 18.1 tCOD:TP =2,298sCOD:TP = 185.2

10 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Primary Sludge Treatment Train Fermenter Working Volume: 300 Gallon HRT: 24 hr TS:1.4% pH: ORP: mV Gravity Thickener 0.34 m 3 (90 Gallon) HRT: 9 hr Underflow: 2% TS Waste Pump Recycle Pump Impeller Mixed 200 rpm 30 cm (12”) impeller Elutriation

11 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Grease Trap Waste Treatment Train Wet Tip Gas Meter Blend Tank - 5 gallons Hydrolyzing lipids 40% GTW & 60% ADS (v:v) HRT: 7-10 hr Pump Mixed pH: Headspace Gas: 13% Methane 70 % CO 2 17% Bal

12 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Operating Criteria PhaseSRT (days) Duration (days) Temperature (°C) PS OLR (kg COD/m 3 /d) GTW OLR (kg COD/m 3 /d) Fermenter Blend Tank PhaseHRT (hours) Temperature (°C) PS (gpd) GTW (gpd) ADS (gpd) ADS:GTW : : :1

13 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011  Fermenter pH  pCOD conversion to sCOD  Effluent sCOD (lbs/day)  Effluent VFA (lbs/day)  Fermenter pH  pCOD conversion to sCOD  Effluent sCOD (lbs/day)  Effluent VFA (lbs/day) Evaluation Criteria

14 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 pCOD Conversion Summary 6.5 day C 5 day C 5 day C 2.75 day C 2 day C

15 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Incremental GTW pCOD Conversion 15 minute blend tank SRT PS + ADS + GTW 9 hour blend tank SRT ADS + GTW

16 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Incremental GTW pCOD Conversion 13 hour blend tank SRT ADS + GTW

17 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 sCOD and VFA Summary lbs/day

18 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Expected Full Scale Fermenter Performance

19 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Conclusions  6 to 14% of feed Primary Sludge pCOD can be converted to sCOD  VFAs generally make up 50% to 70% of effluent sCOD  A short HRT blend tank with 20:1 GTW:ADS allowed for an incremental degradation of up to 6%  A longer HRT blend tank with 7:10 GTW:ADS ratio allowed up to 20% incremental degradation of grease trap waste  Unknown whether grease degradation comes at the expense of some primary sludge degradation  PS and GTW is expected to offset ~50% of facility supplemental carbon demand  6 to 14% of feed Primary Sludge pCOD can be converted to sCOD  VFAs generally make up 50% to 70% of effluent sCOD  A short HRT blend tank with 20:1 GTW:ADS allowed for an incremental degradation of up to 6%  A longer HRT blend tank with 7:10 GTW:ADS ratio allowed up to 20% incremental degradation of grease trap waste  Unknown whether grease degradation comes at the expense of some primary sludge degradation  PS and GTW is expected to offset ~50% of facility supplemental carbon demand

20 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Next Steps  Continue blend tank modifications to determine effect on LCFA degradation  Possible staged fermentation  Bench Scale SBRs to determine fermentate value as supplemental carbon source  Denitrification  Biological Phosphorus Removal  Business Case Evaluation  Continue blend tank modifications to determine effect on LCFA degradation  Possible staged fermentation  Bench Scale SBRs to determine fermentate value as supplemental carbon source  Denitrification  Biological Phosphorus Removal  Business Case Evaluation

21 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Henrico County Water Reclamation Facility 75 mgd Facility Low TN and TP Limits

22 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Henrico County WRF Current Operations  GBT WAS thickening  Blended feed to digesters  BFP dewatering  Cake storage on site  Glycerol product used for denitrification carbon source  GBT WAS thickening  Blended feed to digesters  BFP dewatering  Cake storage on site  Glycerol product used for denitrification carbon source Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen

23 Water JAM 2010Water JAM 2011 What is OpenCEL?

24 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 OpenCel System Images: OpenCel

25 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 OpenCel Theory  Focused electrical pulse treatment  Cyclic exposure to positive and negative charges weakens the cell wall  Eventually the cyclic forces cause cell rupture and release of internal contents  Focused electrical pulse treatment  Cyclic exposure to positive and negative charges weakens the cell wall  Eventually the cyclic forces cause cell rupture and release of internal contents Grinder / Macerator Focused Electrical Pulse Floc Disintegration + Cell Lysis

26 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 OpenCel Impacts Images: OpenCel

27 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Pilot Testing Goals  Determine chemical and physical characteristics of TWAS before and after FP treatment.  Characterize the short-term impact of FP treated TWAS on denitrification activity.  Characterize the long-term impact of FP treated TWAS on denitrification activity.  Characterize the impact of FP treated TWAS addition on nutrient removal performance at HCWRF.  Determine chemical and physical characteristics of TWAS before and after FP treatment.  Characterize the short-term impact of FP treated TWAS on denitrification activity.  Characterize the long-term impact of FP treated TWAS on denitrification activity.  Characterize the impact of FP treated TWAS addition on nutrient removal performance at HCWRF. Ammonia Nitrite Nitrate Nitrogen Gas Oxygen Carbon Nitrification Denitrification

28 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Experimental Configuration

29 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 OpenCel Container

30 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011  Sampled on two occasions in January and February 2013 ssCOD Yield ~ 7 to 9 % of TS Focused pulse treatment releases soluble COD that can be used for denitrification

31 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Short term batch test data suggests that treated TWAS has a superior nitrate reduction rate  Note that non- treated TWAS also has higher nitrate reduction rate 31 Samplemg N/g VSS-hrInitial COD/N ratio% of glycerol rate Non-treated TWAS OpenCel treated TWAS OpenCel treated TWAS Centrate Glycerol

32 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Full-scale COD characterization experiments were performed  Samples collected and filtered onsite immediately through 1.2  m filters  Value were cross-checked with independent measurements  Samples collected and filtered onsite immediately through 1.2  m filters  Value were cross-checked with independent measurements ssCOD (mg/L) TSS (mg/L)TS (mg/L) Treated TWAS Henrico lab H&S746-- Untreated TWAS Henrico lab--- H&S329 Yield from initial full-scale experiments = 0.01 mg ssCOD/mg TS Predicted yield from bench-scale experiments = 0.09 mg ssCOD/mg TS OpenCel working to increase ssCOD yield from full-scale pilot

33 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Experimental Configuration Scenario 1  Currently Henrico adds glycerol to pre-anoxic and post-anoxic zones for denitrification  OpenCel treated TWAS will be fed to the pre-anoxic zone  Currently Henrico adds glycerol to pre-anoxic and post-anoxic zones for denitrification  OpenCel treated TWAS will be fed to the pre-anoxic zone 30% of glycerol dose 70% of glycerol dose 4.87 mgd PE RAS

34 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Experimental Configuration Scenario 2 50% of glycerol dose 4.87 mgd PE RAS

35 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Implications for pilot testing  Assume yield is 0.09 mg ssCOD/mg TS  20 gpm OpenCel flow  Assume yield is 0.01 mg ssCOD/mg TS  20 gpm OpenCel flow  Assume yield is 0.09 mg ssCOD/mg TS  20 gpm OpenCel flow  Assume yield is 0.01 mg ssCOD/mg TS  20 gpm OpenCel flow COD OffsetScenario 1Scenario 2 1 st Anoxic (%)39%54% Total (%)27% COD OffsetScenario 1Scenario 2 1 st Anoxic (%)4%6% Total (%)3%

36 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Additional Considerations  FP treated TWAS will return significant TSS  MLSS will increase if wasting is not increased  Increased wasting will reduce cell residence time  May impact nitrification  TWAS recycle can act as bioaugmentation if cells are not inactivated  FP treated TWAS will return significant TSS  MLSS will increase if wasting is not increased  Increased wasting will reduce cell residence time  May impact nitrification  TWAS recycle can act as bioaugmentation if cells are not inactivated

37 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Insights from Process Modeling  At 23 deg C and 15 gpm OpenCel and assuming no biomass inactivation in the OpenCel stream  Fourfold increase in WAS rate is needed to maintain reasonable mixed liquor concentration  Despite this increase in WAS rate and corresponding SRT reduction, nitrification is not significantly impacted  Bioaugmentation from OpenCel stream is crucial for helping to maintain complete nitrification  At 12 deg C and 15 gpm OpenCel and assuming no biomass inactivation in the OpenCel stream  Fourfold increase in WAS rate is still needed to maintain reasonable mixed liquor concentration  Nitrification is not significantly impacted  Bioaugmentation from OpenCel stream helps maintain nitrification at lower temperatures

38 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011  At 23 deg C and 15 gpm OpenCel and assuming 100% biomass inactivation in the OpenCel stream  Fourfold increase in WAS rate is needed  Nitrification is not significantly impacted at 23 deg C  At 12 deg C and 15 gpm OpenCel and assuming 100% biomass inactivation in the OpenCel stream  Fourfold increase in WAS rate is needed  Nitrification performance is lost at the low temperature  It is expected that there will be between 0 and 100% inactivation through the OpenCel process, therefore:  Actual impact on nitrification will closely depend on the degree of inactivation as well as the mass of solids that will be recycled  At 23 deg C and 15 gpm OpenCel and assuming 100% biomass inactivation in the OpenCel stream  Fourfold increase in WAS rate is needed  Nitrification is not significantly impacted at 23 deg C  At 12 deg C and 15 gpm OpenCel and assuming 100% biomass inactivation in the OpenCel stream  Fourfold increase in WAS rate is needed  Nitrification performance is lost at the low temperature  It is expected that there will be between 0 and 100% inactivation through the OpenCel process, therefore:  Actual impact on nitrification will closely depend on the degree of inactivation as well as the mass of solids that will be recycled Insights from Process Modeling

39 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Next Steps  SBRs, at the HRSD lab, will be used to determine long term impacts of FP treated TWAS on denitrification activity  Impact of FP treated TWAS addition on nutrient removal performance at HCWRF will be tested in Spring 2014  Business Case Evaluation  SBRs, at the HRSD lab, will be used to determine long term impacts of FP treated TWAS on denitrification activity  Impact of FP treated TWAS addition on nutrient removal performance at HCWRF will be tested in Spring 2014  Business Case Evaluation

40 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Conclusions and Lessons Learned  Multiple sources of carbon within the wastewater treatment and collection system  High chemical costs and low energy costs can lead to GTW utilization or WAS pretreatment for supplemental carbon rather than biogas  GTW fermentation would still increase biogas production  ~60-85% of GTW COD is retained in wasted sludge  Evaluation must account for additional TSS, N, and P in “sustainable” supplemental carbon source  Multiple sources of carbon within the wastewater treatment and collection system  High chemical costs and low energy costs can lead to GTW utilization or WAS pretreatment for supplemental carbon rather than biogas  GTW fermentation would still increase biogas production  ~60-85% of GTW COD is retained in wasted sludge  Evaluation must account for additional TSS, N, and P in “sustainable” supplemental carbon source

41 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Acknowledgments

42 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Questions Hunter Long (919) ? Hunter Long (919) ?

43 Water JAM 2010 NC AWWA WEA 2011 Percent Difference (Train 1 vs. Train 2) Phase 3 PS+ADS+GTW 15 minute HRT Phase 4 ADS+GTW 9 hour HRT Phase 5 ADS+GTW 13 hour HRT Influent tCOD (lbs/day)26%25%12.5% Influent sCOD (lbs/day)67%58%26% Influent VFA (lbs/day)57%56%29% Effluent sCOD (lbs/day)26%22% ∆ sCOD (lbs/day)8.1%33%25% Effluent VFA (lbs/day)33%44%31% ∆ VFA (lbs/day)25%38%28% What is the point of this table? Highlight key stats


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