Presentation on theme: "Biodiversity & Health Symposium 17 – 18 November 2014 (Phnom Penh, Cambodia) Aurélie Binot GREASE regional network “One."— Presentation transcript:
Biodiversity & Health Symposium 17 – 18 November 2014 (Phnom Penh, Cambodia) Aurélie Binot GREASE regional network “One Health” approach: Pathways towards cross-sectoral land management
INFLUENZA (H5N1, H1N1,…?) Links among human, animal and environmental health
Holistic approaches to health «One Health» etc. * About 60% of human diseases are zoonotic and 75% of EIDs have an animal origin (OIE) Associating human and veterinarian medicine to address zoonoses*. One medicine « Environment » One Health
« Ecohealth »
IDRC, International Association for Ecology & Health, (Ecohealth Journal), research/development and networks (forums, conferences,…) Pluridisciplinary experts, indigenous groups, civil society, decision-makers Research and action Programs/action gathering various local projects, potential scaling up Bottom up approach based on participation, equity One HealthECOHEALTH 2 approaches responding challenging public health management Improve health of human communities through the improvement of natural and social environment and human/nature interactions
2008 Initiative gathering FAO, OIE, WHO, WB + national governments, Global Early Warning System (joint platform to improve early warning of outbreaks worldwide), USAID, operationality… Strategic plan to reduce infectious diseases risks at the human-animal ecosystems interface Top down approach One Health ECOHEALTH 2 approaches responding to complex challenges of public health … Detect and fight more efficiently new pathogens at animal- human-ecosystem interface
Need for a paradigm shift! environment Wich « environment » are we talking about?
Global changes & Biodiversity changes risk of zoonotic disease transmission Ecosystem services provide regulation of pathogens and/or reservoirs and vectors Wildlife = source of pathogens Which definition of these ecosystem services? What are the tools available for their assessment ? How to implement them?
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Ecosystem services & Human well-being Nature Redeeming versus Dangerous … …A controversy…
What about « SOCIOECONOMIC environment » drivers? ENVIRONMENT Wich ENVIRONMENT are we talking about?
What about « SOCIOECONOMIC environment » drivers? ENVIRONMENT Wich ENVIRONMENT are we talking about? LANDSCAPES
How to minimize the risks associated with leptospirosis in Ban Huai Muang (Nan Province) ?
Analysis-diagnostic of an agrarian system Interactions between communities and their social and natural environment Accessibility to resources Farming systems and their related livelihood strategies Driver of the decision making (households) : land scarcity played and important role in the farming system differentiation during the last decades. Village level Study Area in Nan province (Thailand)
1 kilometer Santi Souk Huai Muang Huai Hat Nam Rim Huai Han Huai Pong Huai Puh Ruan Huai Tat Huai Pong Meut Nam Haen forest reserve Community forest Huai Khon Kwang Ban Huai Muang Santi Souk’s community forest B A Asphalted road N Mapping and Modeling the Agrarian system Understanding social relationships
Disease transmission Bacteria cycle (animal host and reservoir; land and water contamination) Land use change, land tenure issues and impact on water management Information spreading about the disease Livelihood strategies, socioeconomic dynamics DYNAMICS at play
Agrarian system evolution in the village and its drivers since the 50s to nowadays Accessibility to flat-bottomed valleys = key driver of the farming systems’ differentiation. Extension of farmland by buying slope plots was decisive for the farming systems’ differentiation. Social relations between families (clans, lineages, weddings, local politics, age-class) essential in the socio-economical differentiation process and availability of farms’ resources
Primary drivers (secondary drivers): – Logging ban : (decrease of soil fertility without fallow rotation, lack of land) – Building and industrial workforce demand – Chemical input promotion New practices new exposure: Irrigated terraces regular contact with stagnant water full of alluvium Tobacco cultivation wet place in the valley, insecticide utilization Maize cultivation rat population increase Maize world price increase, national risk insurance Para rubber promotion New practices new exposure Maize cultivation generalized rat population increase, increase of chemical product use, smoke impacting respiratory system
Vulnerability to diseases Socio-economic differentiation)
Highlighting rather socioeconomic factors/livelihoods than biomedical ones to manage land, risk exposure, vulnerability Highlighting rather socioeconomic factors/livelihoods than biomedical ones to manage land, risk exposure, vulnerability Public Health is impacted by agriculture and environmental policies, market evolutions and social relationships Farmers consider rather income constrictions/socioeconomic risks than health risks
Beyond «Wilderness », Nature with a « N »…..? « People » - centered ecosystems Farming systems « Farming systems » - centered Beyond sectoral approach of Health management ? X Cultivated landscapes !