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Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear.

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Presentation on theme: "Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL

2  Slow sand filtration  Sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, settling, fast sand filtration  Softening approaches – lime softening, membrane softening  Filtration - membrane filtration (ultrafiltration, microfiltration)  Disinfection - chlorine, UV, ozone, chlorine dioxide  On-site generation 2

3 3 Filtration - slow sand filtration Schmutzedecke Fine sand (3-5 ft) Gravel (0.5 ft) Low cost Simple maintenance Effective

4 4 Sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, settling Presedimentation is used to reduce surface water turbidity Historical treatment – Coagulation to reduce turbidity in water- followed by chlorination Improved water appearance Reduced cholera and typhoid Currently used to reduce Turbidity Natural Organic Matter (NOM)- and disinfection byproducts Bacteria (specifically coliform)

5 5 Filtration - rapid sand filtration Media / sand (2ft) Gravel (6 ft) Pressurized or gravity Backwashed to clean Can use granular activated carbon Mediadensity (g/cm 3 ) Silica2.65 Anthracite GAC Garnet Ilmenite

6 6 Coagulation FlocculationSedimentation and / or filtration Coagulant Removal of particles and natural organic matter (NOM), color, disinfection byproducts (DBP), iron, manganese, arsenic, taste, odor. Granular activated carbon can be used as a filter and absorber, but regeneration may be different than sand media.

7 7 Velocity gradient in the mixing basin Effective retention time in the mixing basin Velocity gradient in the flocculation basin Effective retention time in the flocculation basin Surface loading rate of sedimentation basin Source : AWWA Manual M37

8 8 Filtration - fast sand filtration

9 9 Removal - Mn + MnO 2 (s)  2 MnO (s) Precipitation onto filter media Iron and manganese often occur together in groundwater and can also be removed together in a precipitation filtration reactor

10 10 Coagulation Flocculation Microfiltration or Ultrafiltration Coagulant Membrane filtration normally uses hollow fiber bundles that can be submerged or pressurized. Can be backwashed. concentrate

11 11 Membrane filtration microfiltration and ultrafiltration Pall Microfiltration bank- pressurized Zeeweed Microfiltration cassette- submerged

12 12 Mineral scaling- Langelier Saturation Index LSI = pH - pHs pHs = (9.3 + A + B) - (C + D) where: A = (Log10 [TDS] - 1) / 10 B = x Log10 (°C + 273) C = Log10 [Ca +2 as CaCO 3 ] D = Log10 [alkalinity as CaCO 3 ] LSI < 0  Water will dissolve CaCO 3 LSI > 0  Water will precipitate CaCO 3 LSI ~ 0  Water borderline for scaling Items in blue are needed for calculation

13 13 Caustic Soda (NaOH) Ca +2 + HCO NaOH  CaCO 3 ↓ + Na + + H 2 O Lime Ca(OH) 2 Ca HCO Ca(OH) 2  2 CaCO 3 ↓ + H2O Soda (Na 2 CO 3 ) Ca +2 + HCO Na 2 CO 3  CaCO 3 ↓ + HCO Na + Groundwater with high CO 2 content can be pre-aerated to reduce reagent addition Chemical water softening reduces hardness in water

14 14 Membrane softening - nanofiltration rejects divalent ions permeat e concentrate feed IonFeed (mg/L)Perm (mg/L)Rejection (%) Ca Mg SO Na Cl Hardness Data : Desalination and Water Reuse Vol. 13/3

15 Chlorination is the most widely used method of disinfection 15 Chlorine- Cl 2 Least expensive, most hazardous, disinfection byproducts (DBP) Sodium hypochlorite- NaOCl* 12% solution very common, corrosive, decomposes slowly, DBP Calcium hypochlorite- Ca (OCl) 2 Powder, tends to clump, hard to handle, DBP Chlorine dioxide – ClO 2 Generated on-site 2NaClO 2 + Cl 2  2 ClO 2 + 2NaCl Care must be taken not to have a residual of chlorite (ClO 2 - ) or chlorate (ClO 3 - ) * Can be generated by electrical discharge - point of use

16  Ultraviolet radiation – Hg vapor UV- C radiation germicidal from nm Low pressure-high intensity use Hg-In amalgum torr operate at °C Medium pressure-high intensity produce polychromatic light and operate at °C  Open channel and closed channel designs  Shielding of lamps by particles, algae, oil and grease and scale is a problem  UV is not an oxidation technique but a disinfection technique  Advanced oxidation often work best when several oxidation steps are combined sequentially 16 Alternative disinfection

17 17 Germicidal* comparison of disinfection techniques BacteriaVirusProtozoan cysts Chlorine (free) (mgmin/L) Chloramine (mgmin/L) Chlorine dioxide (mgmin/L) Ozone (mgmin/L) UV radiation (mJ/cm 2 ) * 2 log inactivation. Source: Wastewater Engineering- Metcalf & Eddy

18 Ozone Generated by electrical discharge- point of use 3 O 2  2 O 3  HO + HO 2 Transfer efficiency is a function of mixing chamber and diffusers Ozone destructors needed to safely operate (offgas hazard) Limited contact time due to rapid decomposition Ozone / Hydrogen Peroxide (Peroxone) Peroxide addition accelerates ozone decomposition H 2 O O 3  2 HO + 3 O 2 Both of these methods leave no residual and do not create chlorinated DBP 18 Advanced oxidation

19 19 On-site mixed oxidant or hypochlorite generator Source: MIOX Oxidizers are formed by brine electrolysis in electrolysis cells


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