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1 Produced Water Research Projects Tom Hayes, GTI RPSEA Unconventional Gas Conference 2010 Golden, Colorado April 7, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Produced Water Research Projects Tom Hayes, GTI RPSEA Unconventional Gas Conference 2010 Golden, Colorado April 7, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Produced Water Research Projects Tom Hayes, GTI RPSEA Unconventional Gas Conference 2010 Golden, Colorado April 7, 2010

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4 Challenges  Produced Water (PW) comprises >90% of total waste volume from gas development  Produced Water (PW) is at ground zero in debates over unconventional gas development  Many areas of the U.S. are running out of reinjection capacity (e.g. Rocky Mountain States, Appalacian areas, CBNG basins)  Energy planners and stakeholders need alternatives for PW mgt to avoid constraints to energy production

5 Major R&D Efforts on Produced Water Management  Industry Water Conservation Consortia  Barnett Shale (BSWCMC)  Appalachian Shale (ASWCMC)  Marcellus Shale Coalition  Individual Developer Company Testing of Available Know-How  RPSEA Program  NETL-DOE Program  NYSERDA Project on Shale Gas Issues 5

6 Major R&D Efforts on Produced Water Management  Industry Water Conservation Consortia  Barnett Shale (BSWCMC)  Appalachian Shale (ASWCMC)  Marcellus Shale Coalition  Individual Developer Company Testing of Available Know-How  RPSEA Program  NETL-DOE Program  NYSERDA Project on Shale Gas Issues 6 GTI Shale Gas Water Mgt GE Pretreatment R&D CSM Tech Assessment

7 CSM Project: Integrated Framework for Treatment & Mgt of Prod Water  54 Technologies Reviewed and Assessed  Evaluation Criteria Carefully Established  Principles & Description of Each Process  Commercial Application History  Niche and Capabilities Projected for PW  Costs  Vendor Information  1 st Edition Now Available 7

8 Frac Water Composition 8 Water 90.6% NYSERDA Report, 2009

9 Barnett Shale and Appalachian Shale Water Conservation Committees  Demographic Surveys on Water Practices  Identification of the Best Opportunity for Water Conservation  Expert Panels on Water Issues and Mgt  Defining Water Conditioning Targets  Establishing Present Day Best Practices  Prioritizing R&D Directions  Outreach to Stakeholders 9

10 Components in Flowback Water Constituents of Produced Water Frac Job Additives +

11 Natural Gas Industry Water Use in the Barnett Shale 10% 89% Total Water Projected Use = 10,905 Ac-Ft (2006 Estimate) <1%

12 Water Sources Used in the Barnett Shale for Natural Gas Development <1% 43% 56% Total 2006 Water Use = 10,905 Ac-Ft/yr Daily Use = 9.7 MG

13 Municipal Steam Electric Irrigation Manufac turing Livestock Mining Barnett Drilling Annual Water Use 1000’s Acre-Feet Natural Gas Development Freshwater Users in the Barnett Shale Region

14 Fountain Quail Mechanical Vapor Recompression Unit for Flowback Water Treatment and Reuse 14 At Devon Sites 6,000 bbls/d/site AquaPure Mfgr Operated by Fountain Quail Obtaining field Performance Information

15 Encana Ultrafiltration

16 Electrocoagulation Testing 16

17 Reverse Osmosis Trials in the Barnett

18 Barnett Shale Expo Outreach 18

19 BSWCMC Exhibits: 3 Yrs in a Row 19

20 Currently Available Innovative Brine Management Technology Options  Fountain Quail (Thermal Processing for Water Recovery)  212 Resources (Thermal Processing for Water Recovery)  GE Thermal Processing (Thermal Processing for Water Recovery)  Intevras (Heat Recovery from Compressor Engines for Brine Evap)  GeoPure (UF / Reverse Osmosis)  Ecosphere Technologies (Ozonation and Reverse Osmosis)

21 Example Products from the BSWCMC Companies  Survey Results  Water Data from Grab Samples  Water Availability Assessment Reports  Proceedings of the Frac Job Expert Panel  Information from the review of equipment vendors and solution providers  Identified Friction Reducers that Perform Well at High TDS Levels  R&D Planning Reflecting Industry Priorities  Website: 21

22 Recent Results from Sampling and Analysis of Flowback Water funded by the Marcellus Shale Coalition

23 New Data on Sampling and Analysis of Flowback Water  Funding from MSC and ASWCMC Industry Consortia  Sampling from 19 locations  Initiated and completed in 2009  Includes general chemistry and detailed analysis of constituents of interest  Lists of Constituents of Interest provided by the USEPA, WV-DEP and PA-DEP  Over 250 determinations performed on samples

24 Comparison of FB Water with Conventional Produced Water Parameter14-d FB Ranges ₣ pH 5.56.55 - 8 Alkalinity * 5293NA TDS ** 112,000105,00020,000 - 200,000 Tot Susp Solids ** 171970-250 Tot Org Carbon ** 3439NA Biochemical Oxygen Demand ¥ 1492.8NA Oil & Grease ** 31< 5 mg/l3 – 100 Location A Location B * mg/l as CaCO3 ** mg/l ¥ mg/l as O 2 ‡ ND = Nondetect  NA = Not Available ₣ IPEC, 2004; GRI, ‘94 Conv. PW

25 Cations and Anions in Influent and FB Water Samples from Two Locations Parameter **Influent14-d FBInfluent14-d FB Sodium (Na + ) 6,19032,5008831,500 Calcium (Ca 2+ ) 2,99012,500217,820 Magnesium (Mg 2+ ) Iron (Fe 2+ ) 11.639.80.941 Barium (Ba 2+ ) 9.8580.28569 Chloride (Cl - ) 10,70078,6007567,100 Bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) 31564656 Ammonia (NH 4 + ) 9.31073.6121 ---- Location A ---- ---- Location B ---- ** mg/l

26 Concentration of TDS in Flowback Water with Time During Well Completion: Location A

27 Concentration of TDS in Flowback Water with Time During Well Completion: Location B

28 Categories of Chemicals of Concern  Volatile Organics  Semivolatile Organics  Pesticides  Organophosphorus Pesticides  PCBs  Metals

29 Summary of Results of Volatiles Measurements in 14-Day Samples

30 Summary of Results  Flowback water characteristics are consistent with ranges observed with conventional produced water  Low suspended solids and TOC  Man-made chemicals of concern are at non-detect levels.  BTEX and PAHs are at trace levels.  Oils and greases are at non-problem levels, but some control may be needed  Soluble organics are highly biodegradable  Heavy metals are lower than in Mun Sludge

31 Possible Treatment Needs  Brine Volume Reduction with Water Recovery (for reuse in future frac jobs)  Removal of Polymers (Friction Reducer Compounds)  Scale Control (Including NORM Scale)  Oil and Grease Control  Soluble Organics: Decrease Total Organic Carbon  Control of suspended solids  Microbial Control

32 Water Reuse  Since the transportation & storage of brines over 3,000 mg/l TDS requires added regulatory scrutiny, it may be desireable to achieve partial removal of salts from the water – a process called demineralization.  Demineralization can be achieved with thermal systems or with membranes.  Pretreatment is used to protect the demineralization processing stage.  Prevention of fouling of heat exchangers and membranes is important.

33 Water Reuse Flowsheet Pre- Treat- Ment Pre- Treat- Ment De- Mineraliza- tion De- Mineraliza- tion Disposal of Salt Brines and Solids: By-Prod Rec DWI LF Disposal of Salt Brines and Solids: By-Prod Rec DWI LF Make-up Water Make-up Water Well A Well B Conc’d Brine Bypass Residuals To Landfill Recovered Water Brine Water Blend Water Blend

34 RPSEA Funded Work Barnett and Appalachian Shale Water Management and Reuse (GTI) 34

35 Objective  Reduce demands for freshwater  Reduce environmental impact of brine disposal  Ensure supplies of water for well drilling and completions for natural gas development in the shale 35 Develop water management methods and Technologies that:

36 Areas of Emphasis  Evaluation of commercially available technologies for water reuse  Development of novel coatings to improve performance of membrane of low cost treatment processes (fouling resistance)  Development of electrodialysis to reduce electrical energy use by 60%  Evaluation of alternate water sources for well completions 36

37 Project Team 37 Team MemberOrganizationTasks/Technologies Dr. Tom Hayes Dr. Blaine Severin GTI EPD Principal Investigator Water Characterization Electrodialysis Engineering Analysis Dr. Benny FreemanUniv. TexasPolymeric Coatings to Improve RO Membranes Dr. Peter GaluskyTexerraFeasibility of Early Flowback Water Capture Dr. Jean Phillipe Nicot BEGAlternate Water Sources David CroweGeoPurePilot Prototype for the Field Testing of Novel Membranes

38 38 Technical Tasks

39 Assemble a Water Characteristics Database (Task 4)  Collect composition data already available from the BSWCMC and the ASWCMC/MSC on flowback and produced waters  Where information gaps exist, conduct sampling and analysis on grab samples  Product: Database using MS Excel or Access. 39

40 Determine the Feasibility of Collecting Low-TDS Early Flowback Water (Task 5)  Goal: Determine the proportion of early flowback water that can be captured as a lower TDS water stream suitable for reuse.  Conduct water sampling and analysis for water conductivity and composition on flowback waters from 3 to 4 locations.  Develop flowback water management strategies to maximize water recoveries at minimal cost.  Develop Equipment Design for PW Triage 40

41 Conceptual Example of Salt Concentration Versus Time in Flowback Water Collected with Time During Well Completion Flow Rate TDS Builds up --- But Flow Rate Decreases. Therefore, early 20-50% of FB Water may be low in TDS

42 Alternate Water Sources (Task 6)  Goal: Identify potential water sources that do not compete with public water supplies  Interview industry operators to understand current practices in finding alternate water sources  Inventory unconventional water sources  Obtain compositional data on these sources and determine suitability for utilization in well completions  Product: Topical Report 42

43 Engineering Evaluation of Performance and Cost of an Existing Evaporation Units for Flowback Water Reuse (Task 7)  Cooperators: Devon Energy and AquaPure/Fountain Quail Companies  Describe the overall performance of the treatment system (include mass and energy flow diagrams to discuss key examples) using field demonstration information.  Determine range of vendor costs and process economics.  Product: Engrg Guidance Document 43

44 Fountain Quail MVR Field Performance in Flowback Water Reuse 44 Data Collected From 1 Site 6,000 bbls/d/site Obtaining field Performance Information at a Second Site Using GTI Sampling Plan

45 Development of Electrodialysis for the Demineralization of Flowback Water (Task 8)  Electrically Driven Process  Design and construct an integrated laboratory electrodialysis (ED) treatment system  Determine performance using advanced commercial ED membranes using actual flowback water  Determine conditions that reduce energy costs by more than 60%.  Special Conditions: Partial Demineralization of High TDS Waters  Initial Experiment: Influent = 30,000 mg/l; Effluent > 5,000 mg/l TDS 45

46 Influent Schematic of Electrodialysis Optimized to Reduce Energy Requirements By 60% (< 0.1 kWh/lb salts Removed)

47 47 Laboratory Prototype at GTI

48 48

49 49

50 Initial Results on Synthetic PW 50

51 Initial Results on Synthetic PW 51

52 Cost Advantages of ED  Reduced operational voltage reduces energy requirements (kWh/lb salt rem)  Resists Fouling  Electricity requirement <0.1 kWh/lb salt rem  1 Barrel of PW that has 50,000 mg/l salt removed (17.5 lbs salt rem) would require only $0.18 of electricity at 10 cents/kWh.  Strategy: Remove >50% of the water with ED at < $1/bbl before processing with a thermal MVR at $4-5/bbl. 52

53 Innovative Coatings for Improved Membrane Performance in the Demineralization of FB Water (Task 9)  Membrane processes of emphasis: ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO)  Synthesize fouling resistant coated materials: Polydopamine coatings.  Performance objectives: 1) Fouling resistance; 2) Reduced energy requirements  Results to date on synthetic FB water:  Doubled RO flux for the same pressure drop  Decreased energy requirement by 50%  Next: Test coated membranes in laboratory membrane separation units using actual flowback water. 53

54 Field Evaluation of Improved Membranes in Field ETU (Task 10)  Conducted in the Second Year of the project.  Field ETU Skid for Integrated Membrane Testing was designed and constructed by GeoPure with cooperation of Texas A&M.  Install advanced coated membranes fabricated by UT and commercial partner  Test ETU at an actual shale gas flowback water management site  Duration of Testing up to 35 days. 54

55 Strategy for Reducing Cost of Water Reuse Highly Concentrated Brine to Class II Disposal or to By- Product Recovery

56 Pretreatment Processing for Salt By-Product Recovery (GE Research) High-TDS Low-TDS

57 Survey water chemistry Define specifications for water re-use Evaluate Pretreat Options…performance, cost, waste streams Suspended solids Microbiologicals Silica Oils Iron, Manganese Barium Aspen/OLI Process Modeling Approach of the GE Research - Membrane testing…fouling, flux, rejection (DOE) -Thermal process testing…foaming, scaling, corrosion, salt quality (RPSEA)

58 Benefits and Impact to Industry  Reduce industry demand of fresh water for shale gas developments  Ease water availability constraints to well development and completion.  Decrease environmental impacts due to water transportation (i.e. air impacts, fugitive dust, traffic, and carbon footprint)  Reduced cost of water processing for reuse of flowback water for future well completions. 58

59 For more information Contact Tom Hayes (847.768.0722) Email:

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61 61

62 Increased Electrode Electrolyte Conc Improves Performance 62

63 RPSEA Funded Work Barnett and Appalachian Shale Water Management and Reuse (GTI) Pretreatment Technologies for By- Product Recovery from Brines (GE) 63

64 Deliverables  Database on Shale Gas FB and PW Compositions  Conceptual designs for low TDS FB water segregation and mgt  Guidance Document on best practices for alternate water source utilization  Engineering decision tool on mechanical vapor recompression evaporative treatment processing  Electrically driven processing for low- energy partial demineralization  New Generation of coated membranes for improved UF/NF/RO capabilities 64

65 RPSEA / DOE-NETL Projects at GE  Shale Water Mgt and Reuse (GTI)  Hybrid Membrane and Thermal Technologies for Demineralization (GE)  Coatings for Fouling Resistance and Increased Energy Efficiency of RO (UT)  Feas of Early Flowback Water Capture (GTI)  Development of Electrodialysis for Reducing Energy Required for Demin (GTI)  Engineering Decision Documents (GTI and CSM)

66 Well 1 Well 2 Near-Well Water Mgt Decisions Pre- Concentrate ? Concentator Alternatives Thermal Membranes Hybrid Processing Etc. Final Disposal or Utilization Options Deep Well Injection (Class II) of Brines Conventional Disp at POTWs By-Product Salt Recovery Landfill Ocean Disposal Etc. Make-up Water By-Pass Water Recovered For Reuse Pretreat Options Conditioning Options By-Pass Yes No Flowback Water or PW In-FieldNear-Field Far-Field Within 2 mi Within 20 mi Within 200 mi Generic Flowsheet of Management Options Blend Completion

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