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History - Native Americans Taught European settlers to use available foods Here first, used all that was available Taught European settlers to plant native crops Deer Rabbit Wild turkey Berries Corn Beans Squash Pumpkins
History – English Influence First Settlers Brought: Cattle Pigs Chickens Sheep Goats Oranges Olives Grapes Apples Apricots Peaches Had difficulty in new land Had to learn new growing skills from Native Americans
History - Irish Influence Irish came later than other immigrants INTRODUCED: Irish stew Corned beef with cabbage Vegetables Cabbage Carrots Potatoes Flavors Leeks Onions Garlic
History - Pennsylvania Dutch 1700s – Germans arrived in Pennsylvania Called themselves “Deutsch” = Dutch FARMERS Homeland Foods Pork Cabbage Sauerkraut Noodles Sausage Hearty Soups Homemade Breads Thrifty ** Used everything when cooking EXAMPLE Pork scraps = SCRAPPLE Enjoyed Sweets Fruit Butters Baked Goods
Harsh winters Short growing season Summer is mild, but not long
Seafood chowders Corn products Cakes and cookies Preserved foods Roasts of turkey and chicken
English TERMS Sauté: To cook in fat to bring out flavor, French word “to jump” Brown: Cook meat until no pink remains, prevent food-borne illness Boil: High heat, large, rapid bubbles; cooks food quickly Fork-Tender: Test for potatoes, if fork goes in and comes right back out, the potatoes are finished cooking Drain: Remove liquid or fat from food by pouring out through strainer, colander or lid Mash: Squish food into tiny pieces until smooth
Pennsylvania Dutch Legend says that the pretzel represents arms crossed in prayer, and that the three holes represent the Trinity. Lititz, PA is said to be the birthplace of the American pretzel
Pennsylvania Dutch Yeast Bread Tips: 1.It’s ALIVE – don’t kill it with H2O that’s too hot 2.Traditional mix method – PROOF by adding warm water to yeast/sugar mixture, wait for foam to develop (usually within 5 min.) 3.Quick mix method – add yeast to dry, heat liquid, add all at once and beat 4.You need to KNEAD 5.It needs to RISE – may take a while 6.SHAPE the dough – be interesting, but appropriate 7.BOIL then BAKE
Pennsylvania Dutch Knead : To manipulate dough with hands until all ingredients are incorporated and gluten is developed. Shape : Form into specific size or shape Boil : High heat for liquid, large rapid bubbles, quick cooking method Bake : Cook by heating in oven, dry
Pennsylvania Dutch Originated in Lancaster County, ** The heart of Pennsylvania Dutch Country It’s believed that whoopee pies were first made from leftover cake batter, and Amish legend has it that, when children and even farmers would find the delicious treat in their lunch pail, they’d yell out “Whoopee!,” hence the name.
Pennsylvania Dutch Quick Bread Tips: 1.Standard mixing method – keep liquid separate from solids until ready to mix and pour/drop a.CREAM solid fat and sugar b.BEAT eggs into mixture, usually 1 at a time c.SIFT dry ingred. together d.MIX other liquids in separate bowl e.ALTERNATE dry and wet ingred., usually in thirds 2.One bowl method a.SIFT dry ingred. together b.ADD fat, liquids, and flavorings and BEAT together c.BEAT in eggs last to develop texture 3.Be sure to grease pans if directed 4.Should have slightly rounded top and fine even interior texture Do NOT over mix batter
Pennsylvania Dutch TERMS Cream Beat fat and sugar together until light and fluffy Combine Mix ingredients together Drop Place on baking sheet in even amounts, circular form Bake Cook by heating in oven, dry
New England Extremely cold winters = HEARTY FOODS Chowder A soup made with fish or seafood ** Seafood : Atlantic Ocean MOST FAMOUS Clam Chowder New England style - made with milk, butter, onions, and clams, very thick Manhattan style – made with tomato base and is thinner
New England Chowder Tips: 1.ROUX a.Equal amounts fat (bacon grease or butter) and flour. More = thicker, less = thinner b.Fat coats starch to prevent lumps when adding milk/cream c.Fat adds richness d.Melt fat over medium heat e.Whisk in flour f.Before it browns, add milk and LOWER heat g.STIR CONSTANTLY to prevent burning 2.Have veggies cut to same size to cook efficiently 3.Stir often to prevent burning 4.Keep heat medium – low 5.Season to taste – taste it to see what it needs
English TERMS Drain: Remove liquid or fat from food by pouring out through strainer, colander, or lid Boil: High heat for liquid, large rapid bubbles, quick cooking method Simmer: Lower heat for liquid, small bubbles, slower cooking method to infuse ROUX ROUX - Cooking fat (butter/oil) and flour together to form paste for thickening of gravy/soups/ stews/chowders SLURRY May need to make a SLURRY to thicken soup even more at the end.
Northeastern Region New England Clam Chowder http://www.epicurious.com/articlesguides/howtocook/cuisines/unitedstatesclamchowdervideo Around the World in 80 Dishes takes you to New England with a demonstration of a classic recipe for creamy clam chowder, prepared by Chef Bruce Mattel of the Culinary Institute of America. Cook bacon first, then add onions, followed by the flour, finally add potatoes.
English Cookie Tips: 1.Cookies have little, if any, liquid = heavier texture 2.Drop cookies a.Soft dough dropped from teaspoon onto prepared cookie sheets 3.Shaped cookies a.Formed in a ball or cut out from rolled out dough. 4. Refrigerating dough will prevent it from spreading out too much during baking a.Dough spreads as it bakes, be sure to leave 2 inches between cookies b.Bottom of cookie should be slightly browned and edges are firm 5. Be sure to grease baking sheets/pans if directed
English TERMS Cream: Beat fat and sugar together until light and fluffy Sift: Aerate ingredients by putting through sifter to make lighter Shape: Form into specific size or shape Bake: Cook by heating in oven, dry Do NOT sift the wheat flour. Do NOT wash the sifter. They will rust.