Presentation on theme: "How did humans become “civilized”? This class is called “World Civilizations” What were we like before “Civilization” came around? How did we change to."— Presentation transcript:
How did humans become “civilized”? This class is called “World Civilizations” What were we like before “Civilization” came around? How did we change to become civilized?
System of Writing Complex Institutions Skilled Workers Advanced Technology Advanced Cities Civilization Has… Civilizations have: 1.An urban focus – major cities 2.Political and military systems 3.Social structure based on economic systems-upper and lower classes 4.Development of labor specialization 5.Distinct religious structure 6.Development of Writing 7.New and significant artistic and intellectual activity What is a Civilization? Two definitions
Before farming Foraging AKA Hunter-Gatherers Food sources? Plants are gathered in season and stored when possible Meat is hunted and dried for food and other uses, clothing, rope, etc. Move around to take advantage of seasonal offerings i.e. nomadic
Hunter-Gatherers’ societies Advantages Fit into nature (little environmental impact) Relatively little labor expended to get food Variety in diet Deep knowledge of uses for plants and animals in the region they live. Disadvantages Dependent upon wild animals and plants Nature can only support small groups and cultures Must travel around to find food, so no permanent building structures No animals to help with labor
What changed? Hunter Gatherer type societies had survived for thousands of years. After the last ice age ended in 10,000 B.C.E., humans began selecting dependable plants for food
What tastes makes a good food plant? Tastes good (not bitter) Large (larger fruit or seeds) Easy to pick Grow fast or with lots of fruit/seeds. (High Yields) Grow Annually The first crops that met with humans’ approval were cereals and pulses.
Domestication! The process of humans selecting plants for more useful characteristics is called Domestication It was also used with animals.
First domesticated plants Geographical Area Middle East aka Fertile Crescent China India Mesoamerica Andes/Amazonia Crops domesticated Wheat, barley, peas, lentils, chickpea, flax, muskmelon Millet, rice?, soybean, adzuki bean, mung bean, hemp Rice?, hyacinth bean, cotton, cucumber Corn, common bean, yucca, jicama, squashes Potato, quinoa, lima bean, peanut
Lentil Stew ala Clay Ball - by: Ruth Tringham Prep time: 3-4 hours (includes gathering wild herbs, processing bones for grease, gathering wood/dung for fire) You'll need: lentils, soaked in water wild herbs goat grease wood/dung for fire water-tight basket 1.Fill basket with water. Soak for 1 hour. (Basket will absorb water and expand the fibers, making it water-tight. This also prevents scorching.) 2.Heat clay balls in a dung or wood fire. (For complete instructions, see Clay Ball Heating section.) 3.Put soaked lentils in the cooking basket with water, goat grease, and wild herbs. 4.Put hot clay balls in the cooking basket, stirring constantly. As balls cool, replace them with hot ones.
What makes a useful animal? Good characteristics Big Easy to control Herbivore or omnivore Multiple uses Short childhoods Bad characteristics But not too big Bad temper Carnivore Humans have used animals for… Meat Milk Fertilizer Transportation Military Assault Plowing fields and unknowingly Germs
Approximate dates and locations for Domestication of Large Mammal Species Species Dog Sheep Goat Pig Cow Horse Donkey Water buffalo Llama/alpaca Bactrian camel Arabian camel Dates (B.C.E.) 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 3,500 2,500 Place Middle East, China, North America Middle East China, Middle East India, Middle East Ukraine Egypt China? Andes (South America) Central Asia (the stans) Arabia From Guns, Germs, and Steel pg. 167