2President Woodrow Wilson grazed sheep on the White House lawn President Woodrow Wilson grazed sheep on the White House lawn. The wool from the sheep was sold to raise money for the Red Cross during World War I. The flock included "Old Ike," a tobacco chewing ram
3Dolly, the Famous Cloned Sheep Dolly -- the world’s first animal to be cloned from an adult cell -- became the most famous sheep in history after her birth was announced by the Roslin Institute in Scotland in Dolly was born July from three different mothers. Her genetic mother provided the DNA, a second ewe provided the egg into which the DNA was injected and a third carried the resulting cloned embryo and gave birth to Dolly. It took 276 attempts before the experiment was successful. The birth of Dolly was hailed as a scientific breakthrough. Dolly became a superstar and seemed to enjoy the constant human attention.Dolly gave birth to six lambs. She was put down when she was six and a half years old, after developing a lung infection. Dolly’s health problems may have been a result of the fact that she was cloned from a six-year-old ewe. She also suffered from a form of arthritis. After her death, Dolly was stuffed and put on display in the Royal Museum of Scotland
4ShrekRenegade Sheep A renegade New Zealand sheep that managed to evade the shearers for six years finally had a haircut. Shrek, the Merino sheep, was shorn live on national television by top shearers David Fagan and Peter Casserley. The 10-year-old sheep had managed to roam freely on New Zealand's South Island for more than six years before being finally rounded up. Shrek's 27 kg (60 lbs.) fleece - enough to make 20 large men's suits - was auctioned off over the Internet for the benefit of Children's medical charities. Shrek 2 bested Shrek 1 by avoiding shearing for 7 years. His fleece, removed in April 2005, weighed 31 kg and measured three meters in length. Shrek 2 was approximately 11 years old
5Ewe breedsMoviestars Border Leicester sheep were featured in the 1995 hit movie, Babe, which tells the story of a sheep-herding pig. The movie required 970 animals, including 550 sheep. All scenes of sheep herding were real herds and the trained dogs who herd them. When the sheep appear to be attentively listening and keeping very still, both real and animatronic sheep were used. The ratio was one animatronic sheep for every three real sheep. The real sheep were trained to calmly remain on their marks. When the sheep walk in unison, real sheep were used and harnessed with a very thin material that was not visible on camera. These sheep had been trained in pre-production to respond so that when one was called, they all followed
6The Toast of Botswana An unusual case of a goat-sheep hybrid was reported by veterinarians in Botswana in The animal was born naturally from the mating of a female goat (which is generally thought not possible) with a male sheep that were kept together. The hybrid had 57 chromosomes, intermediate between sheep (54) and goats (60), proving it was not a case of mistaken identity. Its features were halfway between sheep and goats. The hybrid had a very active libido, mounting both ewes and does when they were not in heat. This earned the hybrid the name "Bemya" or "Rapist." He was castrated when he was 10 months old because he was becoming a nuisance.
8In general: Sheep are-Behaviorally, they are gregarious, precocial, defenselessFlock together and prefer to be in groups, high degree of independence , are defenseless against predatorsVery useful for meat, skins, milk and wool and were domesticated about 10,000 B.C.
9Place of Sheep and Goat industry in US Agriculture The purpose of the sheep and goats in the US is to take advantage of forage and roughage to produce milk, meat and fiberHistorically, sheep used as a part of the mixed farm in the eastern states and in large flocks that graze rangelands in the western USIn conjunction with cattle, sheep and goats allow for better use of forage resources
10Place of Sheep and Goat industry in US Agriculture When sheep and goats use the land with cattle they make better use of the resources because they graze slightly different forageSheep better able to select their diet than cattle and pick a better diet-Goats like browse ( twigs and brush) do not compete with cattleOne doe or ewe can be added for each existing cow and no additional forage will be requiredGoats and sheep can improve pastures & grazing resources because they eat many species, including weeds, that cattle leave behindGoats used as brush cleanersWhy not combine sheep and cattle- sheep require more care and suffer greater predation losses than cattle
11Place of Sheep and Goat industry in US Agriculture Wool and mohair were subsidized by the federal govt. From 1954 to 1995Since the subsidized program ended, there has been a precipitous decline in sheep and Angora goat #sToday, the Sheep industry has declined in USOnly .2% of the total US farm revenue from livestock and productsGross U S annual income from sheep and goats is ~$500 million and decreasingOnly .4% of animal agriculture’s share of cash receiptsThe US per capita consumption of lamb <1lb (boneless wt basis)
12Place of Sheep and Goat industry in US Agriculture The US sheep industry was once a mighty industry but those days are gone and not likely to return~ 69,000 sheep producers in the US todayCurrent status places it in the classification of a specialty industryMost US sheep producers have small flocks and raise sheep as a secondary enterprise or hobby.Most large producers are found in 17 western states where the bulk of the sheep are kept in large range flocksMost small flocks and most sheep producers are found in states other than where most of the sheep are found
15Place of Sheep and Goat industry in in global Agriculture Sheep and goats used extensively around the world for grass conversionGreat livestock choice for people in less-developed economiesOver 1.1billion head of sheep and 840 million goats in the worldThey are the second and fourth most numerous agricultural animals in the worldSmaller size- five sheep or seven goats kept on the same amount of land as one cowOne sheep (goat) for every 5 (8) people in the world22(16) head of sheep (goats) per sq mile of world land surface – US has .34% of world’s goats and only .56% of world’s sheep
16Three major segments of US sheep industry 1. Range sheep production-Pasture and dry rangeDry range offers few alternatives for productive use of land- cattle often compete as the enterprise that makes more $ with less fussRange production differs – wet or dryIf sheep are part of a diversified farm then meat production is more profitable than wool productionIf forage conditions are poor then wool production is emphasized and meat production is a secondary productIn wet range, the nutrition is high enough for meat and wool productionGrazing flocks are referred to as stock sheepProvide lamb production directly to slaughter and to feedlotsThe value of wool has declined to the point that raising sheep for wool is rarely profitable thus most systems focus on meat production in the US2. Lamb feeding- 40 to 90lbs fed to market weightin past finished on grass now finished on grain3. Purebred sector (very small)
17History of sheep & their changes Sheep and goats were domesticated about 10-8,000 BC (long before pigs)Develop more wool and less hairColor of wool & hair changed from brown to whites and blacks (domestication of animals affects color of wool)From erect ear to lop earHorns were weaken or disappearedTail have less vertebratesToday’s sheep have smaller brains
18History of US Sheep production Christopher Columbus brought sheep and goats to the West Indies (second voyage) in 1493Cortez brought them to Mexico in 1519English settlers brought them to the East Coast in 1609 when they settled in New EnglandAs settlement of the continent proceeded, the grasslands became increasingly used as sheep producing areasSheep industry became located predominantly in the western US
19History of US Sheep production Sheep and Lamb inventory
20History of US Sheep production From colonial period until early 1900’s- sheep were important for their wool production (slaughter was incidental)Starting in late 1800’s- production of lambs for slaughter became increasingly important- production shifted to the western US1867- sheep inventory ~46.3 million1942- all time high # million1950- dropped to 30 million1970’s- down to 15 million2007- less than 10 million head
21Reasons for declining sheep production: Less demand for woolDeclining demand for lamb and relative high price of lamb relative to other meatsIncreased difficulty in obtaining and keeping reliable herders to manage and care for range flocksIncreased competition for public-owned rangeland and increasing grazing fees
22Reasons for declining sheep production: Increasing problems of predators in many range and farm flock-producing statesDecreased government support – especially the demise of the wool support programFarmer diversification into other enterprisesSeasonal nature of lamb production and consumptionInadequate profit to keep producers producing.
23Goats:From colonial times, goats have been used in small #’s as meat and milk animalsLater, Angora goats became useful as fiber producers in the Southwest- especially TexasUSDA published its first annual goat survey in 2005 (prior to that no survey was done –except Angora-)Since 2005, 3-5% annual increase with most growth related to the meat-type productionMuch of the demand is due to growing immigrant and ethnic populationsMany states offered incentives to farmers who participated in the tobacco buyout program if they got into other forms of agricultureSoutheast is where the majority of tobacco is grown and has also seen the largest increases in goat numbersGoat enterprises appeal to those who have a limited acces to land and want an animal enterprise
26Leading wool producing countries AustraliaNew ZealandChinaUruguayArgentinaSouth AfricaUSAUK
27Definitions Grease wool – directly from sheep, has not been scoured Lanonlin – purified wool greaseScouring – removal of grease and dirtShrinkage – what is left after removal of grease and dirt (want this to be minimal)Grade, grading
28Wool GradingBlood The attributes of wool include fineness, length, crimp, color, strength, uniformity, and in grease wool, percentage of foreign material. Fineness is considered the most important.Was based on the fraction of Merino blood in a particular breedHas not been used since 1955
29Wool Grading Bradford Spin count Hanks of yarn (hank = 560 yards) that can be spun from 1 pound of wool topGet more hanks of yarn from finer woolNow used in conjunction with micron measurements
30Wool Grading Micron system 1 micron = 1/25,400 inch Measured with a laser deviceGiven a micron count and information that gives information about the uniformity of the fleece.Samples usually taken from the side and the britch (over the top hind leg)