Presentation on theme: "GEF2610 Physical Oceanography Course content The physical structure and circulations of the oceans, and the physical processes influencing them. Learning."— Presentation transcript:
GEF2610 Physical Oceanography Course content The physical structure and circulations of the oceans, and the physical processes influencing them. Learning outcomes The students shall have knowledge about the physical properties of ocean waters, understand concepts like stability and potential density, and be able to describe the energy exchange with the atmosphere. They shall know how the standard instruments are functioning and understand the meaning of observations presented in a T-S diagram. The students shall have a good overview of the general oceanic circulation, understand the driving forces and mechanisms behind the different types of circulation, and know where in the world oceans bottom water is formed and where upwelling occurs.
Ocean dimensions and extensions Physical properties of ocean water Chemical components of ocean water Standard instruments Forces; Equation of Motion Energy exchange with the atmosphere Physical structure of the oceans General oceanic circulation Waves Tides
Ocean dimensions and extensions Names of the different oceans Topography of the different oceans
Relative dimensions of atmosphere and oceans
Physical properties of ocean waters Temperature, salinity, density Compressibility Potential temperature and density Freezing point Specific heat (heat capacity) Latent heat of evaporation Latent heat of freezing Optical properties Acoustical properties
Translational motion in gases
Light in the sea Snell’s Law of Refraction Vertical attenuation
Fig. 3.9 Optical pathways to an ocean color sensor (from Robinson, 1983).
Fig Global chlorophyll concentration in mg/m3 for the ocean and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (-1 to +1) for the land surface for Sept. 97 – Aug. 98.
Sound in the sea Snell’s Law of Refraction Spherical attenuation
Chemical composition of ocean water Principal constituents Constant relative composition of seawater Gases in seawater (O 2 ) Methods for determination of salinity Methods for determination of density
Standard instruments Reversing thermometers Water samplers (e.g. NIO bottles) ST electronic bridges CTD sensors Irradiance meters Secchi disk Echo sounders Current meters
Equation of Motion Simplified models Hydrostatic equilibrium Geostrophic current Ekman spiral Equilibrium tide
Hydrostatic equilibrium – hydrostatic pressure
Ocean dynamic topography
Ekman spiral – wind current
Energy exchange with the atmosphere Kinetic energy (currents, waves) Radiative energy (shortwave, longwave) Heat exchange (latent heat of evaporation, latent heat of freezing, heat conduction)
Budgets Heat budgets Volume budgets Salt budgets Knudsen’s Relations
General oceanic circulation Surface currents Interaction between atmospheric wind and pressure systems and the major oceanic gyres Estuarine circulation Upwelling El Niño (ENSO) Thermohaline circulation Vertical convection Bottom and deep-water formation
Estuaries Fjords Estuarine circulation Deep water exchange in fjords
Front: brackish water / sea water
Global distribution of temperature, salinity, and density Relationship between temperature, salinity and the large-scale pressure and wind systems at the surface Typical vertical profiles at low, middle and high latitudes
Wind waves Wave height depends on: speed (the force of the wind); duration (the time the wind has been blowing); fetch (the length of the area the wind is blowing over). Significant wave height : the average height of the highest third of the waves.
Wave height definition for a regular wave
Wave height definition for an irregular sea surface
Histogram of wave heights
Wave speed (phase velocity) Short waves (deep water waves) Long waves (shallow water waves) including tsunamies and tides
Earth – Moon Orbit
Tides Equilibrium tide (spring and neap tide, diurnal inequality) Real tides in the ocean
M 2 amplitude
Bay of Fundy; High Tide
Bay of Fundy; Low Tide
Saltstraumen; mean speed 4-5 m/s, max speed 10 m/s?
Ice in the sea Slush, grease ice Pancake ice Pack ice Hummocs Icebergs