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Project #6: Biodiesel from Waste Feedstock Sponsored by The National Science Foundation Grant ID No.: DUE-0756921 Anna Greve, Junior, Civil Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "Project #6: Biodiesel from Waste Feedstock Sponsored by The National Science Foundation Grant ID No.: DUE-0756921 Anna Greve, Junior, Civil Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 Project #6: Biodiesel from Waste Feedstock Sponsored by The National Science Foundation Grant ID No.: DUE Anna Greve, Junior, Civil Engineering Kathe Pocker, Pre-Junior, Biomedical Engineering College of Engineering and Applied Science; University of Cincinnati; Cincinnati, OH Dr. Mingming Lu, Yang Liu and Qingshi Tu; University of Cincinnati 1

2 Presentation Outline Background on Biodiesel –Advantages and disadvantages Methods of Extraction –Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) and Waste Coffee Grounds (WCG) Results Future Plans Timeline 2

3 3 Background on Biodiesel What is biodiesel? Advantages: Domestically produced Use in engines Environmentally friendly Biodegradable Disadvantages: Lack of auto maker approval Lower fuel economy Investigating nitrogen oxide emissions Possible harmful effects on car engines

4 4 Waste Cooking Oil Benefits Grease traps remove and separate fat, oils and greases in restaurants and food service establishments Solves the problem of too much grease and oil waste, especially in septic tanks and water treatment facilities Background on Biodiesel

5 5 Waste Coffee Ground Benefits Enriches the feedstock market while lowering the production cost Lowers purification cost Replaces coal Reduces the solid waste Protects water resources Background on Biodiesel

6 Why biodiesel? Electric cars –Short vehicle ranges and long recharge times –Extremely expensive –Battery uncertainty –Less existing infrastructure Corn-based ethanol –Causes food prices to increase –Energy used to fertilize, transport, and process the corn releases greenhouse gases 6

7 7 Methods of Extraction Two Methods of Extraction: Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) Waste Coffee Ground (WCG)

8 8 WCO Extraction - Titration Take a small amount of WCO (1mL), and combine with 10 mL methanol and 2 drops of an indicator Add 0.5 mL or 1.0 mL NaOH drop-wise When it turns pink…STOP

9 WCO Extraction - Neutralization From titration, necessary amount of NaOH to be added is determined At this time, free fatty acid concentration (FFA) can also be determined 9

10 WCO Extraction - Reaction Allow NaOH to dissolve in 20 mL of methanol Combine, heat and stir Variations in reaction times 10

11 WCO Extraction - Separation Allow separation Remove glycerin Perform water wash 11

12 WCO Extraction – Data Gathering Biodiesel is weighed This weight is compared to weight of the starting amount of WCO to get a percent recovery 12

13 WCG Extraction – Neutralization Weigh out 5 g WCG –Variations in mixtures (5% NaOH, 5% KOH, and 10% KOH) Combine with 200 mL methanol Allow to stir and heat for 2 ½ hours 13

14 WCG Extraction – Collection Every 30 minutes, check the heat and extract 1.5 mL solution 14 Put vials in freezer to later evaluate purity

15 WCG Extraction – Methanol Evaporation Allow methanol to evaporate Dry off remaining methanol 15

16 Results – WCO Extraction 16

17 Results – WCO Extraction 17

18 Results – WCO Extraction 18

19 Results – WCG Extraction For each mixture, 5 extractions were done Need to send samples to an outside facility for purity assessment 19

20 Future Research Plans 20 Conduct more time trials for WCO extractions Assess purity for both WCO and WCG extractions Experiment with different amounts of NaOH and different neutralizing agents Dr. Lu’s cooking grease

21 Goals and Objectives 21 Have gained a better understanding of biodiesel production and use through WCO and WCG extractions Learned the documentation process behind research projects

22 Acknowledgements Dr. Mingming Lu Yang Liu Qingshi Tu Dr. Urmila Ghia Kristen Strominger The University of Cincinnati The National Science Foundation 22

23 Timeline 23 Objectives 1/28- 2/3 2/4- 2/10 2/11- 2/17 2/18- 2/24 2/25- 3/3 3/4- 3/10 3/11- 3/17 3/18- 3/24 3/25- 3/31 4/1- 4/5 Biodiesel Extraction Batch Literature Review Coffee Ground & WCO Extraction Paper Presentation and Poster X XX X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X XX X X X

24 References 24 Al-Hamamre, Zayed, Sascha Foerster, Franziska Hartmann, Michael Kroger, and Martin Katlschmitt. "Oil Extracted from Spent Coffee Grounds as a Renewable Source for Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Manufacturing." Elsevier (2012): n. pag. Web. 10 Feb Agnew, Rachel, Ming Chai, Mingming Lu, and Nancy Dendramis. "Making Biodiesel from Recycled Cooking Oil Generated in Campus Dining Facilities." Sustainability 2.5 (2009): Print. 20 Jan Meher, L.C., D. Vidya Sagar, and S.N. Naik. “Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification – a review.” Renewable and Sustainably Energy Reviews 10.3 (2006): Web. 29 March html#axzz2PbIqT7y8http://blogs.automotive.com/why-hybrids-ethanol-biodiesel-are-better-than-electric-cars html#axzz2PbIqT7y8


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