2Four Cookie Characteristics Crispness-Softness-Chewiness-Spread Low proportion of liquid in the mix. Stiff dough.High sugar and fat content. Make it possible to mix a workable dough with low moisture content.Baking long enough to evaporate most of the moistureSmall size, thin shape, cookie dries faster during baking.Proper size, crisp cookies can become soft if they absorb moisture.
3Cookie characteristics contd… Softness:High proportion of liquidLow sugar and fatHoney, molasses, or corn syrup in the formulasUnderbakingLarge size or thick shape so that they retain more moistureProper storage. Soft cookies can become stale and dry if not tightly covered or wrapped
4Cookie Characteristics contd… Chewiness:High sugar and liquid content, but low fat contentHigh proportion of eggsStrong flour or gluten developed during mixing
5Cookie Characteristics contd… Spread: Several factors contribute to spread or lack of it.Sugar- High sugar content increases spreadLeavening- Baking, soda/powder, encourages spreadCreaming- The creaming together of fat and sugar contributes to leavening by incorporating air. Creaming a mixture until light increases spread. Blending fat and sugar just to a paste (without creaming in a lot of air) reduces spreadTemperature- Low oven temperature increases spread. High temperatures decreases spread because the cookie sets up before it has a chance to spread too muchLiquid- High liquid content, spreads more than a stiff doughFlour- Strong flour or activation of gluten decreases spread
6Three Mixing Methods One Stage-Cream -Sponge One Stage Mixing Method: Low moisture cookies where all ingredients are mixed at once.Measure ingredients accurately. Have all ingredients at room temperature.Mix the ingredients until uniformly blended.Scrape down sides of bowl as necessary.
7Mixing Methods: Creaming method 1. Measure ingredients accurately. Have all ingredients at room temperature2. Place the fat, sugar, salt, and spices in the mixing bowl. Cream these ingredients. For light cookies, cream until mix is light and fluffy, in order to incorporate more air for leavening. For denser cookies, blend to a smooth paste, but do not cream until light.3. Add the eggs and liquid, if any, and blend in a low speedSift in the flour and leavening. Mix until just combined. Do not over mix, or gluten will develop
8Mixing Methods: Sponge method Measure all ingredients accurately. Have all ingredients at room temperature2. Following the procedure given in the formula used, whip the eggs and the sugar to the proper stage: soft peaks for whites, thick, and light for whole eggs and yolks.3. Fold in the remaining ingredients as specified in the recipe. Be careful not to over mix or to deflate the eggs.
9Six Types of CookiesCookies are generally grouped into six different types.No matter what types of cookie you are making one important rule applies:Make all cookies a uniform size and thickness.Also if the tops of cookies are to be garnished with fruits, nuts or other items place the garnish on the cookies as soon as they are in the pan and press down gently. If you wait too long the dough begins to dry and the garnish may not stick and will fall off while baking.
10Bagged Bagged or pressed cookies are made from soft doughs. The dough must be soft enough to be forced through a pastry bag but stiff enough to hold its shape.
11DroppedDough that contains pieces of fruit, nuts, or chocolate would clog the pastry tube.Drop the cookies onto the prepared baking sheets and allow enough space between cookies for spreading.Rich cookies spread by themselves, but if the formula requires it, flatten the mounds of batter slightly with a weight dipped in sugar.
12Rolled Chill dough thoroughly Roll dough out 3mm thick on a floured canvas and place cookies on prepared sheets.Cut as close together as possible to reduce the quantity of scraps and roll scraps into fresh dough to minimize toughness.Baked cutout cookies are often decorated with colored icing for holidays or special occasions.
13MoldedRefrigerate the dough if it is too soft to handle and roll it out into long cylinders about 1 in. thick, or whatever size is required.With a knife cut the roll into 15g pieces.\Place the pieces on prepared baking sheets, leaving 2 in. space between each.Flatten the cookies with a weight, such as a can, dipped in granulated sugar before pressing each cookie.A fork is sometimes used for flattening the dough.
14IceboxThe icebox or refrigerator method is ideal for operations that wish to have freshly baked cookies on hand.The rolls of dough may be made up in advance and baked as needed.Cookies can easily be cut and baked as needed.
15BarThis type of cookie is baked in a baking pan and later cut crosswise and lengthwise into bars.Spread dough into sheet panFlatten dough with fingersBake as directedAfter baking, while still warm cut into bars generally 1 ¼” x 3”
16Preparing the Pan Use clean unwarped pan. Line with parchment paper or grease.Heavily greased pans cause spreadingA greased/floured pan decreases spreadingHigh fat cookies can be baked on ungreased pans.
17BakingMost cookies are baked at a relatively high temprature for a short time.If the temperature is to high the bottom and sides of the cookie may burnToo low a temperature increases spreading and can produce, hard, dry and pale cookiesCookies continue to bake if they are left on the pan after being taken out of the oven
18Baking contd…Doneness is indicated by color. The edges and bottom should be turning a light golden color.Excessive browning is undesirable. This often occurs when cookies have been colored.To prevent burning the bottom of cookies with a large fat content you can double the pan by placing a sheet pan of the same size under the cookie sheet.
19CoolingRemove cookies from the pan while they are still warm or they will continue to cook or stick to the pan.If cookies are very soft do not remove from the pan until they are cook and firm enough to handle.Cookies that are soft when hot often become crisp when cool.
20Troubleshooting Guide Too toughToo crumblyToo hardToo dryNot brown enoughToo BrownPoor flavorSurface or crust sugaryToo much spreadNot enough spreadStick to pan
21General Instructions Preheat the oven Assemble all utensils and ingredients. Measure ingredients accurately, mixing thoroughly at every step.Baking sheets should be at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) shorter in length and width than the over rack. For browner cookies, use shiny baking sheets.When greasing cookie sheets, leave a 2.5-centimeter (1-inch) margin around the pan. Do not use too much grease. Bake cookies with a high fat content, such as refrigerator cookies, on ungreased sheets.Shape cookies so that are uniform in size and thickness.
22General Instructions Contd… Chilling the dough first will make rolling easier. Roll dough from the center out in all directions so that it is even in thickness. Use just enough flour to make rolling the dough easy. Too much flour will make the cookies dry and hard. When using cookie cutters, flour them slightly after each cuttingCut cookies close together to make as many as possible before rolling the dough a second time. Rerolling makes cookies less tender.Bake a test cookie first. If the cookie comes out too thin, add a little flour to the rest of the dough. Then arrange cookies in rows on sheets, allowing enough room for them to spread out.For even baking, space the pans so that one pan is not directly over another on a lower rack.Test cookies for doneness when the minimum baking time is up:Bar cookies- pulled away from sides of panDrop cookies- when pressed with a finger, they spring backRefrigerator cookies and pressed cookies- light brown around the edgesRolled cookies- light brown, firm to the touchMolded cookies- firm, sometimes slightly crumbly