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Climate Change Impact And A Proposal For a Water Treatment Plant (Jadacaquiva, Venezuela) Author: Arregoitia Sarabia, Carla Adriana Arrher Research Division.

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Presentation on theme: "Climate Change Impact And A Proposal For a Water Treatment Plant (Jadacaquiva, Venezuela) Author: Arregoitia Sarabia, Carla Adriana Arrher Research Division."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate Change Impact And A Proposal For a Water Treatment Plant (Jadacaquiva, Venezuela) Author: Arregoitia Sarabia, Carla Adriana Arrher Research Division Contact:

2 Table of Contents Introduction The Project Location Justification The Problem Important Points The Objective Basis for Design Plant Design Other technical Aspects Conclusions Bibliography 2/23

3 The project location This project is a proposal presented to design a waste water treatment plant of an abattoir place in the region of Falcón, Venezuela. 3/23 Google

4 The project location The town of Jadacaquiva is located in the middle of the Paraguaná Peninsula. A town with long history from the 16th century and famous for its cattle and goat. Population is over 3,600ppl About 302ppl live from agriculture and cattle activities. About 85 % of the land is commonly owned Other products: Aloe Vera oil and soap 4/23 Jadacaquiva's church was built by Alejandro de Quevedo Villegas and his wife, Rosa, in It has architectural elements of the Jewish religion. The structure of the campanile, separate from the church, is styled Caribbean Dutch (common to Curaçao architecture).

5 The impacts considered in a treatment plant should include the future population growth, climate change and water management As cities continue to expand their water supply gets more difficult. Projected Water Scarcity and Stress in 2025 [1] Justifications 5/23

6 Population growth in countries like China and India will remain high compared to Mexico, Japan and Spain.[2] Justifications Population of Venezuela = 27,150,095ppl. on the last statistics. The new preliminary results from 2011 is aprox ~ ppl. [3] 6/23

7 Justifications One of the dryest areas of the country Only one river located in the peninsula Weather: arid (savannah) Average annual rain < 300 mm Strong winds 35 km/h Highest precipitation at the end of the year (i.e. Novembber ~83,5mm) Average temperature 27°- 28°C. 7/23 Region conditions [4]

8 Justifications Weather changes will impact the area to a case of extreme drought if temperatures keep rising. There will be a great effect on the agriculture activity. 8/23 Venezuela has a medium temperature change. Venezuela ranking is Fair [5] Climate Change

9 Justification Climate change increases environmental and social problems and food security will be at risk There is a need to increase adaptation capacity to changes in agriculture and other food processing Food systems should change to better satisfy demand This project involves local and country authorities and therefore can serve as an example for other regions in the long term Needs to involve other investment sources, innovation and local will to build a food system for the population Sustainable agriculture, improvement of infrastructure, recovery of degraded ecosystems are part of a long term development. Contributes to diminish the impacts of climate change in the region, provides sustainable food security to the population It can cause a relocation of the plant and create an economic negative impact in the area This plant is an example of where, how and when to take action. 9/23

10 The problem The growth of the Paraguaná Península has provided economic development, but public services keep collapsing today continuously during high tourists seasons. Drinkable water is much more inefficient in rural areas due to damage infrastructures and high population demand The state of Falcón has many problems with water distribution, pumping stations, not enough infrastructures for collection and water treatment. An aqueduct (from Maticora) is being built but it is still estimated not to be enough Bigger problems arise such as social, sanitary and economic due to high unemployment rate and migrations of the area decreasing living conditions. There are communities with no drinkable water systems and others that are being restricted, and communities with low pressure in lines due to conditions of infrastructure and illegal supply point of piping systems. Action is needed!!! 10/23

11 Important points This is a social project in the area. Proposes treatment for all effluents to be used on farms land for irrigation It will contribute to aquifer recharge It presently has critical conditions due to: intense drought of the region Contains brackish water No close natural water sources other than wells. This plant is a proposal to cope with all problems mentioned previously, improve socioeconomic situation of the region and encourage cattle activities. 11/23

12 Objective This is a economic need and therefore concerns public health To produce good quality meat for the region Obtain good quality sub products: Edible: guts, heart, liver, organs used for sausages etc.. Inedible: blood, skin, fat, bones, etc. 12/23 Water treatment of the plant includes: Physical-chemical treatment to reduce inorganic contaminants (solids, grease, oils) needs few space and low cost [7]. Biological treatment of urban waters (large volumes and low contaminants). Building small vases which increases the cost and the need of space. The use of sand filters to provide quality water for farms Warning: this topic is delicate to some sensitive people due to its content on meat processing.

13 Basis for Design The plant will: – Minimize water contamination and consumption – Improvement of the treatment systems. The region has a couple more of industrial slaughterhouses that up until now did not considered the treatment of the water. 13/23

14 1Lt = mg. DBO 1 Cow =10Lt = 1.25 Kg. DBO 1 Person = 0.090Kg DBO/day 1 Cow = 14 People 400M Cow/year = 5.6 MM People Residual water comes from: 10-15% from the salting and guts processing, 20-25% from sausages and ham making; and % cleaning water Basis for Design 14/23

15 The slaughterhouse processes about 300 units/day. It has a place for butchering. This means about 600 m3 of water/day[6] Volume of water used Units processed per day300 Litres of water /kg weight of the unit alive (L/kg) 5 Average Weight of 1 unit400 Vol. Water used /unitl (L)2000 Vol. Water used /unitl m 3 )2 Total water used/day (m3)600 Basis for Design 15/23

16 ParameterAverage ValuePeak valueLimits pH ~7 DQO (mg/l) DBO5 (mg/l) SS Nitrates Oils, grease (mg/l) Consider the limits regulations Theoretical composition of residual water was established from the Munich Municipal slaughterhouse. Established that when the blood and residual products are not collected properly, the organic charge can be 2 or three times more than it reports. Basis for Design 16/23

17 Pretreatment: to remove suspended solids; Primary treatment: to remove organic matter; Secondary and Tertiary treatment: to remove nitrates and phosphates, ss. Equipment Pumping units. Screens. Homogenization vassel. Pumping into the physical-chemical treatment Equipment Floatation unit. Tanks 300 m 3 capacity Pumping system into bacteria tanks ( 4,5 m height x 10 m diameter) - Secondary decatation(10,7 m diameter X 3,8 m. height) Equipment Oxidation tanks Sludge treatment Sand filters The Plant Design 17/23

18 Preliminary Treatment Used for larger solids, uses U-tubes for grease an foam, and fine solids. Consists of srceens/grids to get rid off large particles such as meat, bones, skin.Prevents clogs and improves efficiency of subsuequent units Primary Treatment: Up to 95 % of SS and 70% BOD removed Physicochemical Treatment: Addition of coagulants and flocculants for sedimentation Clarification: separates the floating particles from the heavier ones. Primary sedimentation is essential before filters Sedimentation tanks (horizontal) for heavy contaminants should allow 6 hr. retention period. Effluents > 1000 m 3 /d may use mechanical scrappers. Cylindrical sedimentation tanks are more efficient for medium size effluents, and have a higher cost. The stream is free of toxic substances before using it as fertilizers (~3-5 % solids) Sludge streams are recommended to be dried for small and medium size effluents The Plant Design 18/23

19 Secondary Treatment To get rid of nitrates and phosphates Oxidation tanks This treatment depends on the budget considered, and space available It is recommended to used together with other industries Tertiary Treatment Treats >99%of SS and decreases DBO5. Technologies such as Reverse Osmosis and electro-dialysis are used to improve the quality of the water, as well as Ozone for disinfection. Brine Streams Normally they go to a river, lake, or the municipal sewage system. Activated carbon, pH control and sand filters are used Higher Cost For this case the water will go into tertiary treatment so it can used in farmland for irrigation The Plant Design 19/23

20 Other technical aspects Duration of the project months Investment: US$ (equipmetn and instalation) 20/23 Extract reusable substances and those that clog pipes Water sources >30 C must be decreased first Guts are digested in a biogas installation at 30°C for about 25 days, together with feces, and sludge from separators and clarification units. Residual waters decompose first (anaerobic) with digested sludge in heating units for 2-3 days. Pretreated water can pass by a biologic treatment tank by filtration for 54 hr. and 8hrs at the end of clarification or oxidation tanks Residual waters are first disinfected with Cl before chemical precipitation and sedimentation Sludge treatment uses heating digesters for stabilization

21 It is expected: That the water treatment plant total removal reaches about 85% of contaminants (DBO5, DQO y SST) and together with the tertiary system up to a 95%. Conclusions Meat production increase Sub product production increase Better quality products Health concerns diminishes Food security guaranteed and sustainability Contributions to cope with climate changes (aquifer recharge) and treatment of residues Cattle farmers will strengthen their technological capacities as well as business and organizational Water will meet standards to be used in farm land Less volatile substances to produce safety concerns Project with few residues and more cleaner production Employment generation 21/23

22 Bibliography [1] Schwikert, Shane et. al. Water Scarcity: Tomorrow´s Problems. U. of Michigan. [2] United Nations. The 2008 Revision Population Database [3] Venezuela Governement [4] World Bank. Climate Change Knowledge Portal. [5] Getting Off The Grid – A Blueprint for A New Life [6] Penalba., M. Replanteamiento para la depuracion de las aguas residuales en mataderos. [7] Munoz M. Deyanira. System of Residual Water Treatment of Slaughet House: For smaller population inhabitants. Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias Vol 3 No.1 Marzo 2005[ [8] Jhoniers Guerrero E. Et al. Manejo ambiental de Residuos en Mataderos de Pequenos Municipios. Scientia et Technica Año X, No 26, Diciembre UTP. ISSN [9] FAO. Tratamiento de los deshechos y eliminacion de las aguas residuales /23

23 Thank you very much for your attention Author: Arregoitia Sarabia, Carla Adriana Arrher Research Division Contact infromation: 23/23


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