Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Sanitary Facilities and Equipment"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 10 Sanitary Facilities and Equipment ServSafeChapter 10Sanitary Facilities and Equipment
2GOALS TO FOCUS ON: Designing a Sanitary Establishment Considerations for Other Areas of the FacilitySanitation Standards for EquipmentChoosing and Installing Kitchen EquipmentUtilities
3OBJECTIVES Respond to an interruption in the internal water supply. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:Respond to an interruption in the internal water supply.Respond to wastewater overflows.Identify methods to prevent backflow problems.Identify potable water sources.
4Identify uses of nonpotable water. Handle waste properly.Clean and maintain restrooms properly.Identify the requirements of a handwashing station.Position equipment and facilities to make sanitation easier.
6Designing a Sanitary Establishment Four topics related to the sanitary layout anddesign of equipment and facilities.Materials for walls, floors and ceilings that will make cleaning these surfaces easier.Arrangement and design of equipment and fixtures to comply with sanitation standards.Design of utilities to prevent contamination and to make cleaning easier.Proper solid waste management to avoid contaminating food and attracting pest.
7The Plan Review A sanitary foodservice layout and design should begin in the planning stage of the facility.Some local jurisdictions will require the approval ofdesign plans by building and zoning departments. Inaddition, the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)requires reasonable accommodation for access to thebuilding by both patrons and employees with disabilities.Even if local laws do not require it, a manager shouldhave plans reviewed by the local regulatory agency.
8Materials for Interior Construction Materials used in the construction of a facilitymust be selected with several factors in mind.Materials chosen should:Create an attractive facilityContribute to workplace safetyBe reasonably pricedBe easy to clean and maintain (Most important)
9Have a mixture of floor, wall, and ceiling surfaces that:Are sound absorbentResist absorption of grease and moistureHave light-reflective surfaces
10Flooring Flooring materials in the kitchen and service areas should meet requirements for health andsafety, strength and durability, and appearance.Porosity is the extent to which a floor coveringcan become saturated by liquids. Floor surfacesshould be:Easy to maintainWear resistantSlip resistantNonporous
11Nonporous Resilient Flooring In most areas of the establishment, nonporousresilient flooring is the best choice.Resiliency means a material has the ability toreact to a shock without breaking or cracking.Resilient FlooringRubber TileVinyl SheetVinyl TileExhibit 10a
12Hard-Surface Flooring The second major type of flooring commonly used in an establishment ishard-surface flooring and includes:quarry tileceramic tilebrickterrazzo; marblewoodacrylic wood (plastic absorbed intowood)Exhibit 10b
13Special Flooring Needs Each area of an establishment has its ownparticular flooring needs.Non-slip surfacesRubber matsCoving is a curved, sealed edge placed between the floor and the wall to eliminate sharp corners or gaps that would be impossible to clean.
14Finishes for Interior Walls and Ceiling Criteria when choosing interior finishes are:Ease of cleaning and porosity Most importantLight in colorCommon wall finishes:Ceramic tileStainless steelCommon Ceiling materials:Acoustic tilePainted drywallPainted plasterExposed concrete
15Considerations for Other Areas of the Facility Dry StorageDry storerooms should be constructed ofeasy-to-clean materials that allow good aircirculation. Shelves, table tops, and bins fordry ingredients should be made of corrosion-resistant metals or food-grade plastics.Exhibit 10d
16Restrooms and Handwashing Stations Restrooms should be:Away from food preparation areasConvenientClean and SanitaryFully-equipped handwashing stationSelf-closing doorsStocked with toilet paperTrash receptaclesCovered waste containers
17Handwashing StationHandwashing stations must be convenientlylocated so that employees will be encouragedto wash their hands often.Must be equipped with the following items:Hot and cold running water.Water temperature of at least 110 degrees F.Soap.A means to dry hands.A waste container.
18SinksEach sink is an establishment must be usedfor its intended purpose only.Service sinks used for cleaning mops anddisposing of waste water must be keptseparate. At least one service sink or curbeddrain area to dispose of soiled water isrequired in an establishment.Dressing Rooms and LockersAre not required, but are nice. Used only fordressing and separate from the kitchen.
19PremisesWalkways and the parking lot should be keptfree of litter and graded so standing pools ofwater do not form.Patron traffic through the food preparationarea is prohibited. Although guided tours areallowed.
20Sanitation Standards for Equipment The task of choosing equipment designed forsanitation has been simplified byorganizations such as NSF International,formerly the National Sanitation Foundation.NSF International develops and publishesstandards for sanitary equipment design.Underwriters Laboratories (UL) alsoprovides sanitation classification listings forequipment found in compliance with NSFInternational standards. Mark for equipmentthat meets safety standards.
21NSF International Standards It is the responsibility of the manufacturerto know safety standards for specificequipment.NSF International bases its standards on:Equipment must be easy to clean.All food-contact surfaces must be smooth, nontoxic, nonaborbent, corrosion resistant, and stable and must not cause changes in the color, odor, or taste of the food.
22Internal corners and edges exposed to food must be rounded off (coved). All food-contact surfaces must be smooth and free of pits, crevices, ledges, inside threads and shoulders, bolts, and rivet heads.Coating materials must be nontoxic and cleanable and must resist cracking and chipping.Equipment must be easy to disassemble to encourage frequent, thorough cleaning.
23Warewashing Machines: Warewashing machines vary widely bysize,style, and method of sanitizing.Hot water machines sanitize with extremely hot waterChemical sanitizing machines use a chemical solution
24Warewashing machines include the following models:Single-tank, stationary-rack, with doors.Conveyor machine.Carousel or circular conveyor machine.Flight-type.Batch-type, dump.Recirculating, door-type, non-dump.Conveyor
25Clean-in-Place Equipment Some equipment, such as certain automaticice-making machines and soft-serve icecream and frozen yogurt dispensers, isdesigned to be cleaned by having adetergent solution, hot-water rinse, andsanitizing solution passed through it.Clean-in-Place equipment must be self-draining.
26Refrigerators and Freezers Walk-In RefrigeratorReach-in FreezerBlast Chiller many can cool foods from 140 degrees F to 37 degrees F within 90 minutesTumble Chiller Unit
27Cutting BoardsSynthetic cutting boards are generallypreferred because they can be cleaned andsanitized in a warewashing machine.Separate cutting boards should be used forraw and cooked foods.
28Choosing and Installing Kitchen Equipment A well-designed kitchen make the job of keepingfood safe easier. Generally, an efficient kitchendesign is a more sanitary kitchen design.LayoutA well-designed kitchen will address the followingfactors.The work flowContaminationEquipment accessibility
29Equipment The primary criteria for installing equipment are ease of cleaning and elimination of hiding places for pests.Floor-Mounted Immobile EquipmentImmobile equipment must be mounted on legs atleast six inches off the floor or sealed to a masonrybase.Cantilever MountedCantilever mounting allows free access for cleaningunderneath and behind large equipment.
30Utilities Water Supply Potable Water Establishments could not operate without water andplumbing, electricity and gas, lighting, ventilation,sewage, and waste handling.Water SupplyPotable WaterWater that is safe to drink. Potable sources ofwater include approved public water mains,private water sources that are regularlymaintained and tested, and bottled drinkingwater.
31Potable Water is needed for: Water EmergenciesBeverage or ingredientIceCleaningHandwashingRestrooms, Showers, and LaundryHot WaterBooster heater can maintain a watertemperature of 180 degree F for heat sanitizingtableware and utensils.
32PlumbingOnly licensed plumbers should install andmaintain plumbing systems in an establishment.Cross-connections a physical link throughwhich contaminants from drains, sewers, orwaste water can enter a potable water supply.Flood rim is the spillover point on a sink.
33Vacuum breaker the threaded faucets and connections between two piping systems must have avacuum breaker or other approved backflowprevention device.Air gap is to prevent backflow in a sink. Air gapsbetween the faucet and the flood rim and betweenthe drainpipe and floor drain of a sink preventbackflow.
34Grease Condensation and Leaking Pipes Grease traps are often installed to prevent abuildup of grease from creating a drainblockage.SewageSufficient drainage must be provided to handlewaste water. A backup of raw sewage on thefloor is a cause for immediate closure of theestablishment, correction of the problem, andthrough cleaning.
35Building and health codes usually set minimum LightingBuilding and health codes usually set minimumacceptable levels of lighting, typically based onFoot-candles. A foot-candle is a unit of illuminationone foot from a uniform source of light. Here are somerecommendations.Provide a minimum of fifty foot-candles of light (540 lux) in food prep areas.Provide a minimum of twenty foot-candles of light (220 lux) in handwashing or warewashing areas; at buffets and salad bars.Provide a minimum of ten foot-candles of light (110 lux) inside walk-in refrigerator and freezer units, in dry storage areas, and in the dining room during cleaning.
36VentilationProper ventilation helps maintain anestablishment’s indoor air quality by removingsteam, smoke, grease and heat from theestablishment.Mechanical ventilation must be used in areas forcooking, frying, and grilling. Exhaust hoods areused over cooking equipment, steam tables,and warewashing machines. Ventilation must bedesigned so that hoods, fans, guards,andductwork do not drip onto food or equipment.
37Solid Waste Management The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) agovernment agency that sets standards forenvironmental quality, to include air and waterquality, and regulates the use of pesticides andthe handling of wastes.EPA has recommended three approaches tomanage solid waste dry bulky trash that canbe recycled, including glass, plastic, paper, andcardboard.
38Three approaches to manage solid waste: Reduce the amount of waste produced.Reuse when possible.Recycle materialsGarbage DisposalGarbage is wet waste matter, usuallycontaining food, that cannot be recycled.Garbage containers must be leak-proof,waterproof, pest-proof, easily cleanable,and durable.
39Outdoor Trash Receptacles Should be located on or above smoothsurface of nonabsorbent material such asconcrete or machine-laid asphalt.Pulpers grind food and other types of waste(such as paper) into small parts that areflushed with water. The water is thenremoved so that the processed solid wastesweigh less and are more compact for easierdisposal.