Presentation on theme: "ServSafe Chapter 10 Sanitary Facilities and Equipment."— Presentation transcript:
ServSafe Chapter 10 Sanitary Facilities and Equipment
GOALS TO FOCUS ON: zDesigning a Sanitary Establishment zConsiderations for Other Areas of the Facility zSanitation Standards for Equipment zChoosing and Installing Kitchen Equipment zUtilities
OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, you should be able to: zRespond to an interruption in the internal water supply. zRespond to wastewater overflows. zIdentify methods to prevent backflow problems. zIdentify potable water sources.
zIdentify uses of nonpotable water. zHandle waste properly. zClean and maintain restrooms properly. zIdentify the requirements of a handwashing station. zPosition equipment and facilities to make sanitation easier.
Key Terms zADA zPorosity zResiliency zAcrylic wood zCoving zFood-contact surface zService sink zNSF International zUL (Underwriters Laboratories) zDetergent zSanitizer zBlast chiller zTumble chiller zCantilever mounted z Potable water z Booster heater z Cross-connection z Backflow z Single-use item z Vacuum breaker z Foot-candle z Flood rim z Air gap z Environmental Protection Agency z Solid waste z Garbage z Pulper
Designing a Sanitary Establishment Four topics related to the sanitary layout and design of equipment and facilities. zMaterials for walls, floors and ceilings that will make cleaning these surfaces easier. zArrangement and design of equipment and fixtures to comply with sanitation standards. zDesign of utilities to prevent contamination and to make cleaning easier. zProper solid waste management to avoid contaminating food and attracting pest.
The Plan Review A sanitary foodservice layout and design should begin in the planning stage of the facility. Some local jurisdictions will require the approval of design plans by building and zoning departments. In addition, the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) requires reasonable accommodation for access to the building by both patrons and employees with disabilities. Even if local laws do not require it, a manager should have plans reviewed by the local regulatory agency.
Materials for Interior Construction Materials used in the construction of a facility must be selected with several factors in mind. Materials chosen should: zCreate an attractive facility zContribute to workplace safety zBe reasonably priced zBe easy to clean and maintain (Most important)
Have a mixture of floor, wall, and ceiling surfaces that: zAre sound absorbent zResist absorption of grease and moisture zHave light-reflective surfaces
Flooring Flooring materials in the kitchen and service areas should meet requirements for health and safety, strength and durability, and appearance. Porosity is the extent to which a floor covering can become saturated by liquids. Floor surfaces should be: zEasy to maintain zWear resistant zSlip resistant zNonporous
Nonporous Resilient Flooring In most areas of the establishment, nonporous resilient flooring is the best choice. Resiliency means a material has the ability to react to a shock without breaking or cracking. Resilient Flooring zRubber Tile zVinyl Sheet zVinyl Tile Exhibit 10a
Hard-Surface Flooring The second major type of flooring commonly used in an establishment is hard-surface flooring and includes: zquarry tile zceramic tile zbrick zterrazzo; marble zwood zacrylic wood (plastic absorbed into zwood) Exhibit 10b
Special Flooring Needs Each area of an establishment has its own particular flooring needs. zNon-slip surfaces zRubber mats zCoving is a curved, sealed edge placed between the floor and the wall to eliminate sharp corners or gaps that would be impossible to clean.
Finishes for Interior Walls and Ceiling Criteria when choosing interior finishes are: zEase of cleaning and porosity Most important zLight in color Common wall finishes: zCeramic tile zStainless steel Common Ceiling materials: zAcoustic tile zPainted drywall zPainted plaster zExposed concrete
Considerations for Other Areas of the Facility Dry Storage Dry storerooms should be constructed of easy-to-clean materials that allow good air circulation. Shelves, table tops, and bins for dry ingredients should be made of corrosion- resistant metals or food-grade plastics. Exhibit 10d
Restrooms and Handwashing Stations Restrooms should be: zAway from food preparation areas zConvenient zClean and Sanitary zFully-equipped handwashing station zSelf-closing doors zStocked with toilet paper zTrash receptacles zCovered waste containers
Handwashing Station Handwashing stations must be conveniently located so that employees will be encouraged to wash their hands often. Must be equipped with the following items: zHot and cold running water. Water temperature of at least 110 degrees F. zSoap. zA means to dry hands. zA waste container.
Sinks Each sink is an establishment must be used for its intended purpose only. Service sinks used for cleaning mops and disposing of waste water must be kept separate. At least one service sink or curbed drain area to dispose of soiled water is required in an establishment. Dressing Rooms and Lockers Are not required, but are nice. Used only for dressing and separate from the kitchen.
Premises Walkways and the parking lot should be kept free of litter and graded so standing pools of water do not form. Patron traffic through the food preparation area is prohibited. Although guided tours are allowed.
Sanitation Standards for Equipment The task of choosing equipment designed for sanitation has been simplified by organizations such as NSF International, formerly the National Sanitation Foundation. NSF International develops and publishes standards for sanitary equipment design. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) also provides sanitation classification listings for equipment found in compliance with NSF International standards. Mark for equipment that meets safety standards.
NSF International Standards It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to know safety standards for specific equipment. NSF International bases its standards on: zEquipment must be easy to clean. zAll food-contact surfaces must be smooth, nontoxic, nonaborbent, corrosion resistant, and stable and must not cause changes in the color, odor, or taste of the food.
zInternal corners and edges exposed to food must be rounded off (coved). zAll food-contact surfaces must be smooth and free of pits, crevices, ledges, inside threads and shoulders, bolts, and rivet heads. zCoating materials must be nontoxic and cleanable and must resist cracking and chipping. zEquipment must be easy to disassemble to encourage frequent, thorough cleaning.
Warewashing Machines: Warewashing machines vary widely by size,style, and method of sanitizing. zHot water machines sanitize with extremely hot water zChemical sanitizing machines use a chemical solution
Warewashing machines include the following models: zSingle-tank, stationary-rack, with doors. zConveyor machine. zCarousel or circular conveyor machine. zFlight-type. zBatch-type, dump. zRecirculating, door-type, non-dump. zConveyor
Clean-in-Place Equipment Some equipment, such as certain automatic ice-making machines and soft-serve ice cream and frozen yogurt dispensers, is designed to be cleaned by having a detergent solution, hot-water rinse, and sanitizing solution passed through it. Clean-in-Place equipment must be self- draining.
Refrigerators and Freezers zWalk-In Refrigerator zReach-in Freezer zBlast Chiller many can cool foods from 140 degrees F to 37 degrees F within 90 minutes zTumble Chiller Unit
Cutting Boards Synthetic cutting boards are generally preferred because they can be cleaned and sanitized in a warewashing machine. Separate cutting boards should be used for raw and cooked foods.
Choosing and Installing Kitchen Equipment A well-designed kitchen make the job of keeping food safe easier. Generally, an efficient kitchen design is a more sanitary kitchen design. Layout A well-designed kitchen will address the following factors. zThe work flow zContamination zEquipment accessibility
Equipment The primary criteria for installing equipment are ease of cleaning and elimination of hiding places for pests. Floor-Mounted Immobile Equipment Immobile equipment must be mounted on legs at least six inches off the floor or sealed to a masonry base. Cantilever Mounted Cantilever mounting allows free access for cleaning underneath and behind large equipment.
Utilities Establishments could not operate without water and plumbing, electricity and gas, lighting, ventilation, sewage, and waste handling. Water Supply Potable Water Water that is safe to drink. Potable sources of water include approved public water mains, private water sources that are regularly maintained and tested, and bottled drinking water.
Potable Water is needed for: zWater Emergencies zBeverage or ingredient zIce zCleaning zHandwashing zRestrooms, Showers, and Laundry Hot Water Booster heater can maintain a water temperature of 180 degree F for heat sanitizing tableware and utensils.
Plumbing Only licensed plumbers should install and maintain plumbing systems in an establishment. Cross-connections a physical link through which contaminants from drains, sewers, or waste water can enter a potable water supply. Flood rim is the spillover point on a sink.
Vacuum breaker the threaded faucets and connections between two piping systems must have a vacuum breaker or other approved backflow prevention device. Air gap is to prevent backflow in a sink. Air gaps between the faucet and the flood rim and between the drainpipe and floor drain of a sink prevent backflow.
Grease Condensation and Leaking Pipes Grease traps are often installed to prevent a buildup of grease from creating a drain blockage. Sewage Sufficient drainage must be provided to handle waste water. A backup of raw sewage on the floor is a cause for immediate closure of the establishment, correction of the problem, and through cleaning.
Lighting Building and health codes usually set minimum acceptable levels of lighting, typically based on Foot-candles. A foot-candle is a unit of illumination one foot from a uniform source of light. Here are some recommendations. zProvide a minimum of fifty foot-candles of light (540 lux) in food prep areas. zProvide a minimum of twenty foot-candles of light (220 lux) in handwashing or warewashing areas; at buffets and salad bars. zProvide a minimum of ten foot-candles of light (110 lux) inside walk-in refrigerator and freezer units, in dry storage areas, and in the dining room during cleaning.
Ventilation Proper ventilation helps maintain an establishment’s indoor air quality by removing steam, smoke, grease and heat from the establishment. Mechanical ventilation must be used in areas for cooking, frying, and grilling. Exhaust hoods are used over cooking equipment, steam tables, and warewashing machines. Ventilation must be designed so that hoods, fans, guards,and ductwork do not drip onto food or equipment.
Solid Waste Management The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a government agency that sets standards for environmental quality, to include air and water quality, and regulates the use of pesticides and the handling of wastes. EPA has recommended three approaches to manage solid waste dry bulky trash that can be recycled, including glass, plastic, paper, and cardboard.
Three approaches to manage solid waste: zReduce the amount of waste produced. zReuse when possible. zRecycle materials Garbage Disposal Garbage is wet waste matter, usually containing food, that cannot be recycled. Garbage containers must be leak-proof, waterproof, pest-proof, easily cleanable, and durable.
Outdoor Trash Receptacles Should be located on or above smooth surface of nonabsorbent material such as concrete or machine-laid asphalt. Pulpers grind food and other types of waste (such as paper) into small parts that are flushed with water. The water is then removed so that the processed solid wastes weigh less and are more compact for easier disposal.