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Marcellus Shale A Pennsylvania – Land Trust Perspective.

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Presentation on theme: "Marcellus Shale A Pennsylvania – Land Trust Perspective."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marcellus Shale A Pennsylvania – Land Trust Perspective

2 Presentor Mr. Brian Oram, PG Professional Geologist, Soil Scientist, PASEO, Certified Geothermal Installer, Licensed Well Driller Wilkes University Center for Environmental Quality

3 Project Sponsors Wilkes University Pocono Northeast Resource Conservation & Development Council C-SAW Program - Consortium for Scientific Assistance to Watersheds Program pa.water.usgs.gov/csaw/

4 Center for Environmental Quality Non-profit/ equal opportunity employer, is operated and managed, within the Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences at Wilkes University Outreach Programs Environmental and Professional Education and Training Environmental and Professional Education and Training Applied Research Applied Research Community and Business Outreach Programs Community and Business Outreach Programs Website:

5 What the NBLT Does? Preserve the Beauty and Open landscapes that Sustain Us. Preserve the Beauty and Open landscapes that Sustain Us. It is a Conservation Organization It is a Conservation Organization Preserve Property, Promote Healthy Communities Preserve Property, Promote Healthy Communities Develop Long-Term Grow Strategies Develop Long-Term Grow Strategies Accomplish Mission through – donation of land or development rights/subdivision rights or direct purchase of development rights. Accomplish Mission through – donation of land or development rights/subdivision rights or direct purchase of development rights.

6 How Do You Manage or Maintain these Valuable Assets? Donations, Fundraisers, Grants Donations, Fundraisers, Grants Do you timber harvest? Do you timber harvest? Do you harvest or grow biofuels? Do you harvest or grow biofuels? Do you permit hunting, fishing, or farming? Do you permit hunting, fishing, or farming? Do you conduct Environmental Education Courses or Training Sessions? Do you conduct Environmental Education Courses or Training Sessions? Do you permit mineral resource extraction? Do you permit mineral resource extraction?

7 Marcellus Shale Photo Outcrops Along the Southeastern Border of Pike County Along Route 209 Main Fracture Orientation

8 Geological Sequence 0 to 1.8 million years Time Quaternary – Glaciation Period Deposit or Rock Type sand, silt, clay, and gravel 1.8 to 290 millionTertiary to Permian Not present (eroded and weathered) 290 – 320 million Pennsylvanian 320 – 354 million Mississippian million Devonian 417 – 443 millionSilurian Catskill Formation Trimmers Rock Formation Mahantango Formation Marcellus Formation (Black Shale)- Target Onondaga Formation (calcareous sandy shale) Mauch Chunk Pocono and Spechty Kopf Llewellyn (coal) and Pottsville ( minor coal) OLDEROLDER

9 Marcellus Shale- Natural Gas Play 50 to 200 trillion cubic feet Luzerne County Shale may be 50 to 200 feet thick

10 Source- Cabot – Marcellus Shale Thickness Map This is why the term – Fairway is being used to describe the play.

11 Permitted Drilled Wells

12 3.4 mmcf/day 2.3 to 6.3 mmcf/day 1 MMcf = 1000 MMBtu$3.64 per MMBtu $ 12,400/day $ 3000/day (25%) $ 23,900/day $ 5900/day (25%) Source: DUG Conference Presentation

13 Marcellus Shale Drilling Site Pads can be 5+ acres – but one pad may support drilling multiple horizontal wells.

14 The Concerns (Partial List) Lack of Local and State Oversight- Lack of Local and State Oversight- Regulated on the Federal/ State Level – not via local zoning and land-use. Regulated on the Federal/ State Level – not via local zoning and land-use. Mineral Owner or Gas Rights Out-weigh Rights of Surface Owner Mineral Owner or Gas Rights Out-weigh Rights of Surface Owner Habitat– Loss of Crop or Timber Value- can be addressed in lease Habitat– Loss of Crop or Timber Value- can be addressed in lease Potential for Contamination- address concerns during leasing or other processes and local unrelated ordiances and baseline testing Potential for Contamination- address concerns during leasing or other processes and local unrelated ordiances and baseline testing Water Resource Water Resource Air Quality – Noise Pollution- Compaction Air Quality – Noise Pollution- Compaction Local Agencies not prepared for this type of development Local Agencies not prepared for this type of development

15 Concerns Related to Marcellus Shale Based on Community Location – this could be a major concern or major impact. Based on Community Location – this could be a major concern or major impact. In general, the concerns are related to the following: In general, the concerns are related to the following:  Erosion and Sedimentation Systems  Volume of Water Used In Hydrofracturing- 2 to 9 million gallons per well.  Loss of Freshwater Aquifer or contamination by brine water and drilling fluids/ muds.  Drilling fluids may contain environmental contaminations (metals and organics).  Impacts to Roadways, Traffic, Tourism, and Ecology  Potential for Groundwater and Surface Water Contamination  Spills and Spill Management

16 This Zone should be cemented Typical Well Additional Cemented Zones

17 Multiple Cemented Casing Used in Drilling Process

18 Groundwater Moves - Slowly feet per year Confining Bed Sea Level Stagnant Water – no to little flow Saline/Brine Water

19 Injection Wells – Class II Class II wells inject fluids associated with oil and natural gas production. Most of the injected fluid is salt water (brine), which is brought to the surface in the process of producing (extracting) oil and gas. Regulated by: EPA - Does the UIC Program regulate hydraulic fracturing? Sometimes. The UIC Program regulates the following activities: Well injection of fluids into a formation to enhance oil and gas production (Class II wells). Fracturing used in connection with Class II and Class V injection wells to “stimulate” (open pore space in a formation). Hydraulic fracturing to produce methane from coal beds in Alabama. Note: Class V wells are shallow wells that inject water into or above a freshwater aquifer.

20 Getting to The Natural Gas 5000 to 7000 feet Up to a few thousand feet Freshwater Well Possible saline/ brine/ connate water

21 Types of Fluids Top hole fluids – typically the water from the freshwater aquifer. This water from the first 600 to 800 feet. Top hole fluids – typically the water from the freshwater aquifer. This water from the first 600 to 800 feet. Bottom hole fluids – brine or connate water. Bottom hole fluids – brine or connate water. Stimulation Fluids – fluid used to improve recovery (frac process) Stimulation Fluids – fluid used to improve recovery (frac process) Production Fluids – water produced along the natural gas release – similar to bottom hole fluid. Production Fluids – water produced along the natural gas release – similar to bottom hole fluid.

22 Active Marcellus Production Site – Frac Fluid Chemistry Typically Frac Water is comprised of clean water with a low probably for scale formation, but treated effluents and other sources being evaluated. The components include: Friction Reducer – anionic polymer high molecular weight (hold frac sand and other particles) Wetting Agent- nonionic surfactant – reduce surface tension and improve frac water flowback. Biocides- control growth or regrowth of microorganisms. Scale Inhibitor – phosphate based chemicals to inhibit precipitate formation and scale formation.

23 Arthur et. al., 2008 – All Consulting – “ Natural Gas Wells of the Marcellus Shale”, Presented at Groundwater Protection Council 2008 Annual Forum.

24 Available Frac Water Chemistry ParameterUnitsConcentrationPWSMultiplier Aluminummg/L Arsenicmg/L Bariummg/L Ironmg/L Manganesemg/L Hardnessmg/L T. Dissolved Solidsmg/L Nmg/L pHsu oK Bromidemg/L Chloridemg/L Gross AlphapCi/L Gross Betamrem/yr (Sr) Radium 228pCi/L Radium 226pCi/L

25 Flowback Water Chemistry Flowback water is generated from drilling and it is what gets produced from the first 5% of water returned after a well is started May contain elevated levels of trace metals, nitrogen, bromide, uranium, and hydrocarbons. Most of the dissolved solids includes chloride and sodium. Source:

26 Production Water Produced water is wasted water that accompanies oil extraction and is high in saline. Typically, separated stored on site and then hauled to treatment/disposal facility. May contain elevated levels of trace metals, nitrogen, bromide, uranium, and hydrocarbons. Most of the dissolved solids includes chloride and sodium. Source:

27 Background Testing and Baseline (Work as a Community !) Test wells / springs/surfacewater within at least 1000 feet of proposed well location. Test wells / springs/surfacewater within at least 1000 feet of proposed well location. If no wells on the property install or develop a baseline monitoring program. If no wells on the property install or develop a baseline monitoring program. Test wells/springs/surfacewater along horizontal testing leg with a minimum of 500 feet radius from horizontal leg. Test wells/springs/surfacewater along horizontal testing leg with a minimum of 500 feet radius from horizontal leg. Document static water levels, well production capacity, and spring flows Document static water levels, well production capacity, and spring flows Pre Drilling Baseline – within 6 months of starting a production well. Pre Drilling Baseline – within 6 months of starting a production well. Post Drilling Testing – within 6 months of completion. Post Drilling Testing – within 6 months of completion.

28 Action as a Citizen Support proposed regulatory changes related to Marcellus Shale Development Support proposed regulatory changes related to Marcellus Shale Development Encourage PA State Government to Invest in Oversight, Increase Fees, and Fines Encourage PA State Government to Invest in Oversight, Increase Fees, and Fines Support Proposed Changes in TDS, Chloride, and Sulfate Discharge Regulations. Support Proposed Changes in TDS, Chloride, and Sulfate Discharge Regulations. Use Organization To Properly Educate and Inform the Public, Local Government, and work with Royalty Owner Groups. Use Organization To Properly Educate and Inform the Public, Local Government, and work with Royalty Owner Groups. Royalty Owner Group Members may be future Land Trust Clients. Royalty Owner Group Members may be future Land Trust Clients.

29 Action as a Royalty Owner Get a Solid Lease with Addendums that Protect You and Surrounding Landowners. Get a Solid Lease with Addendums that Protect You and Surrounding Landowners. Use Bonus Payment to Establish Additional Ecological/ Environmental Baseline, Education Adjacent Landowners, and Leverage into Projects that generate or support local issues and community. Use Bonus Payment to Establish Additional Ecological/ Environmental Baseline, Education Adjacent Landowners, and Leverage into Projects that generate or support local issues and community. Avoid the use of lined pits for storing frac, stimulation, and bottom hole fluids. Avoid the use of lined pits for storing frac, stimulation, and bottom hole fluids. Encourage Driller to Use Multiple Cemented Casings, Third Party Inspects, and Obtain Copies of Baseline Testing (Surface and Groundwater). Encourage Driller to Use Multiple Cemented Casings, Third Party Inspects, and Obtain Copies of Baseline Testing (Surface and Groundwater). Encourage Develop to Disclose Emergency Response Plan related to a surface or subsurface contamination. Encourage Develop to Disclose Emergency Response Plan related to a surface or subsurface contamination. Prohibit on-site drilling, deep well inject for brine water disposal, and proper disclosure on water usage (cradle to grave) and frac chemicals. Prohibit on-site drilling, deep well inject for brine water disposal, and proper disclosure on water usage (cradle to grave) and frac chemicals.

30 Anticline Fresh Water < 1000 mg/L Brackish 1000 to < 10,000 mg/L Brine- > 10,000 mg/L ft ft Younger Older Younger Water Well Target Formation Sea Level

31 General Geology Saline Water Brine Water

32 Water Testing Recommendations Package # 1 – Based on Penn State University Recommendations and Workshops. Package # 1 – Based on Penn State University Recommendations and Workshops. Parameters: total coliform, e. coli, chloride, barium, pH, and total dissolved solids. Parameters: total coliform, e. coli, chloride, barium, pH, and total dissolved solids. Estimated Cost w/o Chain-of-Custody and Collection –. Estimated Cost w/o Chain-of-Custody and Collection – Approximately $ /sample. Very inadequate ! Very inadequate ! Need to add at least methane/ethane ! Need to add at least methane/ethane !

33 Water Testing Recommendation Package # 2- Based on what the PADEP is Recommendations. Chloride, Total Coliform, T. Hardness, Magnesium, Strontium, Iron, Manganese, pH, Sodium, Conductivity, Calcium, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids, Barium, Oil & Grease, and Methane/Ethane Chloride, Total Coliform, T. Hardness, Magnesium, Strontium, Iron, Manganese, pH, Sodium, Conductivity, Calcium, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids, Barium, Oil & Grease, and Methane/Ethane Estimated Cost w/o Chain-of-Custody and Collection – Estimated Cost w/o Chain-of-Custody and Collection – Approximately $ /sample. Missing barium, MBAS, VOCs, radiologicals and other key parameters and can not conduct geochemical mapping. Missing barium, MBAS, VOCs, radiologicals and other key parameters and can not conduct geochemical mapping.

34 Water Testing Recommendation Package # 3- Based on a combination of what local gas company’s are doing as part of their background or baseline analysis, plus added total coliform and pH. Alkalinity, pH, Total Coliform, Arsenic, Barium, Calcium, Chloride, Conductivity, T. Hardness, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Oil/Grease, Potassium, Sodium, Sulfate, Total Dissolved Solids, MTBE/VOC’s (includes BTEX), Sulfide, Nitrate, Ammonia, MBAS (Surfactants), Methane/Ethane, and Total Suspended Solids. Alkalinity, pH, Total Coliform, Arsenic, Barium, Calcium, Chloride, Conductivity, T. Hardness, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Oil/Grease, Potassium, Sodium, Sulfate, Total Dissolved Solids, MTBE/VOC’s (includes BTEX), Sulfide, Nitrate, Ammonia, MBAS (Surfactants), Methane/Ethane, and Total Suspended Solids. Estimated Cost w/o Chain-of-Custody and Collection Estimated Cost w/o Chain-of-Custody and Collection $ per sample Problem – Does not include Strontium, Bromide, Selenium, and radiological. Problem – Does not include Strontium, Bromide, Selenium, and radiological.

35 Water Testing Recommendations Package # 4 Based on Gas Company Background Testing and a review of the chemical analysis of used Frac Water. pH, standard plate count, total coliform, nitrate, nitrite, alkalinity, chloride, bromide, sulfate, color, odor, conductivity, corrosion index, alpha/beta count, T. Hardness, Mercury, trace metals (IOC Metals), strontium, potassium, regulated VOC’s & MTBE, Radium 226/ 228, Ammonia Total Dissolved Solids, secondary drinking water parameters, Uranium, Radon in Water, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen, total suspended solids, MBAS, Methane/Ethane, Oil/ Grease, and Sulfide. Estimated Cost w/o Chain-of-Custody and Collection   $ per sample. Estimated Cost without the radiological w/o Chain-of-Custody and Collection – Estimated Cost without the radiological w/o Chain-of-Custody and Collection –. $ per sample. Comprehensive – Water Testing Package – Still missing phenol, 2-Butanone, Acetone, and other trace contaminants in frac water brine Comprehensive – Water Testing Package – Still missing phenol, 2-Butanone, Acetone, and other trace contaminants in frac water brine

36 Certificate of Completion Presented to Fill in Your Name Introduction to Environmental Issues for Natural Gas Development for Land Trusts 1– hour Education Series Presented by Mr. Brian Oram, PG Add Date B.F. Environmental Consultants Dallas, PA

37 Groundwater and Hydrogeology of Luzerne County, PA Hydrogeological AssessmentsSoils Evaluation Community Education Outreach


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