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© Boardworks Ltd of 17 © Boardworks Ltd of 17 Food Technology Hygiene These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. This icon indicates that an activity contains sound.
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Learning objectives © Boardworks Ltd of 17 To understand about good hygiene practices. To understand the conditions in which bacteria grow. To know about the different types of pathogenic bacteria.
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Hygiene is the practices which are adopted in order to maintain cleanliness and prevent disease. We follow hygiene rules everyday such as storing milk, meat and cheese in the fridge, washing our hands and cleaning the dishes in hot water. By following hygiene rules, it is possible to ensure that equipment and food is free from bacterial contamination which can cause food poisoning. What is hygiene?
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Why is personal hygiene important?
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Washing hands
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Bacteria are micro-organisms that cannot be seen by the human eye – thousands fit onto the top of a pin! They live on and in our bodies and all around us. Not all bacteria are harmful; some do useful jobs. Bacteria can be divided into three kinds. There are: What are bacteria? helpful bacteria which help digest the food we eat, make foods such as cheese and yoghurt, develop new foods and treat sewage to make it safe spoilage bacteria which make food perish, rot, spoil or go bad pathogenic bacteria which cause illness and food poisoning.
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Pathogenic bacteria
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 How can bacteria be controlled? If pathogenic bacteria are given the right conditions (warmth, food, moisture and time) in which to grow and multiply, they cause food poisoning and in some cases, death. Some bacteria also produce toxins which are poisonous. The young, old, pregnant and sick are the most vulnerable. It is possible to prevent bacteria multiplying to large numbers by adopting good hygiene practices and understanding the conditions which help bacteria to grow.
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 How does temperature affect bacteria?
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 How do food and moisture affect bacteria? Bacteria like foods which are moist and have a high protein content such as red meat, poultry, fish and dairy products. They are called high-risk foods as they are foods which bacteria are most likely to grow on. They must be stored in a fridge at below 5ºC. Dry foods such as gravy powder and custard powder can be stored at room temperature because bacteria will not grow on them. As soon as they are turned into gravy and custard by adding liquid, they must be stored in a fridge.
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 How does time affect bacteria? In ideal conditions bacteria multiply very quickly – they divide into two by binary fission. This means that within just a few hours, one bacteria is able to increase in number to several thousands or millions. A cake has three bacteria on it at 9am. If the bacteria can multiply (divide in two) every twenty minutes and the cake is left out in a room until 1pm, how many bacteria could there be on it? 12, 288
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Food pests
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Detergents help to dissolve grease and remove dirt. They may kill some pathogenic bacteria. Disinfection is the reduction of bacteria to a low and safe level. It can be achieved by the use of very hot water (at 82°C or hotter), steam or chemical disinfectants. Sanitizers consist of a detergent and disinfectant so they can remove grease and dirt at the same time as reducing the level of bacteria. Cleaning Correct cleaning prevents pest infestation and other bacterial contamination. Cleaning is the process of making something free from dirt and contamination.
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Do you know how to wash up correctly?
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Pathogenic bacteria quiz
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Hygiene quiz
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Key points © Boardworks Ltd of 17 There are a number of different pathogenic bacteria which cause food poisoning and are found in different foods, on people and in soil. Each bacteria has a variety of symptoms. Bacteria need warmth, food, moisture and time to grow; high-risk foods must be kept out of the danger zone. Food poisoning can be prevented with good hygiene practices such as cooking food until very hot, washing hands and storing food in cold places. Pests such as rodents, birds and insects can contaminate foods. Cleaning with a sanitizer gets rid of grease and dirt and reduces bacteria to a low and safe level.
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