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Environmental meauserments - waste water discharges - quality of the soil Melina Džajić – Valjevac, Vrnjačka Banja, October 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental meauserments - waste water discharges - quality of the soil Melina Džajić – Valjevac, Vrnjačka Banja, October 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental meauserments - waste water discharges - quality of the soil Melina Džajić – Valjevac, Vrnjačka Banja, October 2007

2 Environmental meauserments - requirements - To determine quality for the purpose of diferent usage – agriculture, water suply, irigation etc State of the environement before, during and after civil enginering works, construction of industry etc. To investigate impacts. Monitoring Research To sutisfy regulative - “polluter pays” principle

3 Meauserment of waste water discharges Define source – diffuse or point Distribution of pollution – spatial boundaries of the investigation, number of wastewater discharges etc. –Pollution load = c x v Concentration of polution: surfactants, oil and grease, phenols, cyanides, PAH, PCB … Water and air: volume Soil: mass

4 Meauserments of waste water discharges - quantity - velocities (flow) meter for open flows, Pito tubes Volumetric methods Automatic meauserments

5 Meauserments of waste water discharges - quantity -

6 Meauserments of waste water discharges - quality - Physical and chemical Microbiological

7 Sampling Taking representative sample Some parameters of quality require special bottles (glass, PVC, desinfected for microbiology etc.) Meauserments of waste water discharges - quality - Analisis at site – temperature, pH, conductivity, disolved oxygen, turbidity Analisis in the laboratory

8 Analisis of physical and chemical parameters in water Temperature, Turbidity, color, odor, taste pH value, Conductivity, total solids, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, volatile matter, Hardness: total, carbonate Heavy metals: Ca, Mg, Fe, Free CO2, Chlorides, Ammonia, Nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus (total and orthophosphate), sulphate, consumption of KMnO4, COD, Indicators of pollution: heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, Zn, As, Ni…), surfactants, oil and grease, phenols, fluorides, cyanides, pesticides, PAH, PCB, TOC….

9 Methodes for analisis of physical and chemical parameters in water I nstrumental : pH-meter, turbidymeter, Conductometer, oxymeter, spectrophotometer (UV, Atomic absobtion), chromatography (gas, liquid), TOC, TON etc. Volumetric (titration) : acid-base, sedimentation, oxidation - reduction Gravimetric: difference in mass

10 Meauserments of waste water discharges - quality - Physical and chemical Microbiological

11 Analisis of microbiological parameters Total aerobioc mesofilic bacteria in 1 ml Total coliforms in 100 ml Fecal coliformes in 100 ml Fecal Streptococci in 100 ml Proteus in 100 ml Sulphitereducing – Clostridia in 100 ml Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 100

12 Determination of the pollution load in waste water expresed as population equivalent (PE) Population equivalent (in waste-water monitoring and treatment) refers to the amount of oxygen—demanding substances whose oxygen consumption during biodegradation equals the average oxygen demand of the waste water produced by one person. For practical calculations, it is assumed that one unit equals 54 grams of BOD per 24 hours. population equivalent (p.e.) is a measure of pollution representing the average organic biodegradable load per person per day: it is defined in Directive 91/271/EEC as the organic biodegradable load having a five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 60g of oxygen per day.91/271/EEC

13 Determination of the pollution load in waste water expresed as population equivalent (PE) Site works – 48 h: Meauserment of flow every 15 minutes Sampling every 15 minutes to prepare 2 h composite samples Meauserment of temperature every 2 h

14 Determination of the pollution load in waste water expresed as population equivalent (PE) Laboratory analysis: On 2h – composite samples Total suspended solids (filtration) Chemical consumption of oxygen (dychromatometric method) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) Total nitrogen (N-Kjeldahl) Total phosphorus (spectrophotometric) On 24h – composite samples Toxicity Specific parameters depend on industry: heavy metals, oil and grease, surfactants…

15 Toxicity  Results of the specific parameter analisis are not in the acount for the PE, but their impact is partialy covered by analyze of toxicity.  Test Daphnia magna is standard methode for the determination of toxicity for waste water  Daphnia magna are small organisms very sensitve on the presence of different pollution. Daphnia magna grows in the laboratory on certain temparature, food and by often cleaning.  Generaly test consist of exposure of the certain number organisms Daphnia magna in the diferent waste water dilutions.  Result of the analyse is the dilution of the waste water in which 50% exposed organisms die. So, the lower result means the higher toksistiy.

16 Calculation of the pollution load in waste water expresed as population equivalent (PE) PE = {E sm ;Eo m } + EN + EP + E tok + R t : E sm = T sm /55 - PE by suspended matter E om =T om /40 x K - PE by organic matter E N = T N /12 - PE by nitrogen E P = T P /2- PE by phosphorus T sm, T om T N i T P - pollution load (q x c) by suspended and organic matter, total nitrogen and phosphorus. K=1/1,7 n ∑ (HPK/BPK 5 ) E tok = 1000 / 48hLC50 q - PE by toxicity R T = q T max 10 4 / 1,56 T D - PE by temperature

17 PE for the thermal power plant in Tuzla Relevant data: Two discharge outlets: waste water from the slag disposal site and from the main colector High pH value - high toxicity High concentrations of the suspended matter

18 PE for the thermal power plant in Tuzla - flow -

19 PE for the thermal power plant in Tuzla

20 Population equivalent is calculated for each discharge outlet separetly, and the final result is sum of PEs. PE for the thermal power plant in Tuzla PE = PE1 + PE2 = = Total PE is additionaly corected if the industry is not worked by 100% capacity during meauserments. Capacity was 63 % PE = / 0,63 = PE

21 Poluter pays 2,00 KM (around 1 € ) for 1 PE industries are clasify in the four group that pay for their waste water polution in a different ways: Big industries – according to the determination of PE Smaler industries - by comparison with the similar bigger industries More smaler industries – acording to the indexes taking from the rule More smaler industries and population – according to the quantity of waste water

22 Analysis of the surface water Monitoring To asses impacts on quality

23 Regulation regarding monitoring of surface water The state of Bosnia and Herzegovina is regulated by the Dayton Agreement and comprises three separate administrative units (two entities and one district): Republic of Srpska (RS), Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBIH, divided into 10 cantons) and Brcko District. Water stream categorization published in Official gazette SR BiH, no 42/67, and enforced as a federal act based on the Water Law, article 242, paragraph 4, published in Official Gazette Federation of BiH, no 18/98 The Act on classification of waters and sea of Yugoslavia falling within borders of SR BiH (Official gazette SR BiH, no 42/67.), that is accepted as a federal act on the whole territory of Federation BiH Four categories and classes of water MAC prescribed in FBIH

24  The Act on classification of waters and categorization of water streem, u published in Official gazette RS, no 42/01, harmonised according to EC  Water is clasified in five clases Regulation regarding monitoring of surface water MAC prescribed in FBIH

25 Interpretation of the comparison to the MAC If analysis determine result that is over MAC in only one parameter then water is out of prescribed class.

26 Analyze of soil quality

27 Soil definition  Soil is generally defined as the top layer of the Earth’s crust. It is formed by mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and living organisms.  Food and other agriculture production, essential for human survival, and forestry are totally dependent on soil. Almost all vegetation including grassland, arable crops and trees, need soil for the supply of water and nutrients and to fix their roots.  Soil stores and partly transforms minerals, organic matter, water and energy, and diverse chemical substances. It functions as a natural filter for groundwater, the main source for drinking water, and it releases CO2, methane and other gases in the atmosphere.  Science that deal with quality of soil is pedology

28 Due to the impact of surface exploitation of various resources (coal, iron ore, aluminium, clay), so called «technogene deserts» were formed. At this point they cover around – ha. Negative impacts on land, caused by various factors, can be grouped into for basic groups such as infection, contamination, degradation and destruction Negative impacts on land

29 Diffuse soil contamination : from combustion of lead-containing petrol in car motors, from dust and air emissions from metal-processing industries or from use of various fuels (coal, fuel oil) for the heating of houses. Surplus soil from construction work in central urban areas and industrial areas is also often contaminated; typically seen in old urban areas, areas built on landfills from central urban areas, along major roads and near metal-processing plants. Negative impact on soil

30 –Acidifying contaminants (Deposition of airborne pollutants releases into soils acidifying contaminants (e.g. SO2, NOx) gradually decrease the buffering capacity of soils resulting with: releasing of aluminium and other toxic metals into aquatic systems. favouring the leaching out of nutrients with subsequent loss of soil fertility and possible eutrophication problems in water and excess of nitrates in drinking water. damaging beneficial soil micro-organisms, slowing down biological activity. –heavy metals (e.g. cadmium, copper) in fertilizers and animal feed. Possible uptake of cadmium in the food chain. –several organic compounds (e.g. dioxins, PCBs, PAHs). Contamination of soil

31 Pesticides are toxic compounds deliberately released into the environment to fight plant pests and diseases. They can accumulate in the soil, leach to the groundwater and evaporate into the air from which further deposition onto soil can take place. They also may affect soil biodiversity and enter the food chain. While the use of pesticides is regulated, and they should be only applied following Good Farming Practice, pesticides have been found to leach through the soil into groundwater and to be eroded with soil into surface water. Accumulation in soil occurs, in particular of those compounds now prohibited in the EU. Contamination of soil

32 Monitoring of soil Monitoring is a tool for early detection of environmental effects on soil and soil processes. Monitoring programme can help to reduce or mitigate environmental damage. Monitoring can also assist in the development of strategies for soil protection and environmental management.

33 The basic general parameters essential for the effective characterization of all sites at which soils are to be directly monitored are: A sampling design that allows for long-term, robust assessment; Soil profile description such as soil structure, evidence of compaction, status of the soil surface, depth the impermeable layers, stoniness etc.; Soil classification; Identification of soil parent material; Site characteristics, such as slope, historical and current land use and land management recorded according to an agreed system;

34 An agreement is required on sampling depth; Soil bulk density; Pore size distribution, and stone content and stone size; Particle size distribution (sand, silt, clay); Soil pH (water, an electrolyte); Soil cation exchange capacity; Soil water holding capacity and the water retention curve; Hydraulic conductivity; Depth to groundwater; Mineralogy.

35 There is a strong case for linking the elements of interest to those likely to increase from atmospheric deposition, from additions of sewage sludge, or from other wastes, and these relate strongly to various existing EU directives: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Uranium (U), Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), Organic compounds of potential interest cover a very wide spectrum. The organic compounds of greatest concern may be the following, but their monitoring in the soil is restricted to specific sites: –Halogenated compounds (e. g. HCH, DDT/DDE), –Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, –Polychlorinated-biphenyls, –Di-benzofurans and di-benzodioxins.

36 Metods for determination of dengerous matters in solil Concentrationof heavy metals: Exstraction in aqua regia – total concentration Exstraction in different reagents – bioavillable concentrations Detection on AAS Polyaromatichydrocarbones – exstraction by diferent extraction solutions and detection on gas or luiqid chromatography or spectrophotometry Sumpor, nitrate and phosphate – spectrophotometry and gravimetric

37 Thanks

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