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6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/21-22 2008 Preliminary - For Discussion.

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Presentation on theme: "6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/21-22 2008 Preliminary - For Discussion."— Presentation transcript:

1 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 1 Low Temperature Mobility and Mechanisms By Lutz Richter Dr. Lutz Richter Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR) Bremen, Germany

2 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 2 Overview Introduction Example mechanisms: rover mobility Example mechanisms: sampling systems Tribological options & materials choices Summary & Conclusions

3 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 3 Introduction Low temperature mechanisms: –No universally accepted definition, but: environmental temperature < Earth ambient (which can be as low as -50 C) –Typical cases: Mars surface missions (operation down to -90 C environmental temperature typically required) Outer planet moons surface missions (operation down to -200 C environmental temperature typically required) Special, cryogenic applications: mechanisms in front ends of cryogenically cooled space telescopes (operation down to -250 C environmental temperature typically required) Mechanisms in free space at large solar distances: e.g. pointing mechanisms Issues: proper choice of tribological elements & treatments; temperature gradients (temporal & spatial); use of local heaters to condition elements

4 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 4 Example low temperature mechanisms – Mars surface mobility MER-A Sol 44 PHX MER-B Sol 180

5 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 5 Mars rovers – past and present Flown: –PROP-M (1971/73) –Mars Pathfinder/Sojourner (1997) –MER Spirit & Opportunity (2004-present) In development: –MSL (2009 launch) –ExoMars (2013 launch) Technology studies (over the years/decades): –Various: Marsokhod,…

6 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 6 Mars rovers – where are the mechanisms? JPL rocker-bogie vehicles (Sojourner, MER, MSL) & ExoMars: thermally exposed to ambient conditions (e.g. in wheel hubs) but have heaters Concept studies: in rover warm compartment, with gears transmitting torque through suspension Sojourner MER MSL ExoMars MIDD (study for ESA) SR-2 (study for NASA) drives inside warm box drives outside warm box

7 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 7 MER mobility mechanisms Steering Actuator Rocker Deployment Actuator Rocker Bogie Pivot (+/- 30 deg) Bogie Differential pivot (+/-20 deg)

8 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 8 MER mobility mechanisms Engineering Model assembly

9 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 9 MER mobility mechanisms Wheel with internal traction and steering mechanisms

10 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 10 MSL ‚Scarecrow‘ outdoor test Wheel traction drive elements

11 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 11 ExoMars Phase B1 chassis Breadboard

12 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 12 Concept study: MIDD 4 kg, 4-wheeled rover for Mars - actuators inside warm compartment! - gear train going to wheel

13 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 13 Example low temperature mechanisms – Mars drills & other tools Flown: –Viking lander telescopic sampling arm/scoop (1976) –MPL & PHX jointed sampling arm/scoop (1999 & 2007) –MER IDD arm (2003) –MER RAT (2003) –Beagle arm (2003) –Beagle sampling mole (2003) In development: –MSL arm/scoop (2009 launch) –MSL rock sampler (2009 launch) –ExoMars rover drill (2013 launch) Other drills: –Rosetta lander sampling drill to a comet (2004 launch, 2014 operstions) Technology studies: –Various

14 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 14 Example low temperature mechanisms – Mars drills & other tools Arms: VL arm w/ scoop MER IDD w/ contact instruments Beagle arm w/ contact instruments & samplers PHX arm w/ scoop

15 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 15 Example low temperature mechanisms – Mars drills & other tools Drills & other subsurface samplers: Rosetta lander drill Beagle sampling mole ExoMars sampling drill

16 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 16 Tribology at low temperature Moving parts: need to control friction and contain wear Method: use lubrication Two basic choices for space: –Solid lubricants: coatings –Liquid lubricants: greases, oils Low temperature missions (definition: see introduction & previous speaker): greases & oils may become solid -> general limit for space greases: ~ -75 C lubricant temperature (pour point) -> foresee local heaters or choose solid lubricant instead

17 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 17 Pro‘s & con‘s of lubricant options Solid lubrication (example: MoS 2 coating by sputtering or bonding): –Good for very low (and also high) temperature –No outgassing/condensation issues –Can do accelerated mechanism life testing (saves time & cost of test program) –Requires careful application & handling (degrades in presence of humidity) Liquid lubrication (example: PFPE greases): –Robust method, easy to apply (however: care in parts materials selection), insensitive to humidity (ground handling & testing) –Temperature limits (previous slide) –Cannot do accelerated testing (would change flow regime) –Good for use in atmospheres (Mars, but not Titan as too cold unless have heaters…)

18 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 18 Mars surface mechanisms: how has it been done? Sojourner & MER mobility mechanisms: –PFPE grease as lubricant –Local electrical heaters MER deployment mechanisms (short required life): –Dry lubrication Beagle mechanisms (deployment functions, arm, mole sampler, rock corer): –PFPE grease as lubricant –Some elements: MoS 2 bonded coating MSL mobility mechanisms: –Planned to use MoS 2 coating on Ti gears (for lower allowed operating temperature at high latitude landing sites) -> ran into problems -> final solution: ?

19 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 19 Mars surface mechanisms: how has it been done? Beagle mole internal hammering mechanism: bonded coating of MoS 2 with Formaldehyde on slider bearings

20 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 20 Environmental testing: key to success Beagle mole actuator tests with applied load (brakes) in Mars simulation chamber

21 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 21 Environmental testing: key to success Beagle mole actuator tests with applied load (brakes) in Mars simulation chamber Start-up current [mA]

22 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 22 Environmental testing: key to success Beagle PAW Flight Model acceptance tests: thermal cycling with functional tests in Mars simulation chamber

23 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 23 Summary & conclusions Large number of successful low temperature mechanisms for planetary surface missions Generally feasible: –liquid lubrication+local heaters -> but: energy expensive; still: OK for Mars For operations below ~ -70 C ambient: solid lubrication preferred –But: has issues in atmospheres, requires careful selection of substrate materials & processes There are design guidelines for mechanisms: e.g. Space Tribology Handbook (developed and used in Europe) -> use them!

24 6 th International Planetary Probe Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia Short Course on Extreme Environments Technologies 06/ Preliminary - For Discussion Purposes Only Page 24 The End


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