Presentation on theme: "Ethical Issues in Global Business Marketing and safety practices - Nestle: Baby Killers; Union Carbide: Bhopal Sweatshop and labour abuse - Wal-Mart’s."— Presentation transcript:
Ethical Issues in Global Business Marketing and safety practices - Nestle: Baby Killers; Union Carbide: Bhopal Sweatshop and labour abuse - Wal-Mart’s Kathy Lee collection (20 hrs/day @ $0.20/hr) Corruption and bribery - Gulf Oil: ‘political contributions’ to Korea ($4.2 million) - Lockheed: bribes to Middle East ($22 mil) and Japan ($12.5 mil)
The Moral Philosophy Framework Cultural Relativism: Cultural theories Situational ethics “When in Rome…do as the Romans do.” Limitation: Which Romans?
Bribes vs. Grease Payments DefinitionsDefinitions –Grease Payments— Money given for the purpose of getting minor officials to do what they are supposed to be doing. –Bribes—Relatively large amounts of money given far the purpose of influencing officials to make decisions or take actions that they otherwise might not take. ExamplesExamples –Money given to minor officials (clerks, attendants, customs inspectors) for the purpose of expediting a project –Money given, often to high-ranking officials. Purpose is often to get these persons to purchase goods or services from the bribing firm.
Arguments For and Against ‘Bribery’ For A necessary tool Accepted practice Form of commission, tax, or compensation Against Wrong/illegal Compromise personal beliefs Promotes government corruption Benefits recipient only Creates dependence on corruption Deceives stockholders
Improving Global Business Ethics Integrative Social Contract Theory (ISCT) Hypernorms-- transcultural values including fundamental human rights Consistent norms-- norms that are culturally specific, but consistent with hypernorms Moral free space norms-- strongly held cultural beliefs in countries that are in tension with hypernorms Illegitimate norms– those norms that are incompatible with hypernorms
Improving Global Business Ethics 1.The right to physical movement 2.The right to ownership of property 3.The right to freedom from torture 4.The right to a fair trial 5.The right to nondiscrimination 6.The right to physical security 7.The right to freedom of speech and association 8.The right to minimal education 9.The right to political participation 10.The right to subsistence Fundamental International Rights
Using ISCT: The Case of Bribery Is bribery part of moral free space or is it an illegitimate norm? 1) violates agent / principal contract 2) against law in all countries 3) violates political participation hypernorm 4) violates economic efficiency hypernorm Conclusion: Bribery is an illegitimate norm
Trends Against Bribery Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US) Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act (Canada) Transparency International developedTransparency International OECD Antibribery Initiatives launchedOECD #10 on UN Global CompactUN Global Compact
Improving Global Business Ethics The Multinational Corp. Home Country Stakeholder Pressures Host Country Stakeholder Pressures The Dilemma of the Multinational Corporation
Improving Global Business Ethics Broad Middle Ground Mix of Home and Host Country Standards Home Country ETHICAL IMPERIALISM Host Country CULTURAL RELATIVISM Application of Ethical Principles International Law Global Codes of Conduct Cultural standards Ethical & moral standards of home country Cultural standards Ethical & moral standards of host country Ethical Choices in Home vs. Host Country Situations
Improving Global Business Ethics Typology of Global Types Foreign type Empire type Interconnection type Global type
Improving Global Business Ethics Inflict no intentional or direct harm Produce more good than bad for the host country Contribute to host country’s development Respect the human rights of their employees Pay their fair share of taxes Respect local cultural beliefs that do not violate moral norms Cooperate with the government to develop and enforce background institutions Seven Moral Guidelines for MNCs