Presentation on theme: "A Comparative Study of The Use of Environmental Friendly Household Cleaning Products in Southern California and Southern Guangdong Problems and Challenges."— Presentation transcript:
A Comparative Study of The Use of Environmental Friendly Household Cleaning Products in Southern California and Southern Guangdong Problems and Challenges
Prof. Kwan Ming Chan B.Sc. (HKU) ， Ph. D. (Liverpool, England) Prof. Emeritus, California State University 陈钧铭教授 香港大学理学士 英国利物浦大学博士 美国加州州立大学资优教授
Co-Authors: Prof. Sun Hui-Li and Liu Fengyang South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica 孙恢礼教授及刘凤艳女士 南海海洋研究所 中国科学院
Objectives: Why comparing two regions? Both are the major gateways in the Pacific Lessons learned may serve as models Southern California has abundant data for modeling Both are in similar geographical location with high economic power
Geographic and Economic Settings for two regions 太平洋两岸环境与经贸 比較
US and China -Comparison 中 China 美 USA GDP （ per capita ） $4,400 $37,600 Purchasing power 購买力 ( in trillion ） $5.7 $10.4
Economic Structure 经济结耩 China USA Agriculture 农业 15% 2% Industry 工业 51% 18% Service 服务 34% 80%
Budget and Expenditure China USA Budget 收入 ( trillion ) 0.224 1.946 Expenditure 支出 ( trillion ） 0.267 2.052 trillion =10 12 ， 万亿
Quick Facts ： Calif. Vs USA Calif. USA 人口 Population,10 6 34 284 屋价 House value, K 211 119 零售 Retail sales,10 9 263 2460 制造 Manufacture, 10 9 379 3842 California is about 1/10 of USA Guangdong economic power is a top-ranking province in China. GDP is about US $10,000.
加州与美国相比 Calif Vs USA 多少数族裔 More minority 多外国出生 More foreign born 高房价 Higher median house value 高收入 Higher household income 高人口密度 High population density Similar situation for Southern Guangdong vs China
California 加 vs Guangdong 粤 加 CA 粤 GD 人口 Population ， 10 6 34 78 面积 Area, 10 4 km 2 41 18 经度 Latitude 32 to 42 20 to 25 纬度 Longitude 114 to 124W 109 to 117E 海岸线 Coastline, km 1935 3368 Guangdong has longer coastline and larger population.
Southern California Land Use 南加州用地分配 农业 Uncommitted ( Farming, Mining )34% 住房 Housing28% 休闲 Open Space/Recreation20% 工商 Commerce/Industry12% 其他 Others 6% Southern California has rapid expansion in housing
Some problems related to the expansion of urban areas More waste discharges Rapid change in coastal environment More Red tides More accidental discharges Costly clean-up Similar problems in both regions.
Lagoon Modification Formed after ice age Open to tidal flushing Shellfish and artifacts from Paleo-Indians (9000-3500 years ago) Catholic Missions Took over from Mexico in 1848
Development, Deterioration 1881 Railroad line Crossing Bridges Coastal Highway and Freeway Limited Flushing
Aerial view showing narrow openings Shallow basin and building of silts Limited circulation and flushing
Input source to the ocean - Southern California 10 9 cu m/year Treated waste water 1.4 Industrial waste 0.25 Surface runoff 0.6 Cooling water 7.7
General Characteristics of effluents, Southern California in mg/liter Suspended solids 335 BOD 120 COD 240 Oil and grease 19 Total Nitrogen 23 Phosphate 5 Detergent 4.8
General characteristics of storm water, Southern California in mg/liter Oil and grease 1.5 Total Nitrogen 3.9 Phosphate 0.43 Detergent 0.1
Compare storm water and effluent water Oil and grease 19/1.5 =12.6 Total Nitrogen 23/3.9=5.9 Phosphate 5/.43=11.6 Detergent 4.8/.1=48 Effluent has at least 10 times more
General Characteristics of sludge discharged into coastal ocean of Southern California in mg/liter Suspended solids 5 Oil and grease 760 Total Nitrogen 590 Phosphate 130 Detergent 4.8
General characteristics of silt in storm water of Southern California in mg/liter Oil and grease 1.5 Total Nitrogen 3.9 Phosphate 2 Detergent.1
Compare sludge and silt in storm water Oil and grease 760/1.5 =507 Total Nitrogen 590/3.9 =151 Phosphate 130/2= 65 Detergent 4.8/.1= 48 Sludge has at least 50 times more
Mass emission rate of wastewater discharged in Southern California in metric tons/year Suspended solids 278,000 BOD 291,000 COD 675,000 Oil and grease 65,000 Total Nitrogen 85,400 Phosphate 13,300 Detergent 7,600
Sample of the best selling detergents – from EBay
Detergent Phosphates Form: sodium tri-polyphosphate About 30-40% of Phosphorus in waste water from cleaning products To-day, there are non-P detergent, but most still have 6-8% P
Action of Phosphates Peptize and help dirt suspension Aid in germ killing Buffer the pH in removal of fatty soils Make surfactant more effective by breaking up surfactant polymeric units.
Basic Components (about 90% by weight) Surfactant - Bipolar organic to lift off grease by lowering surface tension Builder – Phosphates Soften water by removing Ca and Mg
Other components Silicate – corrosion inhibitor Carboxymethylcellulose – anti- redeposition agent to keep removed dirt from resettling onto clothes during the washing cycle
Other Common Chemicals in the detergents 2-butoxyethanol Malic Acid Diethylene Glycol Monbutyl Ether (lysol) Isobutane NTA (nitrilotriactate) –subsituted for P
Undesirable effect of highly alkaline chemicals Higher alkaline – alter fabrics Skin or internal organ damage Higher cost Interaction with trace metals, increase in transmission, may cause birth defects
Tea Tree - Melaleuca Alternifolia(natural product as cleanser) Other Common Names: Manuka, Melaleuca alternifolia Range: Australia - New South Wales, Queensland; East Indies. Haitat: Swamps by the coast. Requires a fertile, well-drained moisture retentive lime- free soil in full sun. An essential oil is obtained from the leaves. It is strongly germicidal and is also used in dentistry, deodorants, soaps, mouthwashes etc
Top 5 Brands/Companies of detergent in China Diao/Zhejang Nice Chemical Co. Omo/Unilever China Ltd. Liby/Guangzhou Liby Co., Ltd Qiqiang/Shangxi Nafine Chemicals Ltd Tide/Procter & Gamble (Guangzhou) Ltd Most are in joint-venture with foreign companies, similar in chemical composition
Outlook China had the highest GDP growth, nearly 8%. GDP per capita in China is nearly $1,000 Retail sales growth of 8.8% China is undergoing another phase of more environmental conscientious
Development of friendly household chemicals markets Thirty-eight million urban families currently can afford to spend the nearly US $12,000 Over 70% of the World’s top retailers – Wall Mart, Carrefour, Metro, etc are now in China. The market for toiletries and cosmetics has passed US $3 billion and is expected to reach US $22 billion by 2013.
The challenge of environmental friendly household chemicals Advertising - Television is the dominant medium with over 1 billion daily viewers Use of local natural products for improvement of antiseptic and fragrance Improvement of tertiary sewage treatment to remove phosphate Use of soap in general cleaning