# 7.1 Waves Mr. Perez. What are waves? Waves are disturbances that move through matter or space Waves TRANSFER ENERGY, NOT MATTER from place to place Waves.

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7.1 Waves Mr. Perez

What are waves? Waves are disturbances that move through matter or space Waves TRANSFER ENERGY, NOT MATTER from place to place Waves are made by vibrating objects The energy in the vibrations transfer the waves outward

Types of Waves Mechanical waves- waves that can only travel through matter and not through space Transverse waves Compressional (longitudinal) waves Electromagnetic waves- waves that can travel through both matter and space

Transverse waves Type of mechanical wave Causes particles in matter to move at right angles to the direction in which the wave travels

Compressional (longitudinal) waves Type of mechanical wave Causes particles in matter to move back and forth along the same direction in which the wave is traveling

Seismic waves Type of mechanical wave Waves move through the ground during an earthquake Some are compressional (longitudinal) and others are transverse Rolling waves: cause the ground to move up and down and back and forth

Electromagnetic waves Type of transverse wave Contain electric and magnetic parts that vibrate up and down perpendicular to the direction the wave travels Light, radio waves and X rays are some examples

Properties of Waves All waves have properties that depend on the vibrations that produce them 1.Wavelength 2.Frequency 3.Amplitude 4.Speed

Wavelength (λ) The distance between any point on a wave and the nearest point just like it Transverse: crest to crest or trough to trough Longitudinal: compression to compression or rarefaction to rarefaction Measured in meters (m)

Frequency Number of wavelengths that pass by a point each second Measured in Hertz (Hz) 1 Hz = 1 wavelength per second 1 Hz = 1/s

Amplitude Maximum distance that matter moves as the wave passes Transverse: top of crest or bottom of trough to resting position Longitudinal: more squeezed together compressions and more spread apart rarefactions

Amplitude and Energy The larger the amplitude of a wave, the more energy the wave carries

Speed How fast a wave travels Measured in meters per second (m/s) Wavelength formula:

Waves can change direction When you see your own reflection, light is changing direction back at you Waves can also travel from one material to another REFLECT- bounce off a surface REFRACT- bend DIFFRACT- bend around an obstacle

Law of reflection The angle that the incoming wave (i) makes with the normal equals the angle that the outgoing wave (r) makes with the normal

Refraction Speed of a wave depends on the properties of the material through which it travels Change in speed causes waves to bend Refraction is the change in direction of a wave when it changes speed as it travels from one material to another

Diffraction Bending of waves around an object Depends on the size of the obstacle The bigger the wavelength compared to the size of the obstacle, the amount of diffraction increases

Particles and Waves Both particles and waves transport energy from one place to another However, Particles have mass and volume and can carry an electric charge Waves have wavelength, frequency, amplitude