Presentation on theme: "MINE2007 PRINCIPLES OF MINERALOGY AND PETROGRAPHY Instructor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Semih GÜRSU Reference Books: -MANUAL OF MINERALOGY (CORNELIS KLEIN & CORNELIUS."— Presentation transcript:
MINE2007 PRINCIPLES OF MINERALOGY AND PETROGRAPHY Instructor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Semih GÜRSU Reference Books: -MANUAL OF MINERALOGY (CORNELIS KLEIN & CORNELIUS S. HURLBUT) -INTRODUCTION TO MINERALOGY (WILLIAM D. NESSE) -SOFWARE OF THE LESSON: MINERALOGY TUTORIALS (Cornelis Klein )
SYLLABUS What is Mineral?, Mineralogy Physical Features of Minerals Crystallography (Crystal Classes) Systematic Mineralogy (Silicates-Tectosilicates) Systematic Mineralogy (Silicates- Inosilicates) Systematic Mineralogy (Silicates- Nesosilicates/Nesosorosilicates/Cyclosilicates/Phyllosilicates) Systematic Mineralogy (Sulfate, Phosphates and Carbonates) Systematic Mineralogy (Sulfides, Halide, Native Elements) Mid-Term Exam (19.11.2013 Lesson&Lab.) Rock Cycle Petrography of Igneous Rocks Petrography of Sedimentary Rock Petrography of Metamorphic Rocks
What is Mineral? and Mineralogy Mineral: A mineral is a naturally occuring homogeneous solid with a define chemical composition and a highly ordered atamic arrangment and is usually formed by inorganic processes. In this term, for a mineral, It must be; - naturally occurred, - homegeneous solid state, - having a chemical composition, - formed by inorganic processes, Minerals must be crystalline soids. The atoms/ions that comprise crystalline materials are arranged and chemically bonded in a regular and repeating long-range pattern. The beautiful, symmetrically arranged crystal faces are a concequence of this internally ordered atomic structures. Mineraloids; are mineral-like materials that lack a long-range crystalline structures. They include amorphous solids and glasses. Volcanic glass is the most common sample.
Crystal: A boarder definition of crystals can be explained as homogeneous solid possessing long-range, having three dimensional internal order. (the crystals can be natuaral or sentetic forms) Crystallography: The study of crystalline solids and the principles that govern their growth, external shape and internal structure is named as crystallograhy. Crystallography was originally developed as a brach of mineralogy, today it has become a seperate science dealing not only with minerals but with all crystalline matter.
Mineralogy: Mineralogy can be explained as the study of minerals. The modern study of mineralogy can be tracked back to Theoprastus (387-272 BC) who wrote the earlist preserved book dealing with minerals, titled «On Stones». Some 400 years later, Pliny and Elder, who met his death at pompei, provided us with an encyclopedic review of mineralogy as it applied to the metsllicc ores, gemstones and pigments in use of Roman empire circa 77AD. Some 1500 years later (1556) German physician and mining engineer Georgious Bauer, provided detailed descriptions and defined physical properties such as hardness and cleavage that continue to provide the basis for hand-sample identification of minerals. The most drematic progress in ustructures.nderstanding minerals came from the discovery of X rays. In 1920 Max von Laune (1879-1960) demostrated that crystals would diffract X-rays, thus providing that minerals posseses a regular and repeating arrangments of atoms. After than many researcher had used X-rays to determine the crystal structure of minerals. During the twentieth century a wide variety of instrumentation has been developed to improve our ability to determine the chemical compositions of minerals and refine our understanding of their crystal structures.