Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Section 1: What do you think of when we say waves?"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 7 Section 1: What do you think of when we say waves? Waves, Sound and Light
2WAVES: Class WaveA wave is a rhythmic disturbance that carries energy without carrying matter, through matter or empty space.
3Waves that move through matter: Mechanical Mechanical WavesWaves that move through matter: MechanicalMechanical waves move through matter:air, water, dirt, and other objects.Ex: Water! Energy is transferred from molecule to molecule they are transported without the molecules moving themselvesThe matter that it travels through is called a MediumMechanical waves are produced by something vibratingEx: Rope
4Types of Mechanical Waves TransverseWave energy causes matter in the medium to move up down or back and forth at right anglesRopePeaks: CrestsValleys: TroughCompressionalLongitudinal WavesMatter moves forward and backward in the same directionSlink
5Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic waves movethrough empty space and matter:air, water, dirt, and other objects plus they can travel through spaceEx. Sun rays, radio waves, infrared, X raysTransverse
6Types of WaveThere are two types of waves. Mechanical and Electromagnetic. Then there are two types of mechanical waves.WAVESElectromagnetic waveMechanicalWavesCompressionalWaveTransverse WaveTransverse WaveTransverse wave
7A transverse wave has different parts from a compressional wave.
8Compressional waveThe place where the coils are squeezed together is called a compression.The place where the coils are spread apart are called rarefactions.A series of compressions and rarefactions forms a compressional wave.
9Properties of Waves: -Wavelength -Amplitude -Frequency -Speed
10WavelengthThe wavelength of a transverse wave is the distance between two adjacent crest or two adjacent troughs.The wavelength of a compressional wave is the distance between two adjacent compressions or rarefactions.
11FrequencyThe frequency of a wave is the number of wavelengths that pass by a point each second.The SI unit for frequency is the hertz, (Hz).Frequency = Number of Wavelengths/Time
12Frequency: how many wavelengths pass a point at a given time Note: as Frequency increases wavelength decreases
13Solving FrequencyWhat is the frequency of a wave if 10 wavelengths pass a point in 2 s?What is the frequency of a wave if 50 wavelengths pass a point in 5 s?What is the frequency of a wave if 100 wavelengths pass a point in 10s?What is the frequency of a wave if wavelengths pass a point in 5s?(use a calculator)
14AmplitudeThe amplitude of a wave is the maximum distance matter moves as the wave passes.
15Amplitude of a Transverse Wave For a transverse wave, the amplitude is the distance from the top of a crest or the bottom of a trough to the rest position of the material.
16Amplitude of a Compressional Wave The amplitude of a compressional wave depends on the density of material in compressions and rarefactions.Compressional waves with greater amplitude have compressions that are more squeeze together and rarefactions that are more spread apart.
17Amplitude and EnergyThe larger the amplitude of a wave, the more energy the wave carries.
18Wave speedWaves are described by their frequency, wavelength and amplitude.Another property of waves is speed.The speed of a wave depends on the material in which the wave travels.
19Wave Speed The wavelength, frequency, and speed of a wave are related. To calculate the speed of a wave the following formula is needed:Wavelength(in m) = Wave speed (in m/s)Frequency (in Hz
20Waves can Change Direction Waves don’t always travel in a straight line.Waves can:Reflect (bounce off a surface)Refract (bend)Diffract (bend around an obstacle).
21Law of ReflectionWhen waves reflect off a surface, they always obey the law of reflection. A line that makes an angle of 90 degrees with a surface is called the normal to the surface.
22The Law of ReflectionAccording to the Law of Reflection, the angle that the incoming wave makes with the normal equals the angle that the outgoing wave makes with the normal.
23RefractionRefraction is the change in direction of a wave when it changes speed as it travels from one material to another.The speed of a wavedepend on the whatmaterial it travels.
24Refraction A light wave travels through air faster than through water. The picture shows that a change in the wave’s speed changes the direction in which the wave travels.As light changes fromair to water it slowsdown.The change in speedcauses the light to bend.
25Diffraction Waves can change direction by diffraction. Diffraction is the bending of waves around and object.The amount of diffraction or bending of the waves depends on the size of the obstacle.In the picture, theobstacle does notcompletely block thewater waves. Insteadthe waves bendaround the obstacle.