2 What is a wave?A wave is an oscillation that travels from one place to another.If you poke a floating ball, it oscillates up and down.The oscillation spreads outward from where it started.
3 WavesWhen you drop a ball into water, some of the water is pushed aside and raised by the ball.
4 WavesWaves are rhythmic disturbances that transfer energy from one place to another (caused by vibrations. i.e. water after the ball drop).Waves travel at the same speed – the speed of light.(3 x 10^8 m/s or 186,000 miles/second)Speed of sound – 340 m/s
5 Parts of a waveYou can think of a wave as a moving series of high points and low points.A crest is the high point of the wave.A trough is the low point.
6 Parts of a waveThe frequency of a wave is the rate at which every point on the wave moves up and down every secondFrequency means “how often”.Unit – Hertz (Hz) means vibrations per second
7 Let’s try this!If the coil of a slinky makes two vibrations every second, what is the Frequency?Answer: 2 Hz!If a woodpecker pecks at a tree 15 times a second, what is the Frequency?Answer: 15 Hz!
8 Parts of a waveThe amplitude of a water wave is the maximum height the wave rises above the level surface.
9 Parts of a waveWavelength is the distance from any point on a wave to the same point on the next cycle of the wave.The distance between one crest and the next crest is a wavelength.
15 5. Wave behavior:a. Reflection - the bouncing back of a wave.1) Sound echoes2) Light images in mirrors
16 b. Refraction - the bending of a wave caused by a change in speed as the wave moves from one medium to another.
17 c. Diffraction - the bending of a wave around the edge of an object. 1) Water waves bending around islands2) Water waves passing through a slit and spreading out
18 3) Diffraction depends on the size of the obstacle or opening compared to the wavelength of the wave.Less occurs if wavelength is smaller than the object.More occurs if wavelength is larger than the object.
19 4) AM radio waves are longer and can diffract around large buildings and mountains; FM can’t.
20 d. Interference - two or more waves overlapping to form a new wave.
21 Sound waves that constructively interfere are louder 1) Constructive (in phase)Sound waves that constructively interfere are louder
22 Sound waves that destructively interfere are not as loud 2) Destructive (out of phase)Sound waves that destructively interfere are not as loud
23 e. Standing wave - a wave pattern that occurs when two waves equal in wavelength and frequency meet from opposite directions and continuously interfere with each other.nodeantinode
24 f. Resonance - the ability of an object to vibrate by absorbing energy at its natural frequency.